Math Vocabulary

These are really helpful definitions of math vocab you should know in the 7th grade. Includes properties, geometry, algebra, probability, graphs, plots and more. Hope this helps :)
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Terms in this set (...)

Absolute Value
a number's distance from zero on a number line
Opposites
two numbers that are the same distance from zero on the number line, but on opposite sides of zero
Variable
a letter representing an unknown value
Expression
a mathematical sentence without an equal sign
Exponent
a small number on the top right of a base number, telling you how many times to multiply that base number by itself
Order of Operations
a 4 step rule used to simplify expressions that everyone follows to get the same answer
Equivalent Expressions
expressions that give the same result when the same values are substituted for the variables
Commutative Property
changing the order of the numbers does not change the answer
Associative Property
changing the way the numbers are grouped does not change the answer
Identity Property
the identity property gives you back the same number you started with
Inverse Property
inverse gives you back the identity
Zero Property of Multiplication
any number multiplied by zero is zero
Mean (average)
the sum of the values divided by the number of values
Median
the middle value when the values are written in order from least to greatest
Mode
a value that occurs most often
Range
the difference between the largest and smallest values
Improper Fraction
a fraction in which the numerator is greater than the denominator
Mixed Number
a number made of a whole number and a fraction
Reciprocal
the multiplicative inverse of a number, which can be found by switching the numerator and denominator
Natural Numbers (counting numbers)
all of the counting numbers (only count positive)
no fractions or decimals
Whole Numbers
consist of zero added to the list of natural/counting numbers
Integers
consist of all the negative whole numbers added to the list of whole numbers
Rational Numbers
can be written as a fraction where the denominator is not 0
can be written as a repeating or terminating decimal
Irrational Numbers
cannot be written as a terminating or repeating decimals
consist of decimals that are both non-terminating and non-repeating
cannot be written as a fraction
Terminating Decimal
a decimal that ends and has no pattern of repeating digits
Repeating Decimal
a decimal that goes on forever and has a pattern of repeating digits that repeat forever
Non-repeating Non-terminating decimal
a decimal that never ends and has no digits that repeat in a pettern
Perfect Square
the answer from squaring a whole number
Prime Number
a whole number greater than 1, with only two factors, 1 and itself
Composite Number
a whole number greater than 1 with more than two factors
Prime Factorization
when you write a composite number as a product of prime numbers
Factors
2 numbers multiplied by each other to make another number
one number is a factor of another if it divides into that number with no remainder
Factor Pairs
2 factors whose product equals the original number
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
the greatest number that is a factor of two or more numbers
Relatively Prime
when the GCF of two or more numbers is 1
Multiple
the product of the given number and another number
Least Common Multiple (LCM)
the smallest common multiple of two or more numbers
Ratio
a comparison of two quantities
Rate
a ratio of two quantities that have different units
Unit Rate
a rate where the denominator is 1
Proportion
an equation that states two ratios are equal
Similar Figures
figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size
Scale Drawing
a sketch that is similar to the real object it represents
Proportional Relaationship
a relationship in which two quantities have a constant ratio
Ordered Pair
a pair of numbers written in the form of (x,y) and can be represented by a point on a coordinate plane
Equation
a number sentence with an equal sign showing 2 expressions are equal
Inequality
a statement with a symbol of <, ≤, >, ≥ between expressions
Term
each part of an expression
Consonant
a term that has a number but no variable
Coefficient
the number being multiplied by a variable
Like Terms
terms that have the same variables raised to the same power
Perimeter
the sum of the lengths of the sides of a shape
Area
the number of square units needed to cover a shape
Radius
a line segment that has 1 endpoint at the center of the circle and the other endpoint on the circle
Diameter
a line segment that has both endpoints on the circle and passes through the center of the circle
Chord
a line segment that has both endpoints on the circle
Circumference
the distance around the circle area
Surface Area
the area of the exterior surface of a 3-D figure
Volume
the space inside a 3-D figure
Outcomes
the possible results of an experiment
Theoretical Probability
the chance that an event will occur
Equally Likely
outcomes of an experiment that have the same probability of occuring
Experimental Probability
a probability that is based on repeated trials of an experiment
Compound Event
consists of the outcomes of 2 or more events
Sample Space
a list of all the possible outcomes of an event
Tree Diagram
a visual representation of all the possible outcomes of an event
Fundamental Counting Principle (FCP)
used to find the total number of outcomes with coumpound events
Independent Events
when the outcome of one event has no effect on the outcome of the other
Dependent Events
when the outcome of one event is affected by the outcome of the other
Frequency Table
a table used to graph data values into intervals; shows the number of times each value occurs
Histogram
a type of bar graph that shows continuous data and the frequency of the data in equal intervals
Stem-and-leaf-plot
a data display that helps you see how data are distributed
Box-and-whisker-plot
a data display that organizes data values into 4 parts, showing how spread out the data are
Interquartile Range (IQR)
the difference of the upper quartile and the lower quartile
Dot Plot
a visual display in which the frequency of each piece of data is represented by a dot on a number line
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