45 terms

Macromolecules

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What is organic?
carbon-based life forms
Chemistry of carbon
- can bond itself to make chains and other "shapes" of molecules (rings)
- can form millions of different compounds, which include single, double, triple covalent bonds
Polymerization
when larger compounds are made up by combining smaller molecules
Monomers
each single unit molecule
Polymer
when two or more monomers are joined together to make a new molecule
4 Major Macromolecules
1) carbohydrates
2) lipids
3) proteins
4) nucleic acids
Elements of carbohydrates
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
Purpose of carbohydrates
- main source of short term energy
- plants and some animals use for structural purposes
Monosaccharides
- monomer of carbohydrates
- includes glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose
- tastes sweet
- used for energy
Polysaccharides
- polymer of carbohydrates
- starch (from plants) and glycogen (from animals) use for energy storage
- cellulose builds plant cell walls (fiber)
Elements of lipids
Mostly Carbon and Hydrogen (some oxygen)
Purpose of lipids
- energy storage
- cell membrane
- signaling molecules (hormones and steroids)
Bonding of lipids
1 glycerol bonds to 3 fatty acid chains
- long carbon chains
saturated lipids
if all the carbons are joined to each other with SINGLE bonds, and has the maximum number of Hydrogen bonded to it
- solid at room temperature (wax, animal fat)
unsaturated lipids
at least one carbon will have DOUBLE bonds
- liquid at room temperature (cooking oil)
Phospholipids
makes up the cell membrane
- forms a phospholipid bilayer
Elements of nucleic acids
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus
Purpose of nucleic acids
- used as genetic material (DNA, RNA)
- capture and transfer energy (ATP)
Nucleotides
Monomer of nucleic acids
composed of...
- 5 carbon sugars
- phosphate group
- nitrogenous base
Polymers of nucleic acid
DNA (deoxyribose) and RNA (ribose)
DNA
double stranded, more stable
RNA
single stranded, less stable
ATP
energy molecule
Elements of protein
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Purpose of proteins
- regulates cell processes
- facilitates chemical reactions (enzymes)
- transports substances into, out of, and within cells
- "work" of cell
Monomer of proteins
amino acids
- one amino group (-NH2)
- one carboxyl group (-COOH)
Polypeptide
polymer of proteins
- the amino and carboxyl groups of DIFFERENT AMINO ACIDS form a peptide bond
- proteins are made up of one or more polypeptides
Proteins proper function
- must fold correctly to function correctly
- misfolding or unfolding (caused by heat, changes in pH, cutting of proteins (breaking peptide bonds), prevents it from proper functioning
Chemical reaction
process that changes one set of chemical into another
Catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Enzymes
proteins that act as a biological catalyst by speeding up chemical reactions that take place in cells
Substrate
reactant that binds to the enzyme and is changed during chemical reaction
Active site
the location on the enzyme where the substrate binds
Example of chemical reaction
Enzyme pepsin is in stomach and breaks down proteins into smaller peptides during digestion (substrate = proteins in food)
What can affect the activity of enzymes?
- temperature
- pH
- regulatory molecules
Structure of glucose
Structure of lipids
Phospholipid
Structure of carbohydrate
Structure of deoxyribose
Structure of ribose
Structure of nucleotides
ATP molecular structure
Structure of amino acids
Structure of peptide bond
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