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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
JTCC - HISTORY 121 - Quiz #3 Review
Terms in this set (64)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
(1783) - September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other. Brokered by Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay.
Jay's Treaty (1769)
(1769) - Another treaty drafted by John Jay of New York. The treaty was between the United States and Great Britain that was credited for averting a continued war and facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain (the War of 1812 will break out).
Pinckney Treaty (1796)
(1796) - Thomas Pinckney negotiated the treaty with Don Manuel de Godoy of Spain to end the West Florida Controversy and dispute between the two nations over the boundaries of the Spanish colony of West Florida.
Treaty of Greenfield (1795)
(1795) - Negotiations after the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. General "Mad" Anthony Wayne ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country and limited strategic parcels of land to the north and west divided by a treaty line (Greenville Treaty Line).
Articles of Confederation
Ratified March 1, 1781 - This document set up a very weak National government. This was not by accident but by design. The reason a weak government was desired was to avoid a strong national government that might take away unalienable rights or abuse their power (I.E.: England over her thirteen colonies).
Virginia Deceleration of Rights
Written by George Mason and adopted on June 26, 1776 - Inspired James Madison when he wrote the Bill of Rights.
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson and passed January 16, 1786 - Inspiration for the 1st Amendment of the Bill of Rights.
Northwest Ordinance (1785)
1785 - Answered the question, "How will new states be made once people move out there?" - IT made admission into the Union a two stage affair. - There would be two evolutionary territorial stages, during which the area would be subordinate to the federal government (statehood). - When a territory had 60,000 inhabitants, they wrote a state constitution and sent it to Congress for approval. If approved, it's a ratified state. No slavery would be allowed in the Northwest states.
Plan created by James Madison and Edmund Randolph of Virginia. This plan called for three co-equal houses of government: Legislative (Congress), Executive (President/military commander-in-chief), and Judicial (Supreme Court). Also called for large states to have more representation in congress. A system of checks and balances borrowed from Montesquieu.
New Jersey Plan
Plan created by William Patterson of New Jersey, who lobbied to keep much of the material from the Articles of Confederation, while giving congress the ultimate power to tax and regulate commerce/trade. This plan also called lobbied to give small states equal representation in congress.
The representation debate led to Roger Sherman's (of Connecticut) ____________, which said Congress would have two houses, The House of Representatives, where representation was based on population, and the Senate, where each state got two representatives.
Slaves would count as 3/5 of a person in census calculations for representation. This was a compromise to appeased the Souther states and allowed them to keep the institution of slavery intact.
A loosely organized group that arose after American Revolution to oppose the Constitution and the strong central government that is created. (George Mason, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee)
Bill of Rights
Comprise the first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, define individual citizens' rights in relation to the government.
Took place in Philadelphia in 1787 for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation. The work of the 55 delegates who attended the meeting resulted in the creation of the U.S. Constitution.
The Federalist formed one of the first two political parties in the United States after the country secured its independence from Great Britain. Born out of the movement to ratify the Constitution of 1787, the Federalists supported a "federal" system of state governments guided by a strong national government in matters of national policy - Collection of 85 articles and essays written (under the pseudonym Publius)
The Federalist formed one of the first two political parties in the United States after the country secured its independence from Great Britain. Born out of the movement to ratify the Constitution of 1787,The Federalists supported a "federal" system of state governments guided by a strong national government in matters of national policy.
A group of men who supported the Constitution because they liked the separation of power and wanted that strength to reside in the hands of the National Government. They did not support the Bill of Rights. (James Madison, George Washington, John Adams, and Alexander Hamilton)
A system the Constitution - The shared power between the National government and state governments
A Revolutionary War veteran disgruntled over farmland mortgages and state tax on said mortgages (land had played a crucial role in Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, the Paxton Boys Rebellion in 1763, and the North Carolina Regulators Movement in 1764) - Led 1,000 disgruntled farmers who were mostly old war vets - The rebellion started on August 29, 1786 and by January 1787, most of "Shaysites" were arrested and he was convicted, but later pardoned.
Freedom of religion, speech, and the press
The right to bear arms
The housing of soldiers
Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures
Protection of rights to life, liberty, and property
Rights of accused persons in criminal cases - In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
Rights in civil cases - In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail, fines, and punishments forbidden
Other rights kept by the people - The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Undelegated powers kept by the states and the people -The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
An uprising of farmers and distillers in Western Pennsylvania in protest of a Whiskey tax enacted by the federal government - Washington opposed the tax which led to him gaining more republicans.
Specified in Article II, Section 1 of the U.S. Constitution - The process by which the president is elected every four years. States are awarded electoral votes based on how many congress members they have, and a candidate must receive at least 270 of the 538 available electoral votes in order to win the presidency (remember
only ¼ of the population was literate in America at the time this process was made).
As the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, he helped to shape the government of the United States - Was apart of the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris - Drafter Jay's Treaty - Helped write the Federalist Papers which promoted the ratification of the United States Constitution.
As the first secretary of the treasury, he presented a comprehensive program for government finance to the U.S. House of Representatives in several proposals and reports throughout 1791 - Helped write the Federalist Papers - Key Federalist.
