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Ethics Exam 4
Terms in this set (68)
The working class
Produce goods and services
CONTROL A LOT
The theory that the bourgeoisie and proletariat class struggle to work together
Dialectical Materialism: 5 Epochs of History
1. Primitive/ Communal- tribal community
2. Slave- slave society in Rome & Greece. Two diff classes established (Slave&Master)
3. Feudal- Feudal lords were those who owned property. Peasants worked on this land and paid to be there
4. Capitalist- Marx thinks we are in this step now
5. Socialist- Classless society
No priv property. Thinks we will get to this step through violent revolution .
Marx Substructure of Society
- Will create things that will determine the type of gov you'll have
- the material base of a society.
- 3 components: Means of prod.(natural resources), Forces of prod. (Conversion of nat. res. (technology), & Relat. of prod. (who creates it)
-Economic of society
Marx Superstructure of Society
-Determines the nature of all social relationships.
- This includes: Religion, Art, Phil., Literat., Science, Gov.
-Driven by Substructure
- It depends on the material cond. of the substructure shaping it
-Depends on the substructure
- Similar to what Kant said about being treated as a means to an end
- Workers feel replaceable
- Extends to capitalism & nature b/c nature is seen as a resource in a capitalist society
-Marx believes this encompasses you to not seeing the finished product.
- Worker sees $ rather than nature as the means for life
Marx types of Alienation
1. Alienation from production
Ex- Cleaning your house. You see the finished prod.
2. Alienation from the process of production. You are no longer working for themselves.
Ex- Working at a factory
3. Workers are alienated from themselves. We engage in task that don't display who we are.
4. Workers are alienated from coworkers. We are constantly competing against each other so we isolate ourselves
1&2 for factory workers
3&4 Are most damaging
Marx view on capitalism
- Believes is not a happy life to live
This is the life Marx wants us to have
-Fully human life
- Don't feel like strangers
- Life lived Productivily
-Stress contributes to our alienation
- A value system based on guilt, fear, and a distortion of the will to power
-Inferior types character. are praised while the superior types are condemned as arrogance
- A sure sign of slave morality: trying to convince the powerful that they should protect the weak
- a code of values created by the overman
- It looks only to that person for value
-Turns to the group for power and resents all "higher types" and "elitist" value systems
-Possess the will to power
-Possess the will to power
- See gods death as an opportunity
- Don't worry abt being great in Gods image
-Amused by those poorer than them
- There is no obj meaning in the universe after God is dead.
- Latin word meaning nothing"
Nietch Will to Power
-living things don't just want to exist they want to thrive and overcome, dominate, exploit, etc. life is this
Ex. Exotic species In new ecosystem
- refers to any philosophy that asserts that the most important philosophical matters involve fundamental questions of meaning
-Says sometimes you just go with it
-Believe there is no objective science that can explain real life problems
Sartre "Existence precedes Essence"
-Existentialist say we first exist then create our own essence by creating things in the world.
- A being who exist before being defined by any concept, man. Man exist then defines himself. First he is nothing then after making who he will to become (essence)
- We are responsible in who we become
-you are not born a coward
-What you do with your existence is up to you
Sartre Essence precedes Existence
- Paper cutter
-Human essence are proceeding human existence. (When you say humans are selfish)
What example did sartre use to show essence proceeding existence
-A paper cutter which is an obj (the essence of the concept is in their mind) then came up with it (existence
- Someone who chooses for himself and for all of mankind
- It is the basis for actions b/c it acknowledges various open possibilities
-By acting a way you are saying you endorse that action
-Everytime we act we are acting for all ppl b/c we set the example of what all ppl should be like
- when we can only reckon from probabilities
- It is not modified to the will
- How limited our sphere of control over the world
-We feel impenitent b/c what we do does not matter b/c the world doesn't care
- The idea that God does not exist and that we have to face all the consequences of this
- The conflict b/w the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life & human inability to find any
Will to power
-living things don't just want to exist they want to thrive and overcome, dominate, exploit, etc. life is this ex. Exotic species In new ecosystem
Hegal's 3 step process
What is the predicament of the absurd?
The human need for meaning and purpose and the inability to find it in the universe (the silence of the universe)
According to Camus, what makes Sisyphus' situation tragic?
-Sisyphus (must push rock up hill and it keeps falling) Camus says its tragic because he is conscious of the situation he is in. He knows the rock will come back down even when he pushes it up
-His labor accomplishes nothing(futile); we think we are accomplishing stuff
Who does Camus compare Sisyphus to?
To us, to the working man or everyday person
What are we responsible for, according to Sartre? How do we become who we become?
Everything we do and who we become
What does Sartre mean when he says that we are "responsible for all men" and that when a person chooses, "in making his choice, he also chooses all men"?
