A work of art can be judged from very different points of view.
Piet Mondrian's Composition (B) En Bleu, Jaune, et Blanc (Composition in Blue, Yellow, and White) is an example of
nonobjective, or nonrepresentational, painting
When someone pays an artist to create a work of art it is called
Censorship of art was never an issue until the twentieth century.
Vera Mukhina's Machine Tractor Driver and Collective Farm Girl is an example of
The meaning found in art, including the subject-matter and the emotions, ideas and symbols is called
Wanting to stop art from being shown because of moral beliefs is called
For Paul Klee, the act of artistic creation seemed to be a way of approaching
Three-dimensional artworks have
height, width, and depth
In Western society, the acceptance of art by women and artists of color has been subject to racial and gender stereotyping.
Maya Ying Lin said she wanted her Vietnam Veterans' Memorial to be
honest about the reality of war
A naive artist is someone who has never been formally trained in the techniques of art
There are no absolute guidelines for judging __________ in art
The work, Ancestors of the Passage: A Healing Journey through the Middle Passage by __________ treats the subject of slavery and its effects on women
Richard Diebenkorn's Ocean Park paintings are examples of:
In the formalist approach the chief emphasis to judging quality in art is on _____.
how the artist manipulates elements of design
Idealization in art is a form of _____.
Some artists cannot easily explain why they create art. For them, it is _____.
an inner calling
Michael Heizer's City Complex I, which has an enduring, monumental effect, is an example of a __________ sculpture.
Edward Steichen's photograph Rodin: The Thinker is a good example of the use of:
value and contrast
Overlapping is a way of suggesting three-dimensional space.
Atmospheric perspective is a way to
show deep space by making distant things hazy
Sculptures that project out from a two-dimensional ground are called
The sculptor Henry Moore was interested in the interplay between __________.
positive form and negative space
Complementary colors are those that are
opposite each other on the color wheel
The Futurists were most interested in capturing a single moment in time in a static image.
Alexander Calder's mobiles are an example of:
Real-world objects taken from trash heaps and used in art are called
The shapes in Matisse's painting The Snail are called hard-edged because __________.
their boundaries are clearly distinguished
Three-dimensional art in the full round is designed to be seen
from all sides
Anish Kapoor's Cloud Gate employs reflected light to capture the viewer's attention.
The shapes in Helen Frankenthaler's painting Mauve District are called hard-edged because:
their boundaries are clearly distinguished
Linear perspective is a mathematical system used to show
recession in space
A mark or area that is significantly longer than it is wide may be perceived as _____.
Alexander Calder's Cow uses _________ lines to create a sense of three-dimensionality and to emphasize the overall form of the image.
When a visual effect is so realistic it fools our perception it is called
In art the term "scale" refers to
The phrase point of view is used in art to indicate where the viewer is standing in relation to the figures in the artwork
Variety is expressed through transitions which are defined as rapid changes from one state to another.
In the Balega mask, contrast is achieved primarily through:
Rhythm in art is created by patterns that are set up through
repetition and variety
_____ refers to the principle called "economy of means."
paring away extraneous details
Balance is a principle of design based on the _____.
visual weight one assigns to parts of a work
Repetition can be used in decorative works to create an all-over
The ___________ was (were) critical to Frank Gehry in designing the Guggenheim Bilbao Museum.
The golden rectangle is a way of establishing the:
ideal proportion of a space
The ceremonial blanket from the Haida culture is an example of symmetry because _________.
the left side and the right side are identical
Instead of using mathematical devices to unify the image in The Boating Party, Pierre-Auguste Renoir employed __________.
color and the objects in the scene to link groups of people
In Essence Mulberry, Helen Frankenthaler's use of gray paint the same color as the ground creates a __________.
The use of multiple triangles by Lucy Pettway in her artwork Birds in the Air exemplifies the organizing principle of __________.
Rhythm in art can be compared with rhythm in music.
The painter Wassily Kandinsky believed that coherence and harmony in a painting could be achieved by using only _________.
colors and shapes, with no references to the physical world
The implied triangle is a common formula for unifying compositional lines because it is _____.
a highly stable shape
The use of multiple similar torsos by Magdalena Abakanowicz in her piece Backs is an example of the organizing principle of:
Jose Orozco used repetition in his painting Zapatistas (fig. 3-4) to give the sense of __________.
beats in a single movement a unified whole a mass of figures, moving forward
In Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, Christ is the most important figure, and his place in the composition is as the:
Rhythm can be achieved by using
shape of form color line
Because __________ there is visual tension created in Nancy Graves' work Trace.
it is intentionally unbalanced
Pen and ink is essentially a __________ medium.
Drawing pens are sometimes made of bird feathers which are called quills.
Of the tools for drawing that are classified as "dry" the most commonly used is
The word used to refer to the material with which the artist works is _____.
