Upgrade to remove ads
Midterm Review- Chapter 11
Terms in this set (83)
Three Phases of Prenatal Development
Germinal, embryonic and fetal
The first two weeks after conception & consists of conception, implantation, fertilization and formation of the placenta.
The second stage of development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month. Consists of formation of the internal/vital organs and systems
The third stage of development, lasting from two months until birth. This is when bodily growth continues, mental and sensory capabilities begin, brain cells multiply.
extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy.
th sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death
a one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes pass out the mother.
Age of Viability
the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth (75% of success at 26 weeks)
any external agents such as drugs or viruses that can harm an embryo or fetus
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
a collection of genital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities (grasping, reaching, sitting up, crawling etc)
the head-to-foot direction of motor development (learns to use their upper body before their lower body ex. shift from use of arms to propel themselves to using their legs)
the center-outward direction of motor development (infants will use their entire torsos to reach something before they learn to just extend their arms)
the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint
indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviours and activities
refers to characteristic mood, activity level and emotional reactivity
investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time (benefits; less external factors. Cons; takes longer, more sensitive to developmental influences)
investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time. (pros; quicker,cheaper,easire. Cons; Cohort effect, growing up in different times)
occurs when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods.
refers to the close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment
Strange Situation Proceedure
infants are exposed to a series of eight seperational reunion episodes to asses the quality of their attachments
a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behaviour are exhibited and certain capacities become established
refers to the transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering and problem solving
involves interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them
involves changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences
develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes of their shape or appearance
the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects
the inability to envision reversing an action
in thinking is characterized by a limited ability to share another person's viewpoint
The belief that all things are living
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
the gap between what a learner can accomplish alone and what he or she can achieve with guidance from more skilled partners ( try the task and if it cannot be achieved, someone will step in to finish it)
temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process
occurs if a new stimulus elicits an increase in the strength of a habituated response
a gradual reduction in the strength of a response when a stimulus event is presented repeatedly (baby sees a rattle more than once it will eventually stop looking at it)
4 Kinds of temperaments can be seen in children; easy, slow-to-warm-up, difficult and mixed
40% of children, they adapt well to change, responsive to stimuli, sleep well, happy, not easily upset
15% of children, less cheerful, occasionally moody, less regularity in sleep and eating patterns, slow reacting to change, moderate reactivity
10% of children, erratic behaviour, higher activity levels, glum/moody, resistant to change and relatively irritable
Makes up for 35% of children, but combines characteristics from all other temperaments
a term used to describe the two year span preceding puberty during which the changes leading to physical and sexual maturity take place (develop physical features that characterize adults of their sexes)
Secondary sex characteristics
physical features that distinguish one sex from another but that are not essential for reproduction
the stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, which marks the beginning of adolescence
Primary Sex Characteristics
the structures necessary for reproduction
the first occurrence of menstration
The Family Life Cycle
a sequence of stages that families tend to progress through`
an abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment
the acquisition of the norms and behaviours expected of people in a particular society
are expectations about what is appropriate behaviour from each sex
The responsiveness of a child to an external stimuli
attachment style for a majority of infants, who are readily comforted when their caregiver returns after a brief separation
attachment style that can be seen when a child is mildly anxious even when the parent is present, becomes distressed at the disappearance of the parent, but among the parent's return, the child will not accept, nor is comforted by their attempts to soothe the child.
infants who seem unresponsive to the parent when they are present, are usually not distressed when she leaves, and avoid the parent when they return
Erikson's Eight Stages of Personality Development
trust versus mistrust; autonomy versus shame and doubt; initiative versus guilt; industry versus inferiority; identity versus role confusion; intimacy versus isolation; generativity versus stagnation; integrity versus dispair
Trust Vs Mistrust (first year) "Is my world predicatble and supportive?"
Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt (2&3 Years) "Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?"
Initiative VS Guilt (4-6years) "Am I good, or am I bad?"
Industry Vs Inferiority (6-puberty) "Am I component or am I worthless?"
Identity VS Confusion (Adolescence) "Who am I and where am I going?"
Intimacy VS Isolation (early adulthood) "Shall I share my life with another, or live alone?"
Generativity vs Self Absorption (middle adulthood) "Will I produce something of real value?"
Integrity VS Despair (Late adulthood) "Have I lived a full life?"
assume that (1) individuals must progress through specific stages in particular order because each stage builds on the previous stage, (2)progress through these stages is strongly related to age, and (3) development is marked by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behaviour
Piaget's Stage Theory of Development
Believed that children progress in their thinking through the complementary processes of assimilation and accommodation.
1)Sensorimotor period (2)peoperational period 2-7years (3) concrete operational period 7-11 years (4) formal operational period.
The period in which infants develop their abilities to coordinate their sensory input with their motor skills, the gradual development of symbolic thought, and the development of object permanence. (birth to two years)
Continuation of the development of symbolic thought marked by irreversibility, centration and egocentrism. They do not yet have the understanding of conservation. (ages 2 to 7)
Concrete Operational Period
Mental operations can be applied to concrete events; mastery of conservation, hierarchical classification. They develop a mastery of reversibility and decentration (ages 7 to 11)
Formal Operational Period
Piaget's final stage of cognitive development. Beginning around 11 years, children can apply mental operations to abstract concepts and become more systematic in problem-solving.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
when a child can mentally undo an action
when the child can focus on more than one aspect of a problem
a specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned
a point in development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences
Kohlberg's Moral Reasoning Scale
Preconventional; punishment orientation, naive reward
Conventional; Good boy/good girl, authority
Post Conventional; Social Contract, individual principles
Focuses on the consequences of an act;
Punishment Orientation; right/wrong is determined by what is punished
Naive Reward; determined by what is rewarded
Focuses on the need to maintain social order;
Good boy/Good Girl; determined by close other's approval or disapproval
Authority; determined by societies rules and laws which should be rigidly obeyed
Focuses on working out a personal code of ethics.
Social Contract; determined by society's rules, which are viewed as fallible rather than absolute
Individual Principles and Conscience; determined by abstract ethical principles that emphasize equity and justice
First of four stages (Marcia) that emphasizes a lack of direction and apathy. Where the person does not confront the challenge and commit to an ideology (personal beliefs or occupational path)
Second of four stages; a premature commitment to a role typically prescribed by one's parents
Third of four stages; involves the delaying of commitment for a time, to experiment with alternative ideologies and careers. (active struggling for a sense of identity)
Final of four stages; arriving at a sense of self and direction after consideration of other possible alternatives. Associated with higher self-esteem, security, achievement and conscientiousness
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
Sets found in the same folder
Midterm Review-Chapter 12
Final Review-Chapter 15
Figures of Interest- Chpt 12
Midterm Review-Chapter 10
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 11 Psychology Themes and Variations
Psychology (PS102) - Chapter 11: Human Development…
Psych Ch. 10 Human Development
Other sets by this creator
ADMH 5010 Youth & Families
Other Quizlet sets
MA 103 Law & Ethics Certification Review
3145 Sensory Organs
history test 2