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Define nutrition and explain three functions of each of the six classes of major nutrients.



- provide energy- Carbohydrate,Fat,


regulate body processes-Minerals,Vitamins

MyPyramid Education Framework

Replaces the Food Guide Pyramid
health, activity,nutritional guidance, specific information for all age groups.

Recommendations of MyPyramid

Eat in moderation,Include activity.

Nutrient-dense foods

Foods that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals with relatively fewer calories.

Kilocalorie (kcal or C)

The unit of measurement that specifies the heat energy in a particular amount of food

Calorie values of energy nutrients

1 g carb. 4 C, 1 g fat 9 C,1 g protein 4 C


= energy.

Amount of energy/calories needed depends on

Age,Sex,Weight,Body composition
Activity level.

Resting energy expenditure (REE)

total calories needed to maintain body processes.

With the exception of pepsin and trypsin

all enzymes end in the suffix -ase

Chemical Digestion is made possible with the help of _______, catalysts in the body that help speed up the "Reactions of Life"


starch digestion

begin in the mouth salivary

Pancreatic enzymes and the intestinal-wall brush border villi

break food into particles that can be absorbed

Carbohydrates (CHO)

Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

CHO digestion

begins in the mouth

Enzymes in saliva

salivary amylase, aka ptyalin

salivary amylase, aka ptyalin

These enzymes begin breaking down starch into smaller CHO molecules, known as dextrin.

No enzymatic digestion

of CHO occurs in stomach.

Small intestine- enzyme from the pancreas,

called pancreatic amylase

pancreatic amylase

Converts complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into maltose, a disaccharide (double sugar)

Intestinal wall

Enzymes sucrase, maltase, and lactase available

Liver converts fructose & galactose

to glucose Used for immediate energy or Stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen

Glucose that remains after
energy and glycogen needs are met is

converted to fat and stored.

Only form of sugar that the body can use

is glucose

Fiber in the diet

passes out of the body virtually undigested

One (mono-) sugar (-saccharide)

Monosaccharides-Classified as simple carbohydrates or simple sugars


blood sugar or dextrose
Most commonly occurring sugar in the body

Fructose also called levulose or fruit sugar

simple sugar Found naturally in honey, fruits, and saps

Galactose (no natural sugar)

combined with glucose in the disaccharide lactose (milk sugar)

Contain two (di-) sugar (-saccharide) molecules

Classified as simple carbohydrates or simple sugars


Table sugar,Composed of fructose and glucose


the sugar found in milk

Lactose intolerance:

person lacks the enzyme lactase
Bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

Not found freely in food

Produced as an intermediate in starch digestion
Also produced through the process of malting (malted milk) and brewing (beer)

Complex carbohydrates or

sugar molecules, insoluble in water

Types of polysaccharides

Starch,Dextrin, Glycogen.Fiber


Chief source of carbohydrates in the diet.

Main source of starch(Polysaccharides)

Grains,Legumes,Roots, Tubers, Bulb, Seeds.

Cooking starch-containing foods speeds up their digestion

because enzymes in saliva can act on cooked starch but have little effect on raw starch

Starch must be broken down into glucose

before the body can use it.


Formed as an intermediate in starch digestion by the action of enzymes or heat


Body's storage form of carbohydrate

Fiber, commonly known as

commonly known as

dietary fiber

Water insoluble, wheat bran and other whole-grain breads and cereals

Water insoluble dietary fiber

Framework of plants
Include; Cellulose, Lignin
Some hemicelluloses

Water soluble dietary fiber

Found in, Oats, Legumes,Apples- Slow gastric emptying time,

Water soluble dietary
fiber Found in, Oats, Legumes,Apples

Improve glucose tolerance in people with diabetes

Water soluble fiber


Role of dietary fiber

Helps to prevent constipation,Lowers levels of Serum glucose Serum cholesterol,Possibly aids in weight reduction

Kwashiorkor: severe malnutrition, primarily in children

Child has calories; does not lose weight as drastically as with marasmus

Kwashiorkor: severe
malnutrition in child.

Child develops mental and physical retardation
Liver necrosis and ascites cause appearance of bloated abdomen

Gestational Diabetes

Women who are diagnosed with GDM are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life.special diet to control b/s.

Nutrition: Infancy

Infants double their birth weight in 6 months and triple it in a year.

Common nutritional problems during childhood

are iron deficiency anemia and obesity.
Children should not be forced to eat.

Nutrition: Infancy Cow's milk

is a poor source of iron, may cause intestinal bleeding, unsuitably high levels of protein, phosphorus, and electrolytes

Iron-fortified infant rice cereal i

s recommended as the first solid food because it is unlikely to cause an allergic reaction.

Risk of botulism

infants should not be given honey until after the age of 1

Iron deficiency anemia may be
a problem for

girls after the onset of menses and in boys during their growth spurt.

Iron deficiency anemia can lead to

fatigue and decreased ability to concentrate and to learn

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