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69 terms

Chapter 7 Lower Limb Bontrager - Test B

STUDY
PLAY
What is another term for the intercondyloid eminence?
intercondylar tubercles
What is the name of the deep depression found on the posterior aspect of the distal femur?
intercondylar fossa
A line drawn across the most distal aspect of the medial and lateral femoral condyles would be ______from being at a right angle to the long axis of the femur.
5-7 degrees
The upper, or superior portion of the patella is called the
base
Which 2 ligaments of the knee joint help stabilize the knee from the anterior and posterior perspective?
cruciates
Which structures serve as shock absorbers within the knee joint?
menisci
What condition may cause the tibial tuberosity to be pulled away from the tibial shaft?
Osgood-Schlatter disease
What condition may produce the radiographic appearance of a destructive lesion w/ irregular periosteal reaction?
Osteogenic sarcoma
What is the common term for chondromalacia patella?
Runner's knee
Which imaginary plane should be placed parallel to the IR for an AP projection of the knee?
interepicondylar
Which joint space should be open or almost open for a well positioned AP oblique knee projection w/ medial rotation?
proximal tibiofibular
True/False: A 5-7 degree cephalad angle of the central ray for a lateral projection of the knee helps superimpose the distal borders of the medial & lateral condyles of the femur.
True
What is the major disadvantage of the Settegast method?
requires overflexion of knee
SITUATION: A projection is performed for the patellofemoral joint w/ the patient supine and the knee flexed 40. The CR is angled 30 caudad from horizontal. The cassette is resting on the lower legs supported by a special device. Which method is being described?
Merchant Bilateral
SITUATION: A radiograph of the knee reveals the joint spaces are not equally open & the proximal fibula is superimposed over the tibia. What positioning error lead to this?
lateral rotation of lower limb
SITUATION: A bilateral patellofemoral joint space study is ordered. The patient is parapelgic. What projection is best suited?
Superoinferior (sitting) tangential
The ____ is the weight bearing bone of the lower leg.
tibia
What is the large prominence located on the midanterior surface of the proximal tibia that serves as a distal attachment for the patellar tendon?
tibial tuberosity
What is the small prominence located on the posterolateral aspect of the medial condyle of the femur that is a landmark to determine possible rotation of lateral knee?
adductor tuberlce
A small triangular depression located on the tibia that helps form the distal tibiofibular joint is called
fibular notch
The articular facets of the proximal tibia are also referred to as the
tibial plateau
The articular facets of the tibial plateau slope ___* posteriorly
10-20
The most proximal aspect of the fibula is the
apex or styloid process
The extreme distal end of the fibula forms the
lateral malleolus
What are 2 other names for the patellar surface of the femur?
intercondylar sulcus, trochlear groove
What is the name of the depression located on the posterior aspect of the distal femur?
intercondylar fossa or notch
Why is the CR angled 5-7* cephalad for a lateral knee?
medial condyle lower than lateral condyle causing the 2 condyles to be superimposed when femur is parallel to IR
The slightly raised area located on the posterolateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle is the
adductor tubercle
The general region of the posterior knee is called the
popliteal region
True/False: Flexion of 20* of the knee forces the patella firmly against the patellar surface of the femur.
False
True/False: The patella acts like a pivot to increase the leverage of a large muscle found in the anterior thigh.
True
True/False: The posterior surface of the patella is normally rough.
False
Which large muscle does the patella serve as a pivot to increase the leverage?
quadriceps femoris muscle
Which joint is between the patella and distal femur?
patellofemoral
Which joint is between the two condyles of the femur and tibia?
femorotibial
The crescent shaped fibrocartilage disks that act as shock absorbers in the knee joint are called
medial & lateral menisci
What are the two bursae found in the knee joint?
suprapatellar & ifrapatellar bursa
Tibial plafond, medial malleolus, articular facets, fibular notch, intercondyloid eminence
Tibia
Knee joint (femorotibial) is classified as what type of mobility?
Bicondylar
Distal tibiofibular is classified as what type of mobility?
Amphiarthrodial (syndesmosis type)
What is the basic positioning for tibia & fibula?
AP & lateral
To include both joints for a lateral projection of tibia & fibula, the tech can place IR ____ to part.
diagonally
What is the CR for AP of knee for patient w/ thighs & buttocks GREATER than 24cm?
3-5* cephalad
Where is CR for AP and oblique of knee?
1/2in distal to apex of patella
What projection of knee best demonstrates the proximal tibiofibular joint & the proximal fibula w/ no superimposition?
AP oblique 45* medial rotation
For the AP oblique of the knee, the ____ rotation best shows the lateral condyle of the tibia & the head/neck of the fibula.
medial
What is CR for lateral knee for tall, slender male w/ narrow pelvis?
5* cephalad
How much flexion for lateral projection of knee?
20-30*
Which positioning error is present if the DISTAL borders of the femoral condyles are not superimposed on a lateral knee?
improper angle of CR
Which positioning error is present if the POSTERIOR portions of the femoral condyles are not superimposed on a lateral knee?
overrotation or underrotation of knee
AP knee stress projections are performed to demonstrate:
medial or collateral ligament damage
Which special projection of knee best demonstrates the intercondylar fossa?
Holmblad
What type of CR angulation & how much flexion is required for PA axial weight-bearing projection (Rosenberg)?
10, 45
What type of CR angulation for the PA axial (Holmblad)?
None, CR perpindicular to IR
How much flexion for a lateral projection of patella?
5-10*
What type of CR angle for the superoinferior sitting tangential method of patella?
None
What special projection of knee must be done erect?
Rosenburg
For a tangential projection of the femoropatellar joint, how much flexion should be on the knee?
90* flexion
The knee joint is highly dependent on two important pairs of major ligaments for stability called:
anterior/posterior cruciate (ACL, PCL) & lateral/medial collateral (LCL, MCL) ligaments
Which two ligaments prevent adduction & abduction movements of the knee?
collateral
A saclike structure that is filled w/ a lubricating-type synovial fluid that the knee joint is enclosed in is called _____ or _____.
articular capsule, bursa
The femoral shaft is at an angle of ____ degrees for an average adult and the range is __-__degrees.
10; 5-15
The femoral shaft angle is ____ on a short person and ___ on a tall person.
greater, less
The patella articulates with the _____.
femur
The tibial spine (eminence) is not seen on _____ or ____.
child; total knee
What is the CR for AP of knee for patient w/ thighs & buttocks LESS than 19cm?
3-5* caudad
What is the CR for AP of knee for patient w/ thighs & buttocks BETWEEN 19-24cm?
0*
Which projection of the knee shows most superimposition of anatomy?
AP oblique 45* lateral rotation
What is the CR angle for a lateral knee on a short patient w/ a wide pelvis?
7-10* cephalad