No decision is made in secret, it will be seen by someone else. Your decisions tell the world about what you believe in and take it as an example
What did Sartre mean when he exclaimed that we are "condemned to be free"?
-We have no choice other than to be free. We can not decide to not be free
-Nobody is born a hero or coward, we make ourselves who/what we are
What example does Sartre give to illustrate forlornness?
-Can't give you the answer because there is no way to know what the right decision is, you have to invent your own path and stick with it.
-Sartre is a professor who had a student come to him and ask if he should avenge his brother who was killed in the war or stay with his mother
Who was Marx influenced by in creating his philosophy?
1) G. W. F. Hegel
2) Ludwig Feuerbach
3) Friedrich Engels
4) Comte de Saint-Simon
What are the two classes in Capitalist society and how do they relate to each other
What is the substructure of society
the material base of a society, consisting of three components:
-means of production (natural resources).forces of production (technology, equipment).
The relationships of production (who does what, who owns what, and the effects of such divisions).
what is the superstructure of society
material substructure determines the nature of all social relationships, as well as religions, art, philosophies, literature, science, and government
how do substructure and superstructure influence each other?
the substructure is the cause of the superstructure
How does a society's economic structure influence said society's values, institutions, etc.
what is economic determinism?
What are the 5 epochs of history?
Does Marx ever morally condemn capitalism?
What does Marx mean by alienation?
occurs when the worker no longer feels at one with the product of his or her labor
-transformation of a human being into a commodity (labor)
How does alienation happen?
-transformation of a human being or for what it is into a commodity (Labor, money)
What are the 4 types of alienation Marx describes?
1)Workers are alienated from objects they produce
-don't own what they produce
2)Workers are alienated from the process of production.
-are not working for their own needs, but for the capitalist
3)Workers are alienated from themselves
-not allowed to realize their potential performing the same tasks over and over
4)Workers are alienated from their fellow workers
-they are isolated or in direct competition with their companions
What are some of the features of communism/socialism?
-must overthrow the validity of private property
-production should be shared equally through public ownership
-people could realize their full potential
-A worldwide revolution would occur in which the workers would overthrow the capitalists and create a classless society
What does Nietzsche mean when he says that "God is dead"?
has lost its creative force, its full power. If we dig deep into our own psyches, we will discover that our one true faith is in scientific and technological progress!
What sort of implications does the death of God has, especially in terms of finding objective meaning and value in the world?
-Without God, there can be no objective base for values (nihilism)
-people have the right be free from guilt, be creative, construct their own values, and follow their own will to power
What are the two types of human according to Nietzsche
overman and underman
how does the two types of humans differ from each other?
What is slave morality?
value system based on guilt, fear, and a distortion of the will to power in which the characteristics of the inferior type are praised as virtues, while those of the superior type are condemned as arrogance
What is master morality?
expresses power openly and honestly, in a process of life-affirming self-creation and creates a new code of values, a master morality, which looks only to that person for value
How does the underman feel about the overman
feel as if they are arrogant, greedy, self centered
what is the feeling that characterizes the underman's relationship to the overman?
nwhat is the feeling that characterizes the overman's relationship to the underman?
Does the overman ever help the inferior individual?
Helps those beneath them as an impulse by the overabundance of power.
What is the dilemma of the absurd?
-The conflict it is born out of conflict for the human need to find meaning and the inability to find meaning in a meaningless world
What is the most important question in philosophy, given the absurdity of life?
-Camus thinks its weather or not we should commit suicide. "The only question needing an answer is to commit suicide or not"
How does Camus answer that question, i.e., is physical suicide a viable option?
He thinks we shouldn't b/c its cowardly.
Who is Sisyphus and what is he condemned to do?
A character in Camus book who had to push a house up the hill forever and every time it rolled back down he had to push it up again
Why does Camus think Sisyphus is the absurd hero?
He saw him as a hero because he displayed a lot of scorn to the Gods, a hatred of death and a passion for life while he is condemned to a meaningless task forever
Camus thinks this is us in a way
How does Sisyphus respond to the absurd (hint: "there is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn")?
He lost his hope. He acknowledged that the truth will conquer and kept pushing
What is the last line of Camus' essay?
"The struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a mans heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy"
What did Sartre mean when he said that "existence precedes essence"?
-For humans we would exist first then create our meaning or purpose
-There is no human nature
What does essence precedes existence mean?
Something is thought of and has a purpose or meaning before actually being created
Why is the issue of essence preceding existence important?
-B/c Sartre believed that like the paper cutter God creation of the world and man would be the same
- humans are made in accord with the concept of them
- -Philosophers like Kant made " Human Nature" this
The human being is anguish- the human realizes responsibility rest on them everytime they act this can create a lot of anxiety or anguish for this person. Our choices come with a cost b/c we are choosing for all of humanity. If we don't acknowledge feeling this anxiety we are lying b/c we are always supposed to feel it
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