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Web Urban Sociology
Terms in this set (129)
Classical Athens stood as a monument to ___,
free citizens participation in government
For all intents and purposes, large-scale industrialization began in England about __.
Now a city of 12 million people, Beijing was formerly called ___.
Friedrich Engels spoke of which English city with these words: "...it is a city in which one can roam for hours without leaving the built-up area and without seeing the slightest sign of the approach of open country."
Gan's "Cosmopolites" are ___.
usually highly educated
The fastest growing urban region is ___.
The exurbs are ___.
the newer ring of settlement beyond the old suburbs
The height of the "Great Immigration" period took place ___.
between 1880 and 1910
The fastest growing nonwhite population is ___.
The Hull House
addressed the needs of immigrant women and families.
Suburban growth after World War II was promoted by ___.
all of the above
has increased property values in the neighborhoods where it takes place.
Ebenezer Howard believed that the city lacked
sense of freedom
City planning in the industrial era was driven primarily by ___.
Government planning of new towns is absent for the most part in ____.
The utopian planner most associated with "arologies" is
In Frank Lloyd Wright's ideal world, ___.
people would pay no rent
The "city of the big shoulders" that rocketed to prominence in barely 50 years is ___.
In 1871, a fire consumed 1,700 acres within 24 hours and left some 100,000 people homeless. The new city became more of a "growth machine" than ever before. The city is ___.
According to political economists ____.
the distribution of wealth and power are important determinants of the shape of cities.
The "new urban sociology" ____.
draws on Marxism
According to the Central Place Theory:
a. cities are able to produce goods and services more efficiently than smaller places.
b. Cities promote competition among producers
c. economic advantages increase as one moves closer to the central business district.
d. all of the above are true
d.all of the above are true
Alonso's model suggests that ___.
as distance form the Central Business District increases, rent decrease.
According to Valentine, the fact that poor African Americans paid significantly higher prices for their groceries that others illustrates:
the fact that black residents often have limited choices regarding where to shop.
Richard Fox's city types included all but which of the following.
a. capitalist-industrial city
b. administrative cities
c. colonial cities
d. medieval cities
d. medieval cities
The structural context of the last decade include all but which of the following:
an increase in manufacture jobs
argues that urban development is a product of the capitalist economic system.
In Lefebvre's theory, "abstract space"
is the type of space considered by government and businesses
David Harvery's research:
is based on Lefebvre's ideas about the second circuit of capital
According to David Harvery,
governments shape a city's use of space
describe a market system where the government provides workers with subsidies.
Castell's concept of the mode of development:
both: is based on the similar Marxist concept of mode of production, and can be used to understand industrial growth in suburbs.
The fact that many industries absorbed their competitors and formed oligopolies ___.
illustrates horizontal integration
Vertical disintegration is linked to all but which of the following:
increase in the northeastern U.S. urban population
According to Logan and Molotch, urban growth coalitions
focus on ways to increase profits and economic activities.
In the United States, economic restructuring includes:
both: a decline in the proportion of manufacturing jobs in overall employment, and a rise in entry-level jobs for lower- skilled workers.
According to Wirth, urbanism describers __.
the distinctive lifestyle associated with the growth of cities.
Wirth would argue that cities differ from small towns or rural areas by
all of the above: their large number of heterogeneous people, high density, and cosmopolitan lifestyle.
Gans argues that Wirth's analysis of the urban lifestyle was___.
applicable to part of the urban population
Individuals in Gans's "Unmarried and Childless" category ___.
are responsible for the gentrification of urban neighborhoods.
According to Gans, urban lifestyles are shaped most strongly by____.
social position and age
Recent research on homelessness found that
families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population.
Claude Fischer believes that
the city's ecology intensify people's subcultural characteristics
The fastest growing urban region is
In 1990, approximately what proportion of the U.S. population resided in suburbs?
Suburban growth in the 1850s was
promoted by railroads
The area of Bryn Mawr in Pennsylvania
was on of the nation's first suburbs.
Suburban growth after World War II was promoted by ___.
all of the above: people's desire to own a home, economic prosperity, and the desire to escape minority-occupied housing of the central cities.
Since the 1970, suburbs have become
more racially diversified
The Exurbs are
the newer ring of settlement beyond the old suburbs.
In 1990, immigrants represented what percentage of Miami's total population?
Since 1960, the majority of immigrants have been:
people of color
The process known as "chain migration" describes the idea that:
immigrants tend to settle near friends and relatives
Throughout the 1800s , most of the U.S. black population:
lived in urban areas
Which of the following did not contribute to black migration to the North: urban decentralization, the growth of industrial production which followed WWII, the decline for southern agriculture, and farm mechanization.
Karl and Alma Taeuber's study shows that:
segregation can be measured by an index of dissimilarity
enjoy open migration privileges
Mexican American women:
have a fertility rate twice as high as the non-Hispanic population
the Chinese-American population quadrupled
Native Americans who migrate to the city:
experience a culture clash
Female participation in the labor force:
was very limited among upper-and middle-class women throughout the nineteenth century
Chicago was incorporated as a city in:
Chicago political machine:
focused on maintaining the quality of the central business district
Gerald Suttle's study of the Addams area on Chicago's West side suggests that:
each ethnic or racial group claim their own territory
The housing problem is characterized by:
all of the above: an insufficient number of low-rent housing units, property owner's search for greater profits, and an increase in the proportion of high-rent housing units.
Government intervention in housing began:
with the New Deal
The federal housing programs of the New Deal had all but which following goal:
Seize decaying areas and give them to developers willing to rehabilitate them
Edward Banfield argues that:
residents' irresponsible behavior is often to blame for the lack of public housing success.
