The process of acculturation occurs through several strategies including the following:
assimilation & marginalization
The members of a group are absorbed into a culture and lose characteristics of the first culture. The group is willing or forced to accept the surface and deep culture of the new culture and give up original culture.
Groups lacking desirable traits are excluded from society. These groups include poor, uneducated, undesirable color and language. These groups will stay on the margin of acceptance by society unless there is social intervention.
Finding ways to adapt to and become part of the new culture while maintaining important values and customs of the original culture.
The psychological barrier that allows input to be filtered through to a language processing mechanism. A low filter has little anxiety increasing comprehension and attention.
Deciding to become like members of the new culture, to accept their surface and deep culture, and giving up the original culture.
An educational program in which two languages are used during instruction in order to 1) continue primary language development, 2) provide instruction in content in both L1 and L2, and 3) English acquisition.
(Cummins, J. 1979-1980) Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: Skills necessary for functioning in every day life, face-to face interactions. These skills usually take about two years to develop in most second language learners.
Refers to functions of the left and right hemispheres of the brain which affects language acquisition.
(Cummins, J. 1979-1980) Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency: The aspects of language linked to literacy and academic achievement. These skills usually take five to seven years to fully develop in Second language learners.
Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, MIT. He is credited with the creation of the Theory of Generative Grammar. His naturalistic approach to the study of language affected the philosophy of language and mind through his theory of the Language Acquistion Device. His work influenced the works of Krashen and Terrell among others.
Words which have a common origin. There are 3 distinct levels. They are: True Cognate- Partial Cognate- False Cognate
The word is spelled the same, meaning the same, but pronunciation will be different according to language structure of the words such as an accent mark. Example: English- rodeo Spanish- rodeo
The word in other languages has the same origin but the spelling will differ. The meaning will be the same but the pronunciation due to the language structure will be different. Example: english- fragrance spanish- frangancia english- apple german apfel
The word in another language may have the same origin but will have different spelling and different meaning. Pronunciation will be different. Example: English- ext- to go out, leave Spanish- exito- success English- embarrassed- uncomfortable Spanish embarazada- pregnant
Learning strategies that are taught to promote independent learning and higher order thinking skills.
Language that is understood by the learner. Focuses on meaning first and uses simplified speech.
The implying or suggesting of an additional meaning for a word or phrase apart from the explicit meaning.
is shared beliefs, values , and rule governed by patterns of behavior that define a group. (Peregoy & Boyle, 2001) It includes what people know and believe, what people do, and what people make and use.
Below the surface are the more meaningful and powerful aspects of culture: a. Beliefs- what we see as truth b. Norms- unwritten rules for behavior c. values- what we hold most important
The realization of the depth of difference between home culture and the new culture; may cause frustration, anger, and depression.
Professor, University of Toronto/ is one of the world's leading authorities on bilingual education and second language acquisition. The acronyms "BICS" and "CALP" were first introduced by him in 1979-1980. The distinction of the two skills were intended to draw attention to different time periods required by the learner in the language acquisition process.
The most specific or literal meaning of a word, as opposed to its figurative senses or connotations.
A variety of a language defined by both geographical factors and social factors, such as class, religion, and ethnicity.
is a continuous stretch of speech or written text, going beyond a sentence to express thought. Example: style in writing or rules of conversation.
Belief by an individual or group that their beliefs, values and customs are the only right way and the inability to see value in difference.
The input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how the learner acquires a second language. The input hypothesis is only concerned with "acquistion," not learning. According to his hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses along the "natural order" when he/she receives a second language "input" that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence.
IPT (Idea Proficiency Test)
One of three state approved oral language proficiency tests. It may be used for identification/entry/exit and annual assessment.
Inclusion/ "Push In"
When an ESL specialist goes into the mainstream classroom in order to work with the ESL student.
Krashen, Stephen L.
University of Southern California/ is an expert in the field of linguistics especially in the theories of language acquisition and development. His theory of second language consists of 5 main hypotheses. 1. Acquisition learning hypothesis 2. monitor hypothesis 3. natural order hypothesis 4. input hypothesis 5. Affective filter hypothesis
LAS (Language Assessment Scales)
One of three state approved oral language proficiency tests. It may be used for identification/ entry/ exit and annual assessment
LAT (Linguistically Accommodated Test)
These are alternative math and reading assessment for ELLs, who are LEP exempt from the regular TAKS test.
is our innate ability to use abstract symbols to communicate meaning. Te medium used can be speech, writing, signs. (Speech and Language are not interchangeable terms.)
Aspects of language the teacher is explicitly trying to develop that include: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Language that is used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting ranging from formal to intimate.
