AP Comparative Government China
Worldwide Scholar Test Prep
Terms in this set (20)
Chinese Communist Party
Peoples Republic of China
The concept of _____ cannot be easily defined in English. It is deeply rooted in Chinese culture and influences how every aspect of Chinese society operates, including those related to government and politics. ______ describes a personal connection between two people that allows one to ask a favor of the other. ____ also describes a network of contacts which an
individual can ask to do a favor, or can call upon to exert influence on behalf of a third party. _____ can also describe the idea that the relationship between two people is such that they
needn't speak their needs for the other to take them into consideration before acting. No matter the formal structures in place, much decision making in China still occurs on the basis of ______.
_______ is the system of internal political organization used in China. The term was first used to describe the Marxist/Leninist system used in the U.S.S.R. Under the theory of ______, members of the ruling party in a single-party state are allowed to
debate policy, but once a decision has been reached by majority vote, all members are expected to follow the decision. In the words of Vladimir Lenin, _______ requires "freedom of discussion, unity of action." In systems that employ ______, the government is usually subordinate to the party. This has been the case in China since the founding of the PRC.
Although over 90% of people living within the People's Republic of China are Han Chinese, China must still deal with significant ethnic cleavages in some regions of the country. To address these cleavages, the Chinese government has set up five autonomous regions within the PRC. The five autonomous regions in the PRC are:
~ Inner Mongolia
Despite the theoretical autonomy of these regions, separatist movements operate within each of them. Both peaceful and violent protests are common in some of these regions. The government in Beijing frequently calls on the military to quell these protests.
Gender as a cleavage
Traditional Chinese culture places far greater value on male children than on female children. At times throughout China's history, this has led to parents killing female infants. Although it is illegal under current Chinese law, the use of sex-selection abortions is a modern incarnation of this ancient issue in Chinese society.
Political Socialization in China
The CCP is the main agent of political socialization in China. The CCP is involved in nearly every official structure in Chinese society; from the media and schools to scout troops, and the CCP uses all of these structures to indoctrinate and educate the people of China in the socialist system of the country.
Political Participation in China
Although electoral politics are not a big part of the Chinese system, the government has experimented with elections at the local level. Since the period of reforms that began in the late 1970s, however, many more avenues of political participation have opened up for the average citizen. Especially at the local level, it is common for leaders to meet with citizens to discuss their concerns.
Political Party System in China
The PRC effectively operates under a single-party system. Unlike the other countries covered in this course, the PRC is run by the parallel structures of the CCP and the government. The CCP sets the ideological and policy agenda in the PRC and party members populate virtually all government positions of real authority. The CCP has ultimate control of many of the key agents of political socialization in China, including the media, schools, and the government. Although other political parties are allowed to exist, all legally operating parties in the PRC must be approved by the CCP. Parties that challenge the supremacy of the CCP rarely, if ever, gain official approval.
National People's Congress
In theory, the party's highest body is the _____________. In practice, the Party Congress is too large and meets too infrequently - once every five years - to exercise any real authority. Instead, it functions primarily as a "rubber stamp" of broad policy decisions made by smaller and more powerful party structures.
party general secretary
Traditionally, the nine-member Politburo Standing Committee holds the most power within the CCP, usually setting the direction of party policy. The Standing Committee of the Politburo holds weekly meetings chaired by the party general secretary. The _____________ is usually the single most powerful political figure in China.
______ consists of 25 full members, including the members of the Politburo Standing Committee. The ______ consists of the key decision makers in China. Selects candidates for Central Committee membership before meetings of the National Party Congress.
_____ - the permanent bureaucratic body of the CCP. Administers party actions, provides staff support to the Politburo, and turns Politburo policies into rules and instructions for subordinate parts of the party apparatus.
Central Military Commission
__________ - although the chairman of the _________n of the PRC (the government) is technically commander-in-chief of the
Chinese military, the ________ of the CCP really controls military policy in the PRC.
The ___________ - consists of about 300 members chosen by the National Party Congress. Members all hold positions of significant power around the country. Theoretically, the ______ is the body that chooses the members of the Politburo, its standing committee, and the general secretary of the party. The ______ exercises the authority of the National Party Congress when that body is not in session, approving party policies. The ______ often plays a crucial role in party policy-making because it is the organ of the CCP in which true political debate between party elites occurs.
Discipline Inspection Commission
The _______________ - has the job of finding corruption within the party, enforcing standards of conduct (including ideological standards), and disciplines party members who do not follow the standards or engage in corruption.
Chinese Governmental System
The role of the government of the PRC is to implement the policies of the CCP. Nothing of significance is done by the government of China without approval of the CCP. China operates under a unitary system of government with all power ultimately resting in the capital, Beijing. There is no American-style separation of powers or checks and balances built into the Chinese government's structures.
President of China
The President of the PRC is largely a ceremonial position. All official actions of the president must be done under orders of the NPC and its Standing Committee. The office has no power of its own. The office of president is term limited; the president may not serve more than two consecutive five-year terms.
While the office of the president has no official power in the government, it has been traditional since the 1990s for the president to also be the general secretary of the CCP. Since the president is head of state of China, the office represents China to the world. By making the general secretary of the CCP the president, the most powerful political figure in China has also been its public and diplomatic face to the world. As a result, the presidency is a powerful position in China despite the lack of official governmental powers.
Supreme People's Court (SPC)
Under the Chinese constitution, the ___________ is responsible to the NPC, and therefore is not a truly independent body, nor does it have the power of judicial review. The ___ is responsible for administering courts of all levels and in all regions of China. Like most supreme courts around the world, the _________ is a court of last resort and has appellate jurisdiction over cases heard in the local courts and the special courts.
People's Liberation Army (PLA)
The __________ is the unified land, sea, air, and missile forces of the PRC.
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