The Section 8 Program:
provides rent subsidies to low-income tenants
Deterioration of buildings in inner-city occurs because:
their maintenance represents more costs than rental income warrants
allows individuals with low income to invest in a residence
has increased property values in the neighborhood where it takes place
The "New Urbanism" is sometimes criticized for:
the fact that it reduces the number of low-income housing units
Crime rates today are:
highest in cities
Within urban areas, crime is
most concentrated in poor neighborhoods
Hernstein and Murray argue that:
inner-city residents are more likely to commit crime because of their lower IQ
Black-White residential segregation:
explains inter-city variations in the black murder rate
Oscar Newman found that crime rates:
could be reduced by improving architectural design
The Inca Civilization was based in what is now
Anthropologists estimate that the population of native Latin Americans declined by ___ % during the sixteenth century.
The chief reason for the loss of life among Latin American natives in the sixteenth century was
Both: wars with the Spanish and Portuguese colonists, and diseases imported from Europe
Which of the following would be found in the plaza mayor in a Latin American colonial city?
All of the above: Catholic church, government offices, wealthy residences.
Primate Cities developed most often
countries which were or are under foreign control
An argument given in the text against primate city development is that:
the primate city serves s a magnet for migration and constrains the development of other cities.
Highly developed urban centers were present in Africa as long ago as ____.
Early African cities were typically:
all of the above: linked by trade, had narrow and winding streets, and had rich and poor living next to one another.
The second wave of European colonization in Africa began in ___.
The world's oldest well-known city, Jericho, is nearly :
10,000 years old
According to Costello, Islamic cities declined after the Middle Ages due to:
European powers sought to change the Middle East by:
trading with it
The first country to colonize part of India was
British sections of dual cities are
both: typically arranged in a grid pattern, and have a railroad run through them.
The People's Republic of China was established in
Colonization has several common legacies. Which of the following is/are among these legacies
all of the above: economic, political, national boundaries.
Latin American cities lag far behind those in Europe, Canada, and the United States because:
with raw material exports as their primary source of wealth, most Latin American cities never developed much of an industrial base.
According to the text, in global perspective, Africa:
all of the above: is a continent in crisis, is the least urbanized continent, has the highest rate of increase in urbanization
Which of the following is NOT one of Abu-Lughod's patterns of current urbanization in the Middle East?
b. state socialist
c. sixth world
d. oil and sand
Deng Xiao-Ping's most radical innovation was
the establishment of "Special Economic Zones"
Which of the following is NOT one of the cities of Southeast Asia: Hong Kong, Singapore, Jakarta, Bangkok
Japan's sever pollution is due to all of the following Except: rapid industrialization, lax pollution regulations, high population density.
lax pollution regulations
Which of the following/are among the common problems of the cities of the developing world?
all of the above: spiraling populations, quality of life problems, quality of life problems, shanty towns
Critics of modernization theory point out that:
both: Third World countries are not developing the way the West did, and Third World economic growth is slower than Western growth.
According to interventionist theory, urban overpopulation can be controlled by:
all of the above: governmental regulation to promote fewer births, government regulations to support smaller cities, residence permits.
Ebenezer Howard believed that the city lacked
sense of freedom
Early planning efforts were directed at all of the following excepts:
a. to glorify those in power
b. to conserve natural resources
c. reflect cultural values
d. to solve specific problems
to conserve natural resources.
City planning in the industrial era was driven primarily by:
Alice Constance Austin wanted new towns based on ___.
communal living with kitchen-less houses
New Towns have been criticized for being:
all of the above: too small, too low density, and inflexible
Government planning of new towns is absent for the most part in:
The new town in the United Stats which has been most successful in creating racial and social class interrogation is:
Celebration, Florida, is notable for:
all of the above: its city plan which calls for homes to re-create the atmosphere of the per-World War II small town, a mixture of both expensive and low-coast housing, and a model school given a financial boost from the Walt Disney Company.
The utopian visionaries all share all of the following features except: high population densities, financial impracticality sociological naivete, rigidity in their visions
high population densities
Heckscher emphasizes which of the following as being important to urban life?
all of the above: squares, artwork, and architecture
Portland is notable for
all of the above: being the only U.S. city with an extinct volcano, having the world's smallest park, and having the largest number of microbreweries of any U.S. city..
All of the following are true about city planning except:
changing city's physical from does not automatically reshape social life, planners should be allowed to control all aspects of how cities are built, planning always takes place within a framework of economic and political realities, and the goals of the planning experiments of the last century have not been met.
planners should be allowed to control all aspects of how cities are built.
The image of a city, as defined by Kevin Lynch, is the
generalized mental picture of the city's external physical world
People form images of cities by:
both: distinguishing between physical locations in the city, and organizing the physical locations in a meaningful way.
The five common elements in urban images according to Lynch are:
districts, edges, landmarks, nodes, and paths
Stanley Milgram listed all of the following items as having an impact on how people draw their mental maps of a city except.
discussions with others
Pedestrian traffic in the U.S. is characterized by all of the following except
people walk blindly into traffic
An urban network is
Elizabeth Bott found that working class spouses
had a segregated marriage network while middle-class spouses had a joint one.
Identifying with the city is aided by
all of the above: sports teams, festivals, negative historical events.
Gerald Suttles argues that the images which people have about cities are
Most urban poor try to cope with the harsh realities of life through
forming social networks
Virginai Schein's single mother on public assistance all
were working on had some work experience
Carol Stack found in her study of poor African Americans that they
punished those who refused to reciprocate in the mutual aid network
We make sense of the city by responding to its:
All of the above: physical form, gesellschaft characteristics, geminschaft characteristics.
We respond to the city
All of the above: in our own unique way, using common strategies, based on our social characteristics.