Wilson's deeply idealistic diplomacy. Foreign markets would serve as America's new frontier. Exporting American democracy and capitalism would promote peace, prosperity, and human advancement throughout the world. Wilson sent personal emissaries to foreign leaders and often typed his own dispatches. Reconciling the commercial self-interest with a global idealism.
Wilson constructed a massive bureaucracy to manage the home front. Economy directed by the government with power over prices, allocation of resources, and marketing of goods. Partnership between big business and government. Overall corporate profits tripled and production soared during the war years. WW1.
Selective Service Act
May 1917. Men between ages of 20 and 30 would be conscripted into the armed forces. Feelings over forced military service ran high. Minorities (Hispanic am, African am) volunteering hoping their place in society will be better afterwards. Teach people how to be American by making them give up their culture. White, Protestant man.
famous for flying across the Atlantic. Positivity about country. 1920s. May 20, 1927 (beginnings of economic crash) he flew "Lucky Lindy" from Long Island and across the Atlantic landing just outside of Paris. First flier to cross Atlantic alone. Mastered a machine and conquered nature courageously. It was a sign that perhaps the American people could control the New Era without losing individualism. "Lone Eagle".
Aimed at opening "closed shops" (factories where only union members could work). Employers made workers sign agreements disavowing union membership. Companies infiltrated unions with spies, locked union members out of factories if they protested, and boycotted firms that hired union labor. "Welfare capitalism"—pledged to care for their employees and give them incentives for working hard, i.e. building clean and safe factories, cafeterias, hiring trained dietitians, baseball teams and glee clubs. Encouraged workers to buy company stock. Really only affected 5% of workforce and gave benefits to only skilled laborers.
Poet who predicted an "American Risorgimento" that would 'make the Italian Renaissance look like a tempest in a teapot.' From Europe he began to make it happen. Abandoned rhyme and meter in his poetry. Decried "botched civilization" that had produced the war. Anti-modernist. '20s. Not really traditionalist either. Talks about poverty and struggles that people are trying to ignore. Rejecting traditional ideals of poetry (and traditional civilization in general).
Birth of a Nation
Film that created alternate history of the U.S. Supported by KKK. Advocates violence. 1920s. Encouraging joining in KKK for financial stability. Protection of white, arian race. Against African Americans and Republicans. Second rise of KKK, so many people join. Incredibly vague.
The Great Flood of 1927
Mississippi River bursts through its levees, hitting Southern Missouri to Louisiana. God's angry with us. Forces citizens to build refugee camps. Lasts for months. Nearly 250 people died and 130,000 homes destroyed. For the rest of the decade commerce throughout the U.S. suffered. Federal legislation had been passed for the first time giving government responsibility for controlling such disasters along the Mississippi.
1928. Germany, France, and U.S. war is renounced (everyone but Russia). Outlawing war. Remained a hollow proclamation. Neither Japan nor France stops naval production. Small arms race. No means of enforcement. Futile effort for peace. Show for citizens and for diplomats.
John T. Scopes
Biology teacher in Dayton, Tennessee (in the South) arrested for teaching evolution. Laws everywhere saying you can't teach contradiction to the Bible. First court case broadcast over the radio. Duel between Christianity and evolution. Erosion of community control and personal autonomy. Took jury only 8 minutes to find Scopes guilty of violating the law and fine him $100. How much should religious beliefs and local standards influence public education? Trial was a big staging. William James Bryan. Bringing to light tensions between traditionalists and modernists.
National Origins Act
1924. Restricts immigration so that only 2% of the population before 1890 can enter the U.S. Created Border Patrol for Mexican and Canadian borders. Fixed pattern of immigration for the next 4 years. Limiting immigration to keep American jobs to Americans.
"Amos 'n Andy"
Most popular radio show. Comedy about African Americans created by two white vaudevillians in 1926. Borrowed style from Black comedians Aubrey Lyles and Flournoy Miller (they occasionally wrote dialogue for the show). African Americans entered mainstream American life, even though it was stereotyped.
From Louisiana. Charismatic, Trying to push for no class differences. Same income, share the wealth (basically socialism). Popular, big presence in national politics. Had a lot of support. Wanted to run for President. During depression (1935). Shot and killed. People in power with money were scared of him and his ideals.
Series of investigations lead by General Nye in banking industries. Concerned that bankers were lobbying and default on loans (economic failure). WW1. Bankers and munition makers were lobbying to get us into the war. Unable to find any corruption. General feeling that we got into WW1 because of industry (ammunition) and their want for war so they make profit. Questioning motives. Just to make money. Important because it animates people. Even though nothing was found there was resentment toward big business. Don't want to get involved. Furthering isolationism.
FDR's response. Banned discrimination. Positive. He's gonna win the war. Transition from New Deal to wartime. Anti-New Deal groups start breaking down his Deal and criticizing his change of focus.
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps. 1942. U.S. Army organization was created during WW2 to enlist women as auxiliaries for noncombatant duty in the U.S. Army. Served as medical technicians, cartography clerks (map making), and secretaries in the war. Fighting for equality. Better voice. More proof that they can do more.
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
1925. The first labor organization led by blacks to receive a charter in the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Unionizing against discrimination in defense industries. Hay Phillip Randolph (leader) wanted to organize march on Washington against discrimination.
A meeting between FDR , British Prime Minister, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin in Teheran, Iran. Nov 28-Dec 1, 1943. During the conference they coordinated their military strategy against Germany and Japan and focused on the next phase of the war against the Axis powers in Europe and Asia. Opened second front in Europe. Agreement that Russia would support U.S. in war with Japan. Lend-Lease Aid.
International Monetary Fund
1945. Created by 29 members in countries. IMF stated goal was to assist in the reconstruction of the world's international payment system post WW2.
American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian. Best known as the "father of containment" (communism in Russia. A lot of nations turning communist so they want to contain the spread of communism) and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He was also a core member of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men". U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union.