Lau vs. Nichols:
1974- The US Supreme Court decision which found the San Francisco Board of Education failing in the duty of providing equal access to education of Chinese speaking students. This decision mandates that states address the unique language needs of the second language learner.
The entire stock of words belonging to a branch of knowledge or known by somebody.( one's mental list of the words in a language, including information about the meaning, grammatical function, pronunciation, etc. (A written lexicon is a list of all the words in a language; dictionary.)
A situation in which a word has two or more meanings. Example: pen-writing instrument pen- a place where pigs live
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee made up of one or more professional personnel and a parent of a LEP student participating in the program. Recommends appropriate placement of students assessed as LEP.
The smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning or grammatical function. (stem, prefix, suffix) Morphemes/ play, play+s, play+er+s, un+play+able, re+play+ed, play+ful+ly *adding morphemes changes the meaning
The study of how words are structured and how they are put together from smaller parts (morphemes). A morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning or grammatical function. (stem, prefix, suffix)
Oral Language Proficiency Test. It may be used for identification/entry/exit and annual assessment.
Psychologist and researcher of learning processes in children and adults. His work is known al over the world and is still an inspiration in fields like psychology, sociology, education, epistemology, economics and law.
The ability to deal explicitly with segmental sound units smaller than a syllable. Example: The sound units in D O G.
Involves teaching children to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters. Example: (K) can be represented by C, K, or Ch spellings.
The study of how sounds are organized and used in a language. Phonology systems may differ from language to language.
The study of how the meaning conveyed by a word or sentence depends on the context in which it is used (such as time, place, social relationship between speaker and hearer, and speaker's assumption about the hearer's beliefs). Ex: He kicked a (ball) into the net for a goal. She dribbled the (ball) down the court and made a three point shot. She putted the (ball) a distance of eighteen feet. She smacked the (ball) over the left field fence for a homerun.
Classes in which students are withdrawn from the mainstream regular subject classes from one or more periods a week for English language instruction.
(Reading Proficiency Test in English II) This is a reading proficiency test in English for grades 2-12 given each spring to ESL students to show adequate yearly progress in reading.
Concrete objects from the everyday world used during instruction to make input comprehensible.
Support the teacher provides to the student in the learning process so that the student will be able to complete the task independently.
The study of linguistic meaning. It is concerned with the meanings of words, morphemes, phrases, and sentences. Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and ways in which the meanings change and develop. Semantics includes synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, and multiple-meaning words.
Also referred to as transition or bridge classes. Students cover the same content areas as English only classes but they do so in a manner that adapts the language components of the classes to meet the needs of the language minority students' English proficiency levels.
overgeneralization or oversimplification of beliefs about a particular group based on hearsay or limited personal experience.
The way in which the words are constructed for meaning and how sentences are related to each other.
(Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System) The RPTE and TOP assessments fall under this system. Students are rated annually on their proficiency of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Every student is supposed to make adequately yearly progress by improving a level each year from beginning- to advanced high.
Federal funding to provide supplemental resources to education agencies to help ensure LEP students attain English proficiency at high levels in academic core areas.
A tonal language is one in which pitch is used to distinguish words. All languages use intonation to express emotion or other such nuances but not every language uses tone to distinguish lexical meaning.
(Texas Observation Protocol) Holistic assessment used to measure adequate yearly progress of ESL students in listening, speaking, reading, and in grades K-1 and listening, speaking and writing in grades 2-12 through the PLD's (Proficiency Level Descriptors) assessment tool.
(1896-1934) He was a Soviet development psychologist, who worked on ideas about cognitive development, particularly the relationship between language and thinking. An aspect of Vygotsky's theory is that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the Zone of Proximal Development: a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.
(Woodcock- Muñoz Literacy Survey) State approved oral language proficiency tests. It may be used for identification/entry/exit/ and annual assessment.
Texas does not use the term, but remember we ignore, cue, prompt, and redirect before we intervene with consequences when dealing with a child's behavior.
When a test question involves a culturally different learner of learners, always consider a choice that magnifies the dignity and importance of the learner's culture.
Bloom's and Higher Order Thinking Skills
Bloom's taxonomy is a must know. If in doubt, select a choice that requires a learner to exercise HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTS), a choice that requires the learner to synthesize, analyze, or evaluate. Avoid any answer choices that involve memorization, listing, or recall of any nature. if a choice allows a learner to find the answer in the book that is "look it up", it will NOT be the correct choice.
Always consider and answer what uses Piagetian language, i.e., developmentally appropriate, concrete, abstract, etc.
DOMAIN I- Language Concepts and Language Acquisitions (approx 25% of test)
Standards Assessed: English as a Second Language Supplemental Standard I: The ESL teacher understands fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English language. English as a Second Language Supplemental Standard III: The ESL teacher understands the processes of first- and second-language acquisition and uses this knowledge to promote students' language development in English.