The subtle value gradations Leonardo da Vinci created with chalk in "The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and John the Baptist" are called:
Leonardo da Vinci's "The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and John the Baptist" is a full-sized chalk drawing done as a model for a painting. This work is, thus, called a:
Pastel, a kind of chalky stick, will only stay on the paper if
is is treated with a fixture
Ink that is thinned with water or spirit and brushed on to suggest tone is called a
The word "pastel" is usually associated with _______ tones.
In his drawing "Fish Skeletons" Hyman Bloom reverses the usual technique for pen and ink by:
using white ink on dark paper
Paper, the most frequently used drawing surface, has been readily available since ancient Egypt.
Unlike the other dry media discussed in this chapter, silverpoint _____.
requires that the paper be prepared with pigment or glue
Georges Seurat was able to get a range of values from conte crayon by __________.
working on textured paper
There are special crayons made of grease for use in lithographic printing.
Corot's Civita Castellana illustrates how the use of graphite pencils __________.
- can result in many value gradations - are good for drawing small precise lines like hatching - can create many variations of grays and blacks
Mosaic is (are) __________ whose subtle effects can be viewed in The Battle of Issus.
an ancient technique of embedding small tiles, called tesserae, into cement
Typical of __________ is the medium's liquid transparent airiness as seen in Joseph Mallord William Turner's.
Some nonobjective painters of the twentieth century worked on unsized canvas
so that the paint would be absorbed right into the canvas
Collage was introduced as an art form in the early twentieth century.
Vermeer's painting Girl with a Pearl Earring is a good example of the use of:
The final layer of plaster, or _____, is applied over the underlying cartoon in sections small enough to be painted on that day while the plaster is still damp.
Of painting media, the only one that does not dry quickly is:
In early tempera paintings that used gold leaf, the gold was applied
over a surface of red gilder's clay, then burnished
Correggio's painting Danae seems to glow because the artist used ____________: layers of pigment suspended in a transparent medium.
According to the curator at the Louvre, the Mona Lisa, an oil painting, has not been cleaned because:
people are so used to seeing it dirty, it would upset them if it changed
In general, paint is made by suspending _____________ in a liquid medium and adding a binder.
Drawing and painting are two separate things, with no similarities between them.
Tibetan sand paintings are in the form of the __________ that can symbolize the divine nature of the world, the process by which the mind becomes enlightened, and the way that the spiritually adept balance the body's energies and the mind's light.
In painting, the word for the surface on which the painting is created is the ________.
In theory, acrylic paints are permanent and will never deteriorate.
The art of designing letter forms is called
The packaging designed by Mihoko Hachiuma for Soleil foods __________.
gives an elegant handmade look
Typesetting, or the setting up of the type for printing a page, is now done by _____.
Graphic designers are people who
- design two-dimensional images for commercial purposes - convey information to the public - use words and imagery together
The Graphic Design guru Milton Glaser once said, "I like to design something for institutions that did no harm and for personalities that I feel comfortable with."
According to Peter Good, graphic designers should _____.
be constantly open to new ways of seeing things
A good graphic design will _____.
- consider the taste and interests of the public - elicit a certain feeling toward a product - lure the public into wanting to know more
Paul Rand, who designed the IBM logo, believed that corporate logos should _____.
consist of simple, universal, and timeless shapes
In 1976, Peter Good designed the "I Love New York" slogan of a red heart between black, block letters that was designed to promote tourism to the city.
In 1525, Albrecht Durer published an influential book about _____.
using geometry for designing letters
Toulouse-Lautrec used color lithography for his poster in order to create a one-of-a-kind portrait of his client.
The image by Alberto Seveso used for the cover of a magazine about computer arts includes elements suggesting the ___________, and are meant to evoke the mind of a young computer designer at work.
unraveled strands of computer circuitry
Although graphic design is for commercial purposes, some designs, like Toulouse-Lautrec's poster, have been treated like __________.
The typeface serif:
- gives elegant, calligraphic flourishes - leads our eye through a word - was originally based on the Roman alphabet
Graphic designers usually work with other people, such as marketing specialists and clients
Installations use sound, projection, and objects to create a virtual environment that evokes sensations in its viewers.
One of the very earliest popular uses of photography was _____.
for portraits whose aim was capturing a perfect likeness
The camera can capture only as much as the human eye can perceive.
Dorothea Lange's photograph Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, is an example of _____________ photography.
The word photography is Greek for _____.
"writing with light"
In the 1920s __________ formed the "straight photography" movement in which objects were recorded in sharp focus with attention given to their details.
The __________ offers an example of how, before the advent of color photography, patrons had themselves photographed before a false backdrop with details hand painted.
Portrait of a Landowner
The purpose of Dante Gabriel Rossetti's photograph of Jane Morris was to
serve as a study for a drawing
One problem with the daguerreotype is _____.
the lengthy time needed for exposures
From the time of the Renaissance, some artists used a camera obscura, which was a _____.
dark room or box that used light to show images on a surface
For the past few decades videos by fine artists have been included in the collections of great museums.
Digital imaging can build up lushly detailed works; simultaneously, it can delete details so that the focus falls upon a single object.
