Aimed at opening "closed shops" (factories where only union members could work). Employers made workers sign agreements disavowing union membership. Companies infiltrated unions with spies, locked union members out of factories if they protested, and boycotted firms that hired union labor. "Welfare capitalism"—pledged to care for their employees and give them incentives for working hard, i.e. building clean and safe factories, cafeterias, hiring trained dietitians, baseball teams and glee clubs. Encouraged workers to buy company stock. Really only affected 5% of workforce and gave benefits to only skilled laborers.