30 terms

Chapter 8

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chemical bond
a force that holds two or more atoms together
valence electron
the outermost electron(s) that participate in bonding
valence shell
the energy level that holds the valence electrons
electron (Lewis) dot diagram
a model that represents the valence electrons in an atom
metals
elements on the left side of the periodic table
non-metals
elements on the right side of the periodic table
metalloids
the elements that are along the dividing line between metals and non-metals
compound
chemical combining of atoms of different elements
energy levels
the area of space in which electrons move around
group number
a way to quickly determine the number of valence electrons in an atom
noble gases
elements in group 18 with full valence shells that do not bond easily
covalent bond
a chemical bond where pairs of electrons are shared between atoms
single bond
a chemical bond where one pair of electrons is shared
double bond
a chemical bond where two pairs of electrons are shared
triple bond
a chemical bond where three pairs of electrons are shared
nonmetal with nonmetal
the types of elements that form a covalent bond
metal with metal
the types of elements that form a metallic bond
nonmetal with metal
the types of elements that form ionic bonds
molecule
a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
polar molecule
a molecule that forms because of unequal sharing of electrons
chemical formula
a group of chemical symbols and numbers that represent the number of each atom in a compound
subscript
the number located after the symbol of an element that represents the number of that atom
coefficient
the number located before the chemical formula that represents the number of molecules
ion
an atom that has gained or lost electrons so that it now has a charge
positive ion
an atom that has lost an electron(s)
negative ion
an atom that has gained an electron(s)
atomic number
determines the identity of an atom or element, the number of protons and the number of electrons in a neutral atom
atomic mass
can be used to determine the number of neutrons by subtracting the number of protons
ionic bond
a bond formed by the attraction of positive and negative ions
metallic bond
a bond formed when many metal atoms share pooled valence electrons