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94 terms

Europe and Russia

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Belarus
Consists of 80% natives
11% Russians
Belarus
Became one of Russia's most loyal satellites after WWII.
Belarus
No interest in EU, and would actually like to join back with Russia in some formal way.
Landlocked Center
Consists of 3 countries in mid Europe. Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary.
Czechoslovakia
Formally one nation now has split into two nations after what has been called the "velvet divorce" 1993
Czech Republic
The capital of this country (Prague) is a great example of a primate city and has a cultural landscape faithful to their traditions.
Prague, Czech Republic
This is the most westernized city, as well as being a primate city and very industrial.
Czech Republic
Their small Roma minority was an issue during 2004
Slovakia
The least developed, most rural part of what was once Czechoslovakia.
Slovakia
Have a politically uncertain situation
Hungary
Has a Nation-State of 10 Million and is a classic example of a primate city.
Hungary
The Magyars moved into this country more than 10,000 years ago.
Hungarians
This country also has people native to it living in Austria, Slovakia, Serbia, and Romania. Due to when they used to inhabit a great deal of Europe.
Irredentism
A policy of cultural extension and political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country. Italy was once a country that did this and Hungary is continuing to support it today.
Hungary
Economic mismanagement and political intrigue combined to make this country Europe's most deeply indebted country
Facing the Black Sea
Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, Former Yugoslovia, and Albania
Romania
A former Roman province
Romania
This country's political system reflects communists elements. Has a weak economy and poor social indicators. But a recent member of the EU
Romania
The capital, Bucharest, is slowly decaying in this country. When it was once the "Paris of the Balkans" has now been caleed the "basket case of the Balkans"
Romania
Important to Europe. Has population of 21.5 million and bridges gap from central Europe to south eastern part of the realm.
Romania
The country also has high unemployment and depleted oil fields.
Bulgaria
LIberated by Russia from Turks in 1878. Until they were driven out they were treated unkind here when the country closed all mosques, prohibited use of turkish laguage and forced turks to adopt slavic names.
Bulgaria
Slavics make up 84% of the 7.6 million people.
Bulgaria
Coast has a major port but its main adavantage of being near the black sea is its tourist trade.
United Kingdom
This country announced that it would restrict workers immigrating from Romania and Bulgaria and said that the EU leaders had crossed the line in admitting them into the union.
Ukraine
Has superb natural and agricultural resources. Local coal and iron ore.
Ukraine
Largest state in the entire realm. Western part is largely agrarian and rural with mostly Roman Catholics. Eastern part is industrial and mostly Russian Orthodox.
Ukraine
Emerged from the Soviet period with a huge industrial complex in its east and a large Russian minority of 17%.
Ukraine
Kiev, this country's capitol, has a Historical, Political, and Cultural focus.
Ukraine
Has International shipping lanes, large resource base, significant farm production, educated and skilled labor, huge and domesticated market center
Moldova
Once a Romanian province but was seized by Russia
Moldova
Ukraine's small and impoverished neighbor that is in many ways the poorest country in Europe.
Moldova
Has Russian influenced sepratists that have formed what is being proclaimed as "Republic of Transdneistria" on the other side of the Dniester river.
Moldova
Ha a population of 4 million with 13% Russians and 13% Ukrainians
Former Yugoslavia
Country the consisted of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Albania
Slovenia
First to secede from Former Yugoslavia; ethnically most homogeneous
Croatia
4.4 million people
Russia
Has a small population relative to its size and it continues to decline. But historically has been a world empire and colonial power.
76.6
What percent of the total territory formally known as the U.S.S.R. does Russia make up.
3 environmental conditions of Russia
Latitudinal position, Continental position, location of major mountains
Physiographic Regions of Russia
Russian Plain, Ural Mountains, West Siberian Plain, Central Siberian Plateau, Yakutsk Basin, Eastern Highlands, Central Asian Ranges, and Caucasus Mountains
Russian Plain
The Physiographic region of Russia that has a core area surrounding the Moscow region
Ural Mountains
The physiographic region of Russian that is marked as a boundary between European Russia and Asian Russia, does not hinder transportation, and is rich in fossil fuels and minerals.
West Siberian Plain
The phsiographic region of Russia that has the world's largest unbroken lowland.
