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Terms in this set (62)
will NOT eat meat, eggs, fish or poultry
will NOT eat eggs, meat, fish, poultry, dairy, any products from animals
Will eat dairy, eggs, plant foods
Will eat fish, dairy, eggs, plant foods
What are the ethical reasons for people becoming vegetarian?
Don't want animals to be killed/harmed; Factory farm conditions, traumatized in transport; slaughtered inhumanely; animals have rights
What are the health concern reasons for people becoming vegetarian?
Healthier, less obesity, less hormones and steroids, reduced risk of chronic disease, improved longevity, reduced risk of foodborne illness, lower intake of environmental contaminants, nutrient intakes are better
What are the environmental reasons for people to become vegetarian?
Animal waste; forests cut down; preserve water resources; prevent water pollution; protect against desertification, global warming, earth's dwindling resources
What are the main reasons, we discussed, for people to become vegetarian?
Health concerns, environmental reasons, ethical reasons, economic concerns, religious reasons and personal preference
Reasons why anthropologists believe humans were originally gatherers instead of hunters.
Human digestive systems resemble that of plant eaters rather than meat eaters; Meat based diets may lead to major health problems
Which of the following is not a macronutrient?
What are two different types of carbohydrates?
Simple and Complex
What is an example of how fat is used in the body?
Immediate Energy, Energy Storage, Cell Membrane Structure (All the above)
How do serving and portion size differ?
Serving size is the amount that is recommended depending on the food.
Portion size is the amount that you actually consume.
What is the most commonly cited reason for becoming vegetarian?
How many fewer animals were killed in 2014 than 2007?
400 Million, because people are eating less meat
What religions that we discussed follow vegetarian lifestyles?
Jainism, Buddhism, Hindu, Seventh Day Adventists
How much water in the US is used for livestock?
What fraction of the rain forests in Central American have been cleared to raise cattle?
What is the biggest polluter of our waterways, at about 70%?
Animal Agriculture (Factory Farming)
What type of diet nearly sustained the UK population and improved overall health during World War II?
A vegetarian diet
What two dietary components accompany the protein in a meat centered diet?
Saturated Fat, Cholesterol
What are vitamins and minerals considered?
What can overconsumption of protein lead to?
Osteoporosis, Kidney Disease
What happens to the body when a large amount of animal protein and fat are consumed?
The blood becomes more acidic
Calcium is pulled out of bones to neutralize acidic blood
What type of farmers receive 73% of the government subsidies in the US?
Meat and Dairy farmers
What are animal by-products that vegans avoid?
Part of the animal that ends up in food and other products
Not directly meat
Gelatin is an example, from bones and hides of cows
Who initiated the cancer atlas?
The Premier of China
How are blood cholesterol and the "western" diet related?
As the "Western" diet adherence increases, blood cholesterol increases too.
How does animal protein affect osteoporosis?
Animal protein increases the acid load in the body
Increased acid loan mean our blood and tissue become more acidic
To neutralize, the body uses calcium (an effective base)
Pulled from our bones, weakens them
Name a disease of affluence?
What did the cancer atlas find?
Cancer was localized geographically
What are the 5 main nutrients of concern?
B12, Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Vitamin D
Why is protein not a nutrient of concern?
Research shows that if you have enough calories in your diet, protein intake is most likely okay
What makes vitamin B12
What two dietary components increase calcium excretion?
Protein and Sodium
The recommendation for what mineral is higher in vegetarians?
Why is breastfeeding recommended over formula?
Breast milk includes all nutrients that a baby needs to grow.
Calcium in breast milk absorbs better.
Why do calorie needs decrease in elders?
Activity level decreases.
80% of teenagers cite what reason for becoming a vegetarian?
What factors lead older adults to consume more plant protein?
Why is fiber beneficial?
Helps bring water from body into colon.
Helps remove carcinogens from colon.
A deficiency in what vitamin can result in rickets?
What vitamin is thought to be responsible for higher rates of miscarriages?
A change in the GI tract affects the absorption of what vitamin in elders?
True or False. Pregnant lacto-ovo vegetarians and vegans can meet nutrient and energy needs.
True or False. In America, organic farms are given the same subsidies as normal farmers.
What do antioxidants do?
Fight against cancer causing agents like free radicals
How is plaque associated with heart disease?
Plaque build ups block blood from getting to the heart and can cause heart disease.
What did the China Study do?
Surveyed all of China to find prevalence of different diseases throughout China and compared them to diet and lifestyle.
Why is cows milk not recommended prior to one year?
Hard for babies to digest, GI tract is not fully developed.
What effect do high carbohydrate diets have on athletes?
Improve energy reserve and reduce muscle fatigue
Is heme or non-heme iron more readily absorbed?
Heme, the iron found mostly in animal products.
What nutrients increase during pregnancy?
Iron, Zinc, Vitamin C, All of the above
Are iron recommendations higher or lower in vegetarians and why?
Higher, Stores less in the body so they need to consume more
What is one function of Zinc in the body
Ability to taste, Metabolism, Enzyme function
What vitamin aids in the absorption of calcium
What does the Greek word "proteois" stand for?
Of prime importance, root word for protein
Why is protein considered the "soul" of animal food?
If you take away the protein, all that is left is fat and water.
Name two grains with amino acid patterns similar to animal protein.
Amaranth and Quinoa
How many essential amino acids are there?
What is the difference between non-essential and essential amino acids?
Non essential amino acids are produced in the body.
Essential amino acids need to be from food sources.
What food is considered the "gold standard" for protein quality for vegetarians?
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