"Father of the Constitution" -
A Virginian and a brilliant political philosopher often led debate and kept copious notes of the proceedings - the best record historians have of what transpired at the Constitutional Convention. At the Convention, he authored the "Virginia Plan" which proposed a federal government of three separate branches and became the foundation for the structure of the new government. He later authored much of the Bill of Rights - Will become the fourth president of the United States.
"Chairman of the Convention" - Presided at the Convention and, although seldom participating in the debates, lent his enormous prestige to the proceedings. Will become elected (unanimously) as the first president of the United States.
The youngest major general in the Continental Army, he helped establish the American artillery as a capable combat arm and served as secretary of war.
Chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court who had almost no formal schooling and studied law for only six weeks. Remains the only judge in American history whose distinction as a statesman derived almost entirely from his judicial career - Following a diplomatic mission to France, he won election to Congress, where he supported President John Adams. Adams appointed him secretary of state and in 1801 chief justice, a position he held until death.
Drafted the Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom and warned that "173 delegates in a legislature would surely be as oppressive as one."
Helped frame and present the "Virginia Plan" - Served George Washington as an aide-de-camp, attorney general, and secretary of state, even as he played a crucial role in the drafting of the Constitution.
Was the first opposition party in the United States. This party was opposed to a strong central government and supported strict construction of the U.S. Constitution.
X, Y, Z Affair
A diplomatic incident between French and United States diplomats that resulted in a limited, undeclared war known as the Quasi-War. U.S. and French negotiators restored peace with the Convention of 1800, also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Statements issued by the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures in response to the four federal Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.1 Congress passed the four acts during the Quasi-War between the United States and France.
The first Postmaster General (head of the U.S. Postal Service) under George Washington
Election of 1800
Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President
Created by Adam Smith saying that individuals should freely pursue their own economic interests. Free individual enterprise would create more wealth than any artificial regulation could encourage. No government interference.
Wrote The Wealth of Nations
Father of Classical Economics
Scottish philosopher who wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776. Argued that money in and of itself did not constitute wealth wealth but merely its marker. He advocated Laissez-faire economic theory.
Marbury v. Madison
1803: establishes judicial review as a check on legislative power. Marshall: If the constitution is the supreme law of the land, something must ensure laws are in accordance with it. Judgement against commission.
An agreement between the French and the US to give the Louisiana Territory, including the Port of New Orleans, to the US for $15 million dollars (3 cents/acre)
Former army captain selected by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase.
Led the Corps of Discovery with Meriwether Lewis in 1804-1806; explored Louisiana Territory and traveled to the Pacific Ocean. Drew maps, constructed forts and lead men. Soldier and explorer.
Corps of Discovery
(1804-1806) Team of adventurers, led by William Clark and Meriwether Lewis, who were sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory and find a water route to the Pacific. Louis and Clark brought back detailed accounts of the West's flora, fauna, and native populations and their voyage demonstrated the viability of overland travel to the west.
A Native American woman who traveled with Lewis and Clark throughout the North American continent. She was a translator, interpreter, and a guide in unfamiliar or unexplored territory.
Jefferson's presidential candidate who received the same number of electoral votes for the presidency. He later joined a group of Federalist extremists to plot the secession of New England and New York. He killed Alex Hamilton in a duel. He was arrested for treason.
A law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Britian and France had been continuously harassing the U.S. and siezing U.S. ship's and men. The U.S. was not prepared to fight in a war, so Pres. Jefferson hoped to weaken Brittian and France by stopping trade. The _________ ____ ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It was repealed in 1809. The ________ ____ helped to revive the Federalists. It caused New England's industry to grow. It eventually led to the War of 1812.
The drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Americans v. Shawnee Indians. led by governor William Henry Harrison, the Americans defeated the Shawnee's and Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory.
War of 1812
1. Britain's seizure of American ships and impressment of sailors.
2. America's resentment of Britain.
3. American belief that British were arming Native Americans and inciting them to riot.
4. American "War Hawks" wanting to annex Florida and Canada
RESULTS OF WAR
1. America became more isolationist.
2. Spurred westward migration: Jobs scarce, Native Americans weakened.
3. Encouraged American industry (New England textile mills).
4. Ended the Federalist party.
5. Inspired nationalism.
6. Made Andrew Jackson a hero (after winning Battle of New Orleans, 1815).
I represent the States Government.
The reason the symbol was selected is a popular name for the government of the United States. Its origin was as follows: Samuel Wilson, commonly called "_____ ______," He was originally a symbol of freedom, and equality. Was a unifying symbol.
5th President of the United States. He argued that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference. He further stated that the United States would stay neutral in future European wars.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere. It also stated that any attempt to interfere with any nation in the Americans would be seen by the United States as an act of hostility against us.
Mcculloch v. Maryland
Strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the bank of the United States by establishing that the state of Maryland did not have the power to tax the bank.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Suit over whether New York could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
This was also know as the Florida Purchase Treaty and the Transcontinental Treaty. Under its terms, the US paid Spain $5 million for Florida, Spain recognized America's claims to the Oregon Country, and the US surrendered its claim to northern Mexico (Texas).
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