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Define nutrition and explain three functions of each of the six classes of major nutrients.
MyPyramid Education Framework
Replaces the Food Guide Pyramid
health, activity,nutritional guidance, specific information for all age groups.
Foods that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals with relatively fewer calories.
Kilocalorie (kcal or C)
The unit of measurement that specifies the heat energy in a particular amount of food
Chemical Digestion is made possible with the help of _______, catalysts in the body that help speed up the "Reactions of Life"
Pancreatic enzymes and the intestinal-wall brush border villi
break food into particles that can be absorbed
salivary amylase, aka ptyalin
These enzymes begin breaking down starch into smaller CHO molecules, known as dextrin.
Converts complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into maltose, a disaccharide (double sugar)
Liver converts fructose & galactose
to glucose Used for immediate energy or Stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen
Fructose also called levulose or fruit sugar
simple sugar Found naturally in honey, fruits, and saps
Not found freely in food
Produced as an intermediate in starch digestion
Also produced through the process of malting (malted milk) and brewing (beer)
Cooking starch-containing foods speeds up their digestion
because enzymes in saliva can act on cooked starch but have little effect on raw starch
Water soluble dietary
fiber Found in, Oats, Legumes,Apples
Improve glucose tolerance in people with diabetes
Role of dietary fiber
Helps to prevent constipation,Lowers levels of Serum glucose Serum cholesterol,Possibly aids in weight reduction
Kwashiorkor: severe malnutrition, primarily in children
Child has calories; does not lose weight as drastically as with marasmus
malnutrition in child.
Child develops mental and physical retardation
Liver necrosis and ascites cause appearance of bloated abdomen
Women who are diagnosed with GDM are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life.special diet to control b/s.
Common nutritional problems during childhood
are iron deficiency anemia and obesity.
Children should not be forced to eat.
Nutrition: Infancy Cow's milk
is a poor source of iron, may cause intestinal bleeding, unsuitably high levels of protein, phosphorus, and electrolytes
Iron-fortified infant rice cereal i
s recommended as the first solid food because it is unlikely to cause an allergic reaction.
Iron deficiency anemia may be
a problem for
girls after the onset of menses and in boys during their growth spurt.
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