DOMAIN II- ESL Instruction and Assessment (approx. 45% of test)
Standards Assessed: English as a Second Language Supplemental Standard I: The ESL teacher understands fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English language. English as a Second Language Supplemental Standard III: The ESL teacher understands the processes of first- and second-language acquisition and uses this knowledge to promote students' language development in English. English as a Second Language Supplemental Standard IV: The ESL teacher understands ESL teaching methods and uses this knowledge to plan and implement effective, developmentally appropriate ESL instruction. English as a Second Language Supplemental Standard V: The ESL teacher has knowledge of the factors that affect ESL students' learning of academic content, language, and culture. English as a Second Language Supplemental Standard VI: The ESL teacher understands formal and informal assessment procedures and instruments (language proficiency and academic achievement) used in ESL programs and uses assessment results to plan and adapt instruction.
DOMAIN III- Foundation of ESL Education, Cultural, Awareness, and Family and Community Involvement (approx. 30% of test)
Standards Assessed: English as a Second Language Supplemental Standard II: The ESL teacher has knowledge of the foundations of ESL education and factors that contribute to an effective multicultural and multilingual learning environment. English as a Second Language Supplemental Standard VII: The ESL teacher knows how to serve as an advocate for ESL students and facilitate family and community involvement in their education.
DOMAIN I- Competency 001
The ESL teacher understands fundamental language concepts and knows the structure and conventions of the English language. The beginning ESL teacher: • Understands the nature of language and basic concepts of language systems (e.g., phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, semantics, discourse, pragmatics) and uses this understanding to facilitate student learning in the ESL classroom. • Knows the functions and registers of language (e.g., social versus academic language) in English and uses this knowledge to develop and modify instructional materials, deliver instruction, and promote ESL students' English language proficiency. • Understands the interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading, and writing and uses this understanding to develop ESL students' English language proficiency. • Knows the structure of the English language (e.g., word formation, grammar, sentence structure) and the patterns and conventions of written and spoken English and uses this knowledge to model and provide instruction in English.
DOMAIN I- Competency 002
The ESL teacher understands the processes of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) acquisition and the interrelatedness of L1 and L2 development. -Knows theories, concepts, and research related to L1 and L2 acquisition.• Uses knowledge of theories, concepts, and research related to L1 and L2 acquisition to select effective, appropriate methods and strategies for promoting students' English language development at various stages. • Knows cognitive processes (e.g., memorization, categorization, generalization, metacognition) involved in synthesizing and internalizing language rules for second-language acquisition.• Analyzes the interrelatedness of first- and second-language acquisition and ways in which L1 may affect development of L2. • Knows common difficulties (e.g., idiomatic expressions; L1 interference in syntax, phonology, and morphology) experienced by ESL students in learning English and effective strategies for helping students overcome those difficulties.
DOMAIN II- Competency 003
The ESL teacher understands ESL teaching methods and uses this knowledge to plan and implement effective, developmentally appropriate instruction. The beginning ESL teacher: • Knows applicable Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), especially the English Language Arts and Reading curriculum as it relates to ESL, and knows how to design and implement appropriate instruction to address the TEKS (i.e., listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing/representing). • Knows effective instructional methods and techniques for the ESL classroom, and selects and uses instructional methods, resources, and materials appropriate for addressing specified instructional goals and promoting learning in students with diverse characteristics and needs. • Applies knowledge of effective practices, resources, and materials for providing content-based ESL instruction, engaging students in critical thinking, and fostering students' communicative competence. • Knows how to integrate technological tools and resources into the instructional process to facilitate and enhance student learning. • Applies effective classroom management and teaching strategies for a variety of ESL environments and situations.
DOMAIN II- Competency 004
The ESL teacher understands how to promote students' communicative language development in English. The beginning ESL teacher: • Knows applicable Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), especially the English Language Arts and Reading curriculum as it relates to ESL, and knows how to design and implement appropriate instruction to address TEKS related to the listening and speaking strands. • Understands the role of the linguistic environment and conversational support in second-language development, and uses this knowledge to provide a rich, comprehensible language environment with supported opportunities for communication in English. • Applies knowledge of practices, resources, and materials that are effective in promoting students' communicative competence in English. • Understands the interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading, and writing and uses this knowledge to select and use effective strategies for developing students' oral language proficiency in English. • Applies knowledge of effective strategies for helping ESL students transfer language skills from L1 to L2. • Applies knowledge of individual differences (e.g., developmental characteristics, cultural and language background, academic strengths, learning styles) to select instructional strategies and resources that facilitate communicative language development. • Knows how to provide appropriate feedback in response to students' developing English language skills.
