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25 terms

Chap 54 Care of Patient with Neurologic Disorder

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agnosia
Total or partial loss of the ability to recognize familiar objects or people through sensory stimuli; results from organic brain damage.
aneurysm
A localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel, usually caused by atherosclerosis, hypertension, and less commonly by a congenital weakness in a vessel wall.
aphasia
Abnormal neurologic condition in which language function is defective or absent because of an injury to certain areas of the cerebral cortex.
apraxia
Impairment of the ability to perform purposeful acts; inability to use objects properly.
ataxia
Abnormal condition characterized by impaired ability to coordinate movement
aura
Sensation, as of light or warmth, that may precede the onset of a migraine or an epileptic seizure. An epileptic aura may be psychic, or it may be sensory with olfactory, visual, auditory, or taste hallucinations.
bradykinesia
An abnormal condition characterized by slowness of voluntary movements and speech.
deep brain stimulation (DBS)
Involves placing an electrode in either the thalamus, globus pallidus, or subthalamic nucleus and connecting it to a generator placed in the upper chest (like a pacemaker).
diplopia
Double vision.
dysarthria
Difficult, poorly articulated speech resulting from interference in the control over the muscles of speech.
dysphagia
Difficulty swallowing.
flaccid
Weak, soft, and flabby; lacking normal muscle tone.
Glasgow coma scale
A quick, practical, standardized system for assessing the degree of conscious impairment in the critically ill; also used for predicting the duration and ultimate outcome of coma, primarily in patients with head injuries.
global cognitive dysfunction
Generalized impairment of intellect, awareness, and judgment.
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS)
An acute, rapidly progressing, and potentially fatal form of polyneuritis. It results in widespread inflammation and demyelination of the peripheral nervous system.
hemianopia
Defective vision or blindness in half of the visual field.
hemiplegia
Paralysis of one side of the body.
hyperreflexia
Neurologic condition characterized by increased reflex reactions.
nystagmus
Involuntary, rhythmic movement of the eyes. Oscillations may be horizontal, vertical, rotary, or mixed.
paresis
A lesser degree of movement deficit from partial or incomplete paralysis.
postictal period
A rest period of variable length after a tonic clonic seizure.
proprioception
Sensation pertaining to stimuli originating from within the body regarding spatial position and muscular activity stimuli or to the sensory receptors that those stimuli activate. This sensation gives one the ability to know the position of the body without looking at it and the ability to "know objectively the sense of touch."
spastic
Involuntary, sudden movements or muscular contractions with increased reflexes.
stroke
A abnormal condition of the blood vessels of the brain characterized by hemorrhage into the brain; formation of an embolus or thrombus resulting in ischemia of the brain tissues normally perfused by the damaged vessels. The sequelae depend on the location and extent of ischemia.
unilateral neglect
Condition in which an individual is perceptually unaware of and inattentive to one side of the body.