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Generally, the term civil rights refers to the right of all Americans to equal treatment under the law, as provided by the __ Amendment to the constitution


The equal protection clause of the ___ amendment reads: "no state shall.. deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."


Our first amendments right are considered ___ rights


If a law or action prevents some group of persons from exercising a fundamental right, the law or action will be subject to the __ standard for determining whether the equal protection clause has been violated


Under the "strict- scrutiny" standard, a law or action that discriminates against a particular group or class individuals must be necessary to promote a __ in order to find that the equal protection clause has not been violated

compelling state interest

Under the ___ standard, a law or action that discriminates against a particular group or class or individuals must be necessary to promote a compelling state interest in order to find that the equal protection clause has been violated


A law based on a suspect classification is subject to ___ strict scrutiny by the courts.


A law based on race is subject to strict scrutiny by the courts, because race is considered a ___ classification


Under the "intermediate-scrutiny" standard, a law based on gender classifications is permissible if it is

"substantially related to the achievement of an important governmental objective"

In united states v. Virginia (1996), The supreme court held that

Virginia Military institute, a state- financed institution, violated the equal protection clause by refusing to accept females applicants

Few laws evaluated under the __ are found invalid, because few laws are truly unreasonable

rational basis test

The equal protection clause was originally intended to protect ___ after the Civil War

Newly freed slaves

The thirteenth Amendment to the U.S constitution

granted freedom to the slaves

The ___ Amendment stated that voting rights could not be abridged on account of race


"Jim Crow" laws

separated the white community from the black community

In plessy v. ferguson (1896), the supreme court

established the separate- but equal doctrine

The supreme court establish the separate- but- equal doctrine in

plessy v ferguson (1896)

The separate- but equal doctine

is a supreme court doctrine holding that the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment prohibits racial segregation.

The supreme court

upheld the separate-but-equal doctrine in brown v board of education of topeka (1954)

In brown v board of education of topeka (1954) the supreme court held that segregation by race___ was unconstitutional

in public education

In Brown ll (1955) the supreme court ordered desegregation to begin

"with all deliberate speed"

Only after ___ federalized the Arkansas National Guard and sent in additional troops did Central High school in little rock finally become integrated

President Dwight D eisenhower

Racial segregation that occurs not as result of deliberate intentions but because of social and economic condition and residential patterns is called ___ segregation

de facto

Today, busing order to end ___ segregation are not upheld by the courts

de facto

The arrest of Rosa parks for violating local segregation laws spurred the local African American community to organize a

year-long boycott of the bus system in Montgomery, Alabama

One of the tactics used by the civil rights protesters in the 1960s was __, the deliberate and public refusal to obey laws considered unjust.

civil disobedience

A sit-in is a tactic of ___ that was used successfully in the civil rights movement.

nonviolent civil disobedience

Discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, and national origin in public places of accommodation and in employment was outlawed by the

Civil rights act of 1964

The ___ provided that federal fund could be withheld from any federal or state government project or facility that practiced any form of discrimination

Civil Rights act of 1964

The ___ made it illegal to interfere with anyone right to vote in any election held in this country

Voting rights act of 1965

The Civil rights act of 1968 prohibited discrimination in


In the 1960s, ___called for black separatism

Black Muslim leader Malcolm X

The poverty rate for blacks is roughly __ that for whites

three times

The first "woman's rights" convention was organized in 1848 by

Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady staton

The goal of the National American Woman suffrage association was

the enfranchisement of women

Feminism is best defined as

the doctrine advocating full political, economic, and social equality for women.

Of the more than ten thousand members who have served in the U.S. House of representative, only __ percent have been women


Nancy Pelosi was the first woman to

be elected speaker of the house representatives

___ was the first woman to lead the house representatives as speaker

Nancy pelosi

___ appointed the first woman to a cabinet post

Franklin D roosevelt

The first woman to serve as a justice of the U.S Supreme court was appointed by

barack obama

___ was the first woman to sit on the supreme court

Sandra Day o'connor

Generally, women has been more successful politically in the __ states than elsewhere


It is estimated that for every dollar earned by men, women earn about

80 cents

__ is an invisible but real discriminatory barrier that prevents women and minorities from rising to top positions of power or responsibility

the glass ceiling

The __ greatly expanded the remedies available for victims of sexual harassment, including back pay, job reinstatement, and other compensation

Civil rights act of 1991

___ constitute the largest ethnic minority in the United states


By 2050, Latinos are expected to constitute about __ percent of the U.S Population


Most Hispanics living in the United States, by place of origin, are from


Sonia Sotomayor is the first Latina to

be appointed to the U.S supreme court

Under an executive order issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1942, many __ were evacuted to interment campes or "relocation centers"

Japanese Americans

Nearly ___ percent of Asian americans over the age of twenty- five have college degrees


In 1789, Congress designated the native american tribes as __ so that the government could sign land and boundary treaties with them

foreign nations

Native americans had no civil rights under U.S law until

1924, when the citizenship rights spelled out in the fourteenth amendment were extended

The __ requires that all public buildings and public services be acessible to persons with disabilities

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

The stonewall Inn uprising launched the

gay power movement

In lawrence v. texas(2003), the supreme court ruled that

sodomy laws violate the fourteenth amendment's due process clause

___ is best defined as a policy calling for the establishment of programs that give special consideration, in jobs and college admissions, to members of groups that have been discriminated again in the past.

Affirmative action

Regents of the university of california v. bakke (1978) was a caseinvolving an __ who claimed to have been a victim of discrimination when denied admission to the university of california's medical school at davis.

White male

In adar and constructors, inc v pena, the supreme court held that any federal, state, or local affirmative action program that uses racial classification as the basis for making decisions is subject to __ by the courts

"strict scrutiny"

Affirmative action programs

were first developed under president Franklin D. Roosevelt

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