DOMAIN II- Competency 005
The ESL teacher understands how to promote students' literacy development in English. The beginning ESL teacher: • Knows applicable Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), especially the English Language Arts and Reading curriculum as it relates to ESL, and knows how to design and implement appropriate instruction to address TEKS related to the reading and writing strands. • Understands the interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading, and writing and uses this knowledge to select and use effective strategies for developing students' literacy in English. • Understands that English is an alphabetic language and applies effective strategies for developing ESL students' phonological knowledge and skills (e.g., phonemic awareness skills, knowledge of English letter-sound associations, knowledge of common English phonograms) and sight-word vocabularies (e.g., phonetically irregular words, high-frequency words). • Knows factors that affect ESL students' reading comprehension (e.g., vocabulary, text structures, cultural references) and applies effective strategies for facilitating ESL students' reading comprehension in English. • Applies knowledge of effective strategies for helping students transfer literacy knowledge and skills from L1 to L2. • Applies knowledge of individual differences (e.g., developmental characteristics, cultural and language background, academic strengths, learning styles) to select instructional strategies and resources that facilitate ESL students' literacy development. • Knows personal factors that affect ESL students' English literacy development (e.g., interrupted schooling, literacy status in the primary language, prior literacy experiences) and applies effective strategies for addressing those factors.
DOMAIN II- Competency 006
The ESL teacher understands how to promote students' content-area learning, academic-language development, and achievement across the curriculum. The beginning ESL teacher: • Applies knowledge of effective practices, resources, and materials for providing content-based ESL instruction; engaging students in critical thinking; and developing students' cognitive-academic language proficiency. • Knows instructional delivery practices that are effective in facilitating ESL students' comprehension in content-area classes (e.g., preteaching key vocabulary; helping students apply familiar concepts from their cultural backgrounds and prior experiences to new learning; using hands-on and other experiential learning strategies; using realia, media, and other visual supports to introduce and/or reinforce concepts). • Applies knowledge of individual differences (e.g., developmental characteristics, cultural and language background, academic strengths, learning styles) to select instructional strategies and resources that facilitate ESL students' cognitive-academic language development and content-area learning. • Knows personal factors that affect ESL students' content-area learning (e.g., prior learning experiences, familiarity with specialized language and vocabulary, familiarity with the structure and uses of textbooks and other print resources) and applies effective strategies for addressing those factors.
DOMAIN II- Competency 007
The ESL teacher understands formal and informal assessment procedures and instruments used in ESL programs and uses assessment results to plan and adapt instruction. The beginning ESL teacher: • Knows basic concepts, issues, and practices related to test design, development, and interpretation and uses this knowledge to select, adapt, and develop assessments for different purposes in the ESL program (e.g., diagnosis, program evaluation, proficiency). • Applies knowledge of formal and informal assessments used in the ESL classroom and knows their characteristics, uses, and limitations. • Knows standardized tests commonly used in ESL programs in Texas and knows how to interpret their results. • Knows state-mandated LEP policies, including the role of the LPAC, and procedures for implementing LPAC recommendations for LEP identification, placement, and exit. • Understands relationships among state-mandated standards, instruction, and assessment in the ESL classroom. • Knows how to use ongoing assessment to plan and adjust instruction that addresses individual student needs and enables ESL students to achieve learning goals.
DOMAIN III-Competency 008
The ESL teacher understands the foundations of ESL education and types of ESL programs. The beginning ESL teacher: • Knows the historical, theoretical, and policy foundations of ESL education and uses this knowledge to plan, implement, and advocate for effective ESL programs. • Knows types of ESL programs (e.g., self-contained, pull-out, newcomer centers, dual language, immersion), their characteristics, their goals, and research findings on their effectiveness. • Applies knowledge of the various types of ESL programs to make appropriate instructional and management decisions. • Applies knowledge of research findings related to ESL education, including research on instructional and management practices in ESL programs, to assist in planning and implementing effective ESL programs.
DOMAIN III-Competency 009
The ESL teacher understands factors that affect ESL students' learning and implements strategies for creating an effective multicultural and multilingual learning environment. The beginning ESL teacher: • Understands cultural and linguistic diversity in the ESL classroom and other factors that may affect students' learning of academic content, language, and culture (e.g., age, developmental characteristics, academic strengths and needs, preferred learning styles, personality, sociocultural factors, home environment, attitude, exceptionalities). • Knows how to create an effective multicultural and multilingual learning environment that addresses the affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs of ESL students and facilitates students' learning and language acquisition. • Knows factors that contribute to cultural bias (e.g., stereotyping, prejudice, ethnocentrism) and knows how to create a culturally responsive learning environment. • Demonstrates sensitivity to students' diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds and shows respect for language differences. • Applies strategies for creating among students an awareness of and respect for linguistic and cultural diversity.
