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Section 3: Unifying Italy
Terms in this set (27)
Italian patriot who formed the nationalist group called >> Young Italy <<. This fought for the unification of the separate Italian states into one nation.
an ideological and literary movement that helped arouse the national consciousness of the Italian people in which it led to a series of political events that freed the Italian states from foreign domination and united them politically.
Victor Emmanuel II
ruled from 1849-1878 and he was the King of Piedmont-Sardinia who wanted to unify Italy.
1810-1861 >> prime minister of Italy; appointed by Victor Emmanuel who pushed for Italian unification.
1807-1882 >> was an Italian republic revolutionary who joined Young Italy in 1833.
- also led 1,000 men to liberate Southern Italy.
someone who wants to abolish all government.
movement away from one's homeland.
How did influential leaders help to create a unified Italy?
- Italy had not experienced political unity since the Romans.
- That changed in the 1800s, however, when leaders such as Giuseppe Mazzini and Count Camillo Cavour worked to build a united state.
There were many obstacles to Italian unity in the early 1800s.
- People identified mainly with their local regions due to frequent foreign rule.
- At the Congress of Vienna, Italy was partitioned by Austria, the Hapsburg monarchs, and others.
- Nationalist revolts were continually crushed by Austria.
Giuseppe Mazzini, a nationalist leader, founded Young Italy in the 1830s.
• It was a secret society whose goal was to establish a united Italy.
• The ideas of nationalists such as Mazzini soon spread.
Victor Emmanuel II, the monarch of Sardinia, wanted to join other states to his own and increase his power.
- He made Count Camillo Cavour his prime minister in 1852.
- Cavour was a skilled politician who reformed Sardinia's economy and ultimately sought to throw Austria out of Italy and annex more provinces.
Sardinia helped Britain and France fight Russia in the Crimean War.
- In the aftermath, Cavour got France to agree to help Sardinia if it ever went to war with Austria.
- Cavour then provoked that war and defeated Austria with France's help.
Now that Sardinia controlled northern Italy, Cavour turned his attention southward.
- There, a nationalist leader named Giuseppe Garibaldi put together a volunteer force of 1000 "Red Shirts."
- Using ships and weapons from Cavour, the force invaded Sicily and won control of it.
Cavour feared Garibaldi would set up his own republic in the southern part of Italy.
- However, when Victor Emmanuel sent Sardinian forces to confront Garibaldi, he turned over Naples and Sicily. Victor Emmanuel II was crowned king of Italy in 1861.
- Italy won the province of Venetia during the Austro-Prussian War and won Rome during the Franco-Prussian War. It was finally a united land.
Italy faced many problems once it was unified.
• Regional rivalries and differences made it hard to solve problems.
• The north was rich and had a tradition of business and culture, whereas the south was rural and poor.
• Further, popes urged Italian Catholics not to cooperate with the Italian government.
Turmoil broke out in the late 1800s as the left struggled against a conservative Italian government.
- Socialists organized strikes and anarchists turned to violence.
- In response, the government extended suffrage to more men, passed laws to improve social conditions, and set out to win an overseas empire in Africa.
Italy developed economically, particularly after 1900.
• Industries developed in northern regions and people moved to cities.
• Though a population explosion created tensions, many people chose to emigrate, which calmed things at home.
What was the political condition of Italy in 1858?
- It has not been unified since the fall of Rome. (has no tradition of unity).
- Seen as merely a geographic expression.
- Rival local princes battled for territory leading to regionalism >> (an example could be like a soccer team: which is very much similar in that it is unified by the World Cup but then theres separate leagues.)
- Foreign countries and empires infered with Italian politics >> they wanted to keep it unified.
- Geograph impact of mountainous topography diving population
*Italy is divided along a wide latitudinal region (latitudinal=north to south).
How might this situation hinder economic development?
- North Italy was more industrial while the South was more agricultural.
- No single currency w/ in the regions of Italy
> Problomatic because North's currency had more value than the South.
Nationalist leader Giuseppe Mazzini founded young Italy which was a secret society w/ the goal of a unified constitutional Italy. It was secret because the monarchs could destroy it.
Leadership of the Risorgimento passed to the Kingdom of Sardinia under the control of V.E. II.
Mazzini's revolutionary republics in Rome toppled. He helped set up a revolutionary republic in Rome but French forces toppled it because they were trying to "defend," or "protect" the pope.
Victor Emmanuel II made Count Camillo Cavour his prime minister. Lead the nationalist movement. Cavour = Bismarck and Emmanuel = William II.
Led by Cavour, Sardinia joined Britain and France in the crimean war against Russia. They did not receive territory but a secret peace conference and what this meant was that they were getting noticed. And since their weapons were getting more deadlier and industrialization was moving very rapidly, they had a better advantage since they spent all their money on military and military goods.
Cavour negotiated a secret deal with French monarch Napoleon II who swore to aid Sardinia in it faced war with Austria. One year later, Austria gets defeated.
Garibaldi had recruited a force of 1,000 red-shirted volunteers. Cavour provided weapons + 2 ships to send Garibaldi to conquer Sicily + Naples.
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