Central Siberian Plateau
The Physiogrpahic region of Russia that is sparsely populated and has permafrost and temperature extremes as well as long cold winter, hardly any summer, and no human activity
Yakutsk Basin
The physiographic region of Russia that has Mountains, High Relief
Eastern Highlands
The physiographic region of Russian that has Ranges, Ridges, and precipitous valleys, volcanic mountains, Lake Baykal
Central Asian Ranges
The physiographic region of Russia that rises above the snow line; glaciated
Caucasus Mountains
the physiographic region of Russian that is an extension of the Alps
Climatology
Investigates not only the distribution of climatic conditions over the Earth's surface but also the processes that generate the spatial arrangement.
continentality
inland climatic environment remote from moderating and moistening maritime influences.
Tundra
Treeless plain along the arctic shore where mosses, lichens, and some grasses survive
Taiga
The mostly coniferous forsets that begin south of where the tundra ends
Permafrost
Water on the ground that is permanently frozen
relief
range of elevations
topography
surface configuration
Steppe
Short grass prairie
Forward Capital
Captial City positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
Czar Peter the Great
Ruled from 1682-1725
Founder of modern Russia
St. Petersburg built in his reign as a forward capital
Czarina Catherine the Great
Ruled from 1760-1796
Penetrated the muntainous Caucausus wiht dozens of ethnic and cultrual groups.
Made Russia a colonial power
Sold Russia's Alskan territory to US
Colonialism
Rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place.
Imperialism
The drive toward the creation and expansion of a colonial empire and once, extablished, its perpetuation.
Russification
Demographic resettlement policies pursued by the central planners of the Soviet Empire, wherby ethnic Rssians wer encouraged to emigrate from the Russian Republic to the 14 non-Russian republics of the U.S.S.R.
Command Economy
Means of production are owned and controlled by the state and in which central planning of the structure and the output prevails.
Soviet Economy
Features 1.)Particular manufactured goods in particular places
2.) Economic Interdependence of the Republics
Soviet Union
Decline in agricultural and industrial production, ethno cultural nationalisim and sepratism, Pluralization of soviet politics and steady erosion of communist party and monopoly power, and the emergence of the "commonwealth" of slavic countries caused a collapse of what?
Russian Federation
What is the current organization of Russia that began in 1992
ASSR
Within the SSR. Smaller minorities that were assigned political units of lesser rank.
Federalism
Sharing of power between a country's central government and its political subdivisions
Federation
Central government represents the various subnational entities within a nation state where they have common interests, yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities.
Principal obejectives of Soviet Planners
1.) To accelerate industrialization 2.) TO collectivize agriculture
Sovkhoz
Literally means a grain-and-meat factory
Moscow and St. Petersburg
2 autonomous Federal cities of Russia
Unitary State System
A nation-state that has a centralized governement and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state.
Distance Decay
When increasing distances between places tend to reduce interactions among them.
Changing Social Geographies
1. Revival of Religion 2.Failure of the Pension System 3. Rise of the Oligarchs 4. Crime and Corruption 5. Experimental Freedoms
Population Decline
Russia is expected to have about 130 million citizens by 2050. This is an example of what?
Xenophobia
Fear or anger toward foreigners and strangers
Core area
The heartland of a state
Unsolved problems for Russia
1.Ownership of oil and gas in Caspian Basin 2. settlement of Kurile Islands 3. Relations with Transcaucasian neighbor Georgia 4. Efforts to Unite with Belarus
Russian Regions
Russian Core, Siberia, Eastern Frontier, Far East
Moscow
contains third of the country's population. Automobile, tire, and textile producing centers lie around the outside of this city. Not architechtually appealing but has historical sturctres as well as modern architechture
St. Petersburg
Russia's number two city. Major Historical and cultural city.
Povolzhyye
Region within the Russian core. Name that means it extends along the middle and lower valley of the Volga River
Volga River
Russia's Greatest river
Chechnya
Has a devastated capital city, contains sizeable Muslim population, and continue to this day to resist Russian authority
Ural Mountains
This geographical piece is sometimes used to end the European side of Russia and show the beginnings of the Asian side.
Transcaucasia
Historically a battleground for Christians and Muslims, Armenians and Turks, Russians and Persians. Today contains 3 former Soviet Socialist Republics: Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan.
Exclave
Bounded piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies seprarted from it by the territory of another state.
Norden
Termed by people who live in the Northern European region
Copenhagen
Considered the "Singapore of the Baltic"
Break-of-Bulk
When large ocean going vessels cannot enter a shallow harbor
Entrepot
A city is called this when transfer facilitiis and activities prevail
Kalaallit Nunaat
Inuit name given to Greenland when it changed from a colony to a province