DOMAIN III-Competency 010
The ESL teacher knows how to serve as an advocate for ESL students and facilitate family and community involvement in their education. The beginning ESL teacher: • Applies knowledge of effective strategies advocating educational and social equity for ESL students (e.g., participating in LPAC and ARD meetings, serving on SBDM committees, serving as a resource for teachers). • Understands the importance of family involvement in the education of ESL students and knows how to facilitate parent/guardian participation in their children's education and school activities. • Applies skills for communicating and collaborating effectively with the parents/guardians of ESL students in a variety of educational contexts. • Knows how community members and resources can positively affect student learning in the ESL program and is able to access community resources to enhance the education of ESL students.
Language Files/ Dept of Linguistics, Ohio State University
"Language fills every part of our lives, it gives words to our thoughts, voice to our ideas and expression to our feelings. It is a rich and varied human ability- one we can use without even a thought, that children seem to acquire automatically, and that linguists have discovered to be complex yet describable."
Is our innate ability to use abstract symbols to communicate meaning. The medium used can be speech, writing, signs. (Speech and language are not interchangeable terms.)
General principles of Human Languages
Language is personal (varies by person, topic, purpose, situation, region, social group), Language are diverse, yet they share many universal properties, Each languge uses a finite set of discrete sounds to form words to convey meaning/ words combine to form an infinite variety of sentences.
Principles of General Human Languages
Each language is governed by complex rules, many of which are unknown to speakers (linguistic competence), Speech is primary/writing is secondary, Languages change over time/languages are flexible and responsive
Functions of Languages
Instrumental- satisfy needs/ Personal- tell about one's self/ Interactional-communicate, relate to others/ Regulatory- control behavior of others/ Heuristic- question, infer/ Imaginative- dream, create/ informative- inform, educate
Concepts of Language Systems
Phonology, Syntax, Lexicon, Morphology, Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse
A native speaker of English is able to do a word search more easily than a non-native. The native speaker instinctively knows English phonology. For ex: The native speaker does not choose ng or gt to begin a word, nor does the native speaker end a word with gnt.
Phonemes (minimal pairs-technique used to identify phonemes)
ship chip //// pet pit/// day they/// sin sing
Potential Sound Transfer Issues
Spanish: consonants /j/ /z/ /h/ digraphs /sh/ /th/ /TH/ (approximations) Short Vowels /a/ /i/ /o/ /u/ approx. Vietnamese: consonants /r/ w /y/ Digraphs /ch/ /sh/ TH/ Hmong: consonants /j/ /r/ /w/ /z/ digraphs /th/ /TH/ short vowels /e/ /i/ /u/ Korean: consonants /f/ /r/ /v/ /z/ digraphs /th/ /TH/
English Syntax Taught by Grammar Study
We will go home after school. NOT- After school to home we will go. /// a big blue house NOT- a house big blue or NOT- a blue big house
Categories of Syntax
Lexical (parts of speech): noun, preposition, verb (auxilaries, models), interjection, adjective, conjunction, adverb, pronoun, determiners (articles, possessives, demonstratives, and quantifiers)
The study of morphemes gives students generalizations they can apply.
Many prefixes and suffixes are similar in various languages.
Ex: "going out" - in 1970 it meant having plans for a date on a certain day - in 2000 it means dating one person exclusively
Denotation vs. Connotation
Direct, literal meaning Ex: dog (an animal)/// Figurative, metaphorical meaning EX: dog (an unattractive girl)
Understanding an Expression Relies on Circumstances
-Can you pass the salt? Is an order, not a question. - A "Do you mind?" question is answered "no" when one's answer is yes (giving permission).
Integrate the skills
(Listening, Reading, Speaking, Writing): Four skills should be taught in an integrated manner as they are used in authentic communication. Skills reinforce one another.
Use Content-Based Instruction
Opportunities for meaningful communication, concurrent social and cognitive development, and wide range of academic concepts language functions.
Use Task-Based Instruction
Real-life tasks combine languages with non-linguistic functions, focus on meaning, and requires information gathering, comprehension, interaction, language production.
Purposes of BICS
express/ wants/ needs, make jokes, exchange greetings, express agreement or disagreement, make personal conversation.
