Generally, the term civil rights refers to the right of all Americans to equal treatment under the law, as provided by the __ Amendment to the constitution
The equal protection clause of the ___ amendment reads: "no state shall.. deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
If a law or action prevents some group of persons from exercising a fundamental right, the law or action will be subject to the __ standard for determining whether the equal protection clause has been violated
Under the "strict- scrutiny" standard, a law or action that discriminates against a particular group or class individuals must be necessary to promote a __ in order to find that the equal protection clause has not been violated
compelling state interest
Under the ___ standard, a law or action that discriminates against a particular group or class or individuals must be necessary to promote a compelling state interest in order to find that the equal protection clause has been violated
A law based on race is subject to strict scrutiny by the courts, because race is considered a ___ classification
Under the "intermediate-scrutiny" standard, a law based on gender classifications is permissible if it is
"substantially related to the achievement of an important governmental objective"
In united states v. Virginia (1996), The supreme court held that
Virginia Military institute, a state- financed institution, violated the equal protection clause by refusing to accept females applicants
Few laws evaluated under the __ are found invalid, because few laws are truly unreasonable
rational basis test
The equal protection clause was originally intended to protect ___ after the Civil War
Newly freed slaves
The separate- but equal doctine
is a supreme court doctrine holding that the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment prohibits racial segregation.
The supreme court
upheld the separate-but-equal doctrine in brown v board of education of topeka (1954)
In brown v board of education of topeka (1954) the supreme court held that segregation by race___ was unconstitutional
in public education
Only after ___ federalized the Arkansas National Guard and sent in additional troops did Central High school in little rock finally become integrated
President Dwight D eisenhower
Racial segregation that occurs not as result of deliberate intentions but because of social and economic condition and residential patterns is called ___ segregation
The arrest of Rosa parks for violating local segregation laws spurred the local African American community to organize a
year-long boycott of the bus system in Montgomery, Alabama
One of the tactics used by the civil rights protesters in the 1960s was __, the deliberate and public refusal to obey laws considered unjust.
A sit-in is a tactic of ___ that was used successfully in the civil rights movement.
nonviolent civil disobedience
Discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, and national origin in public places of accommodation and in employment was outlawed by the
Civil rights act of 1964
The ___ provided that federal fund could be withheld from any federal or state government project or facility that practiced any form of discrimination
Civil Rights act of 1964
The ___ made it illegal to interfere with anyone right to vote in any election held in this country
Voting rights act of 1965
The first "woman's rights" convention was organized in 1848 by
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady staton
Feminism is best defined as
the doctrine advocating full political, economic, and social equality for women.
Of the more than ten thousand members who have served in the U.S. House of representative, only __ percent have been women
__ is an invisible but real discriminatory barrier that prevents women and minorities from rising to top positions of power or responsibility
the glass ceiling
The __ greatly expanded the remedies available for victims of sexual harassment, including back pay, job reinstatement, and other compensation
Civil rights act of 1991
Under an executive order issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1942, many __ were evacuted to interment campes or "relocation centers"
In 1789, Congress designated the native american tribes as __ so that the government could sign land and boundary treaties with them
Native americans had no civil rights under U.S law until
1924, when the citizenship rights spelled out in the fourteenth amendment were extended
The __ requires that all public buildings and public services be acessible to persons with disabilities
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
In lawrence v. texas(2003), the supreme court ruled that
sodomy laws violate the fourteenth amendment's due process clause
___ is best defined as a policy calling for the establishment of programs that give special consideration, in jobs and college admissions, to members of groups that have been discriminated again in the past.
Regents of the university of california v. bakke (1978) was a caseinvolving an __ who claimed to have been a victim of discrimination when denied admission to the university of california's medical school at davis.
In adar and constructors, inc v pena, the supreme court held that any federal, state, or local affirmative action program that uses racial classification as the basis for making decisions is subject to __ by the courts