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Distances in space are often quoted in units of light years the distance light travels in one year. (a) How many meters is a light year? (b) How many meters is it to Andromeda, the nearest large galaxy, given that it is light years away? (c) The most distant galaxy yet discovered is light years away. How far is this in meters?
Smallpox is a deadly, highly-contagious disease that was once common throughout Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The war against smallpox began in the late 1700s when the British physician Edward Jenner developed a smallpox vaccine. In the 1900s, there was a worldwide effort to administer the vaccine on a global scale. By 1980, the disease had been effectively eradicated. One of the last serious smallpox outbreaks occurred in Eastern Europe in 1972. The following article describes what happened during one of the last battles against this devastatingly contagious disease. Smallpox's Last Stand. Every year, millions of people travel to the city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. In 1972, on his way back from the Middle East, one man traveled through an area known to have smallpox. He returned to his village in Kosovo, Yugoslavia with the smallpox virus. Oddly enough, the pilgrim only became slightly sick. But he indirectly passed the virus along to a man named Ljatif Muzza who lived in a neighboring town. When Muzza became sick, he went to the local hospital, where they could not diagnose what was wrong with him. (No one recognized smallpox because there had been no outbreaks for many years.) The local hospital sent him to a larger facility, which then sent him to the main hospital in the capital city, Belgrade. Muzza died shortly thereafter. But in his journey from hospital to hospital, he had infected 38 other people with smallpox, eight of whom would die as well. At this time, Yugoslavia was ruled by a Communist dictator named Josip Broz, who called himself "Tito." He used his dictatorial powers to take drastic measures to stop the smallpox outbreak. He declared martial law and the province in which Muzza had lived was blocked off; no one was allowed in or out. People who had been infected were quarantined in special hospitals Anyone who had come into contact with infected individuals-10,000 people in all-were given smallpox vaccinations and quarantined in hotels, under army guard. Around the country, public events were banned and barbed wire and barricades were used to stop people from traveling and from spreading the disease. The outbreak died out after a few weeks, and only 35 people died. What drastic measures were taken to control the outbreak?