Purposes of CALP
comprehend written text, produce written text, ask/answer informational and clairifying questions related to academic content, make connections involving academic information, conduct research
Brain is a blank slate, imitation of input from environment, habit formation by reptition, errors due to habits, contrastive analysis can predict L2 errors (L1 interferes with L2 acquisition), audiolingual methods (in classroom)
Leaning result of social interaction, children construct understanding in context of their activities, early langage is egocentric, brain learns when ready, progress from concrete to more abstract, from figurative to operative, exploratory, discovery learning (in classroom)
Language Acquisition Device (LAD), LAD contains principles of Universal Grammar, independent process (not general learning), process of rule formation
Communicative Approach (Krashen)
Two separate processes in development of languages- acquisition and learning
At every grade level, ESL TEKS are the same as the regular English Language Arts and Reading TEKS. ESL has additional TEKS requiring students to increase proficiency in academic English and develop strategies for understanding and using English.
emphasis on reading and writing; stress on isolated grammar structure and vocabulary list; use of L1 to explain and translate L2.
emphasis on oral language acquisition; involves demonstrations by teacher and use of pictures, films; other visuals; stress on total immersion in L2 with no use of L1.
based on behavioral psychology and structural linguistics; uses mimicry, memorization drills; emphasis on isolated grammar structures; use of tapes, language labs, visual aids.
TPR (Total Physical Response)
Uses body movement to accelerate language acquisition, teacher gives command and models the action: open your book; stand up; walk to the window.
CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley)
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach: Through carefully designed lesson plans tied to content curriculum, teachers explicitly teach learning strategies and have students apply them to instructional tasks. Plans are based on these assumptions: 1. Mentally active learners are better learners. 2. Strategies can be taught. 3. Learning strategies transfer to new tasks. 4. Academic language learning is more effective with learning strategies.
Sociocultureal/ Communicative Theory (Vygotzky)
Learning occurs within the interpersonal space of teacher-student interactions. Temporary support (scaffolding) is essential. ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT: Tasks children can complete independently, tasks children can complete when assisted by a competent teacher, tasks children cannot complete even with assistance.
Sheltered Content (Echevarria, Vogt, and Short)
SIOP- Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol, Attention to content objectives, language objectives, background knowledge, interaction, and meaningful activities.
Currently Accepted ESL Methods All Use These Basic Strategies
Visuals- pictures, realia, video; vocabulary development- attention to teaching core vocabulary; active learning- process and apply new content and skills; interaction- use multiple grouping configurations; learning strategies- help students monitor their own learning.
Meeting the needs of all learners
Students' feeling sof comfort with instructional settings and activities come from both cultural and individual preferences. Use a variety of formats to meet the multiple needs of your diverse students.
To develop competency in listening and speaking
students need teachers who understand stages of language acquisition,teachers who are tolerant of errors, many opportunities to interact with others, time
Stages of Development in Communication Skills
Stage 1: One-way Communication Stage 2: Partial Two-way Communication Stage 3: Full Two-way Communication
Stage 1: One-way Communication
"Silent period"- learners are acquiring knowledge about the new language, including vocabulary, syntax, and content knowledge.
Stage 2: Partial Two-way Communication
The learners listen to communication and respond with either gestures or their native language. They can show comprehension without speaking by nodding, pointing, drawing, and gesturing.
Stage 3: Full Two-way Communication
Learners listen and respond effectively in the target language. Process through the stages is enhanced when the level of activity matches the learners' stage of development.
In all literate societies, oral and written language intermingle.
Listening, speaking, reading, and writing occur naturally together in learning events in school at all grade levels.
Ideas About Print (All emergent readers- L1 & L2- must grasp.)
1. Print carries meaning, conveying a message. 2. Spoken words can be written down and be preserved. 3. Written words can be spoken, that is, read out loud. 4. In English, words are read from left to right, top to bottom. 5. In English and other languages that use alphabets, the speech stream can be divided into sounds, and these sounds are represented by letters or groups of letters (grapho-phonemic untis.) This is the alphabetic principle. 6. The speech stream has a linear sequence in time that corresponds to written languages' linear sequence on the page. 7. Sound/ symbol correspondences are consistent, but in English there are many exception.
1. Graphophonic- letters/sounds & visual clues/ What would you expect to see? 2. Semantics- sense, meaning/ Does it make sense? 3. Syntax- structure, grammar/ Can we say it that way?
Process Writing is especially effective for L2 learners because it allows them to write about their own experiences and thus opportunities for L2 development are enhanced. L2 writers benefit from L1 models and cooperative assistance. Promote fluency first and then address editing.
Do NOT overlook pre-writing activities. Purpose- generating and gathering ideas for writing; preparing for writing; identifying purpose and audience for writing; identifying main ideas and supporting details. Strategies- taking and oral activities; brainstorming, clustering; questioning, reading, keeping journals in all content areas.