The computer-generated images used in realistic movies to show things like alien invasions, explosions, or tornadoes are called
A big improvement in photography, based on Fox Talbot's work, was ______.
the development of a means of creating multiple copies of an image
The filmmaker Satyajit Ray is well known for _____.
films that capture the lives of ordinary people
Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty is an example of
Zoe Leonard creates sculptural installations, such as Strange Fruit (for David) from __________ materials.
Artwork made of impermanent found objects is referred to as _____.
Carving is a ____________ process.
Carvings have ___________ to minimize the labor involved in removing excess material.
The Greeks developed the ____________ process of casting, which is still used.
In casting, a mold is used into which
molten material is poured
The bronze sculpture of Degas' Horse Galloping on Right Foot shows the details of the original
modeling in wax
In fifteenth-century Benin sculptors were supported by _____.
patronage of the king
Modeling and carving mean the same thing.
Clay is a sculpture material that was commonly used in ancient civilizations.
The ability of sculptural material to resist forces of pressure, like gravity, is called its
Artists use found objects to create artwork by a process called
Michelangelo believed that one piece of marble was the same as another.
When some materials for sculptures cannot support their own weight, a sculptor will use __________________ for support.
A gouge, a mallet, and a scraper are tools used for _____.
A small clay or plaster model for a larger sculpture is called a
For his monumental sculptures, such as the Torqued Ellipses, Richard Serra uses computer modeling to work out __________.
basic coordinates, balance, layout and shape
This sculpture by Louise Nevelson, called Black Wall is made of various pieces of wood. This sculpture is called a(n):
Sculpture made from found objects is sometimes called __________ sculpture.
An ancient method for working with clay is called
The practice of _____ seems to have begun with the nomads of Central Asia.
weaving rugs for covering their tents and wrapping their possessions
The most ductile and malleable metal is
Wood cannot be used for extremely ornate forms.
Louis Tiffany and John La Farge developed
the opalescent form of stained glass
Susye Billy, a basket weaver of the native Pomo people in California, has said natural materials for her craft are difficult to obtain because _____.
land developers have changed the natural environment
Iron and steel are the least malleable metals.
Dale Chihuly is a major artist in the field of
One of the most common ways of making glass vessels is
using a blowpipe
A common clay body, or mixtures of different kinds of clay, is
Crafts have been highly developed since _____.
Slab building is a method for
Building up clay
Some woodworkers look for "defects" in a piece of wood, like _______, as seen in Mark Lindquist's Toutes Uncommon Bowl.
Any type of clay is suitable for ceramics.
The ancient craft of making objects from clay is called
Douglas Steakley's raised vessels are an example of __________.
Glass objects can be made through the lost-wax process.
Most clay vessels are _____ to ensure permanence and water resistance.
Harvey Littleton revived the art of glassmaking in the twentieth century __________ movement.
Iron that is worked in a heated state with hand tools is called
Which of the following is not an elaboration of arch technology?
Wrought iron began to be used for framing buildings in the _____ century.
In post-modern architecture, building designs tend to
be expressive and individual, following no one specific style
The walled gardens in the Alhambra were functional and provided fruits and vegetables for the royal family.
The Nakagin Capsule Building in Tokyo is an example of _________.
The flying buttress was used in the interior of Gothic cathedrals, such as Chartres to support the thick interior walls.
Which of the following is the hardest to carve?
The stones of Machu Picchu are kept in place by a mortar mixture scientists can't figure out.
Stone has been used as a building material since ancient times because of its compressive strength, which is the
ability to support pressure without breaking
Buildings constructed in the International Modern Style are
- constructed along purely functional lines - largely made with glass exterior walls - lacking in ornamentation
The circular interior space of the Pantheon in Rome is called a(n):
To account for the local climate in his design of an Amsterdam Bank Complex, A. Ton Alberts incorporated __________.
The International Modern Style evolved from the designs created at the Bauhaus.
In Greek construction, architects developed the Greek orders, which were
the sequences of parts of the architectural structure
The invention of balloon-frame construction came about with the development of
Through its innovative architectural developments Romans were able to build
domes, open spaces w/o obstructions, barrel vaults
The Suq ai-Ainau is an excellent example of how architects adapt their designs to respond to _________.
the environment in which the structure is placed
Architects are like artists working in other visual media because they
use the elements of design and the organizing principles
Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater is a good example of the use of
Which is harder to carve?
Frank demonstrates how Chuck Close creates monumental photorealistic human heads with flawless gradations in value by using:
oil paint and working very slowly and deliberately with fine brushes
One of the main properties of tempera paint is
the colors can be blended well on the surface
This film uses 4 separate and conflicting points of view to make a statement about truth.
The photographs of Ansel Adams have played a major role in
land conservation efforts
In a film, the splicing together of a variety of shots at the editing stage is called a
When the figure and ground are about equal in area an artist can create a _____, in which either color can be interpreted as lying on top of the other.
On its most basic level, three-dimensional art physically