Selecting a topic, narrowing the focus, generating ideas, organizing thoughts, determining audience and purpose
Purpose- getting ideas down on paper quickly; getting a first draft that can be evaluated according to purpose and audience. Strategies- fast writing; daily writing;journals of all types; buddy journals, dialogue journals, learning logs.
Purpose- reordering arguments or reviewing scenes in a narrative; reordering supporting information; reviewing or changing sentences Stratregies- show and not tell; shortening sentences; combining sentences; peer response groups; and teacher conferences. "Revising means "seeing again"."
Purpose- correcting spelling, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, etc. Strategies- peer editing groups; proof reading; computer programs for spelling, etc.; programmed materials; and mini lessons.
Purpose- share writing with one another, with students, with parents; showing that writing is valued; creating a classroom library; and motivating writing. Strategies- writing may be shared in many formats; papers placed on bulletin boards, paper published with computers, paper shared in school book fairs, etc.
The Beginning ESL Writer Needs
Time to write, to write about what he/she knows, an authentic purpose for writing, to learn spelling, grammer, and mechanics in context, support in reaching beyond expectations, prompt feedback, and models for writing.
Communicative approach led to content-based ESL instruction to prepare students for mainstream classes. Taught by ESL educators, Addresses key topics in grade-level curriculum, seeks to develop students' English proficiency through study of subject area content, and addresses academic skills
Content Objectives: the Grade-level TEKS
Teachers should be familiar with TEKS for their course. Able to focus English language learners on the most fundamental concepts in a unit or lesson first. Knowledgeable about ways to make the content comprehensible.
Teach the text backwards
Traditional sequence... 1. Read the text 2. Answer the study questions at the end of the chapter... 3. Discuss material in class. 4. Do application or extension activity based on material. This sequence is very difficult for second language learners who read English with difficulty and do not have the cultural background knowledge of the mainstream students that the texts were written for.
Uses of Assessment
In ESL programs assessments are used for: screening and identification, placement, exiting from program, monitoring student progress, program evaluation, & accountability.
Two types of Assessment
Formal- standardized tests and individually administered tests used to identify special learning needs. Alternative- (Also called authentic or informal)-teacher-made tests, checklists, anecdotal observations, student work samples.
State-mandated LEP Policies
Commissioner's Rules Concerning Limited English Proficient Students: Chapter 89. Subchapter BB (State Plan for Educating LEP students), Texas Education Code: Chpater 29.063 (LPAC Committees), Texas Administrative Code: Chapter 101. Dubchapter AA (Participation of LEP Students in Sate Assessments)
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee must be set up and trained by the district. Required Documentation: certificate of training, oath of confidentiality (parent member only), minutes of meetings
LAT/ Linguistically Accommodated Test
This is an alternative math, reading, (and science 2008) assessment for ELLs, who are LEP exempt from the regular TAKS test.
The programs that assist students to fully reach the 50th percentile in both L1 & L2 in all subjects and to maintain that level of high achievement through the end of schooling- and have the fewest dropouts- were the following Billingual programs:
Two-way Bilingual- two language groups receiving integrated schooling through two languages.; One-way Bilingual- one language group receiving schooling through two languages. ; 50-50 Bilingual- half of the instructional year is taught in each language. ; 90-10 Bilingual- early grades 90 percent instruction in minority language, gradually moving towards 50-50 by grade 5.
finding ways to cope with the new culture; forming friendships and support systems
According to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) English Language Arts curriculum, ESL students in grades four through eight are expected to "tell important events and ideas gleaned from video segments, graphic art, or technology presentations." Students in a sixth-grade ESL class are studying astronomy. Which of the following activities related to the unit would address TEKS objective most effectively?
After examining diagrams, descriptions, and photographs of the planets, students create a short oral presentation on a planet of their choice.
An ESL teacher gives students individual copies of the form shown below. Use this form to answer the question that follows. Task Card/ Directions: Read the list of phrases below. You are going to listen to a tape of people having conversations. As it is playing, check ( ) any of the phrases you hear. ___ Excuse me, do you know . . . ___ Would you mind . . . ___ Do you know where . . . ___ Is there someplace where . . . ___ Have you seen . . . ___ Could you tell me . . . This instructional activity would be a particularly effective way for an ESL teacher to introduce ESL students to:
appropriate forms of social requests for information and assistance.
A middle school science class that contains many ESL learners is taught collaboratively by the science teacher and the ESL teacher. The two teachers introduce the topic of earthquakes by leading a class discussion and creating on the chalkboard a semantic map. As an introductory activity, this strategy is helpful to ESL students primarily because it:
allows them to develop or review key concepts and vocabulary.
Use the information below to answer the question that follows. A fifth-grade student arrived from his home country, El Salvador, last year with no prior formal education. He is now in his second year in a Texas school and is receiving bilingual and ESL services. He is still at the beginning stages of Spanish literacy development, English language development, and academic development. What would be the state policy with regard to the assessment of academic skills in this student's case?
The LPAC may determine that neither English nor Spanish proficiency tests would be an appropriate measure for school accountability.
Research indicates that the most effective school programs for English Language Learners include ESL staff development programs that:
extend not just to ESL teachers but to the entire school staff.
It would be most appropriate to use a formal language register for which of the following types of oral presentation?
Presenting a talk at a town meeting.
In most cases, basic communication skills take markedly less time to develop than academic language skills. Which of the following senarios best illustrates this phenomenon?
A student speaks English fluently but is having difficulty understanding content- area lectures.
To promote her fourth graders cognitive and linguistic development in the second language, an ESL teacher encourages their involvement in a wide variety of projects (e.g., "talk shows featuring school staff and community members as guests, book reviews for the school library). Which of the following cognitive and linguistic principles is best demonstrated by the teacher's instructional approach?
Development of language and content knowledge is reinforced through reading, discussing, and problem solving.
A middle school ESL teacher wants to begin moving his ESL learnersbeyond conversational language towards the development of academic language skills. An effective initial strategy to use to meet their goal would be to encourage learners to:
Participate in guided reading and discussions of young adult literature.
To foster her ESL learners' cognitive and linguistic developments, Ms. Schafer encourages their involvement in a wide of projects (e.g., "talk shows" featuring school staff and community members as guest: book reviews for the school library). Which of the following cognitive and linguistic principles is demonstrated by Ms. Schafer's instructional approach?
Language acquisitions and intellectual development are mutually reinforced through reading, discussing, and problem solving.
A middle school English Language Learner studied English in his home country before immigrating to the United States. Although he is fairly fluent in English, he is unfamiliar with most aspects of the majority culture. When talking to English-speaking students whom he does not know very well, he is most likely to be comfortable in conversations that include:
The exchange of pleasantries according to established social formulas.
During class discussion about stories a third grade English Language Learner often mispronounces key words from the stories. The teachers best response would be to:
Analyze the student's pronunciation patterns and plan an intervention to address her needs.
An ESL student generally conveys his ideas clearly when writing in English but makes frequent mechanics and capitalization errors that are based on his editorial knowledge in the primary language. Which of the following activities would be most effective in helping this student use correct English conventions of print?
Providing the student with explicit instruction in the similarities and differences between conventions of print used in the primary language and those used in English.
Which of the following approaches would be most effective in helping ESL students who have good decoding and comprehension skills become more efficient readers in various reading situations?
Provide students with instruction and practice in applying different kinds of reading techniques (e.g., scanning, skimming, reading for main ideas, and reading for details).
An ESL teacher is assessing the reading performance of her ESL students individually. As each student reads, she makes notes on her copy of the text. Printed below is a portion of the teacher's notes on one student's reading performance. "The boy read the book last night." Self correction on read, go to repetition on read the book- Teacher's notes suggest that this student was utilizing which of the following reading skills to confirm the pronunciation and meaning of the word read?
Using semantic and syntactic cues.
A bilingual education teacher is beginning a unit in English on U.S. Colonial history. She begins by showing a picture of everyday life in the colonies and asking, "What can you tell me about the people in the picture?" This approach to introducing the unit is particularly appropriate for English Language Learners primarily because it helps the students to:
Establish a frame of reference on which to construct new knowledge.
A fourth grade class has been reading folk tales from around the world. Wich of the following oral language activities would be most effective in promoting students' multicultural awareness and appreciation?
The teacher guides students to discuss some features that folk tales of various countries have in common as well as some of the unique features of each culture's folk tales.
An ESL teacher teaches in a middle school with a diverse student population. In addition to providing her ESL students with language and content instruction, she also helps the students learn how to articulate their feelings, provides them with practice in taking the perspective of others (e.g., through role plays, debates), and encourages the expression of diverse points of view. These practices are particularly effective in:
Reducing student conflicts that result from cultural and other misunderstandings.
Elisa, and ESL learner, has been making low scores on tests in her eighth grade class. She tells her ESL teacher that is hard to understand the health teacher and that the textbook is confusing. Her ESL teacher decides to consult with the health teacher. Which of the following should be the first step for the ESL teacher to take in their meeting?
Consult with the health teacher to determine what materials she uses to ask permission to observe Elisa in class.
Educators in the ESL program at an elementary school involve students' families in programs decision-making and support families' participation in other school activities and projects. These practices best reflect an awareness of which of the following factors affecting language development?
English Language Learners whose families have positive opinions about school and learning are more likely to develop English Language proficiency.