free radical theory
The _______theory of aging suggests that unstable oxygen molecules cause damage to the structure of cells, increasing with age.
a. wear-and-tear theory
b. disengagement theory
c. free radical theory
d. cellular clock theory
Mr. Beluga has just been told that he has a rare form of cancer. He insists that there has been a mistake and asks his physician to retake his medical tests. According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Mr. Beluga is most likely in the _________stage of dying.
Several weeks of diagnostic tests have revealed that cancer has spread throughout Barry's body. His physician suggested that he "take care of important matters." Barry realizes his family's home needs repairs, so he arranges to have that done right away. To relieve his family of the agony of planning his funeral, he has made all the arrangements. Barry tells his minister he has had a good life and just wants to make sure he provides for his family after his death. This description fits the stage Kübler-Ross called_________.
The type of research design which compares various participants at several points in time (no longer than 6 years apart) to examine age-related differences and changes is called a ____________________.
a. behavior genetics design
b. cross-sequential design
c. longitudinal design
d. cross-sectional design
Mothers who were unresponsive, insensitive, and coldly rejecting were associated with ___________ attached infants.
____________babies in Ainsworth's study were clinging and unwilling to explore, very upset by the stranger regardless of the mother's presence, protested mightily when the mother left, were hard to soothe, and had mixed reactions upon mother's return.
Like any 4-month-old, Amy depends on her parents to feed her and to change her diapers. When Amy cries, her devoted parents quickly respond to her needs. According to Erikson, Amy is developing a sense of ___________.
Javier was born 3 days ago. His parents have noticed that he has several reflexes which the doctors have been testing. Which of the following is not a reflex exhibited by healthy newborns?
a. Rooting reflex
b. walking reflex
c. stepping reflex
d. Moro reflex
The local health department of a small town has hired a research firm to study the development of cancer in residents in the town due to a suspected cancer-causing agent and environmental pollution. The researcher will compare data on participants at age 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, etc. to see if there are increasing rates of cancer in the town. This type of research study is called a __________________.
a. cross-sectional design
b. cross-sequential design
c. behavior genetics design
d. longitudinal design
Newborns prefer to look at complex three-dimensional patterns rather than simple one-dimensional ones
Christa and Sal are anticipating the birth of their first baby. Before the baby arrives, they want to fix up the nursery with new wallpaper. They seek the advice of a developmental psychologist. What is she likely to tell them?
a. Newborns do not see well enough to make any difference.
b. Newborns prefer to look at animals rather than people.
c. Newborns prefer to look at complex three-dimensional patterns rather than simple one-dimensional ones.
d. Newborns prefer to look at simple one-dimensional patterns rather than complex ones.
lower birth weight and short stature
What are some of the common consequences to a child whose mother smoked while pregnant?
a. severely deformed limbs and muscle spasms
b. increased birth weight and lethargy
c. lower birth weight and short stature
d. severe hearing loss and heart defects
Tameeka is at a point in her pregnancy during which she is experiencing muscle contractions and movement and kicks. Which period of prenatal development is Tameeka currently experiencing?
________refers to heredity and __________ refers to environmental influences.
a. Cross-sectional; longitudinal
b. Nurture; behavioral genetics
c. Nature; nurture
d. Cognition; emotion
Shelby is very adaptable to change. She is on a regular sleeping, eating, and waking schedule. Thomas and Chess would describe Shelby as being aNo _________child.
Chester is irritable, loud, and negative most of the time. He doesn't like it when new people pick him up, and he has irregular sleeping, eating, and waking schedules. What temperament does he exhibit?
first six months
Attachment usually takes place within the __________of life.
a. first four months.
b. first six months
c. first month
d. first year
nature versus nurture
Dr. Smith believes people who are very aggressive have become so because of their life experiences. Dr. Goldberg believes people are more or less aggressive from birth because of genetic factors. Which of the following terms best describes an issue in human development that is highlighted by their disagreement?
a. classical versus operant conditioning
b. cognition versus emotion
c. nature versus nurture
According to Piaget, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature is known as ___________.
d. object permanence
interaction between a child and skilled people
Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery and a child's interaction with objects, Vygotsky attributed cognitive development to________.
a. biological changes in the brain
b. completing activities in isolation
c. interaction between a child and skilled people
d. unconscious factors
Juan and Carlos are identical twins. Juan was raised by his father and mother, and Carlos was accidentally placed with another family after a "mix up" at the hospital. At the age of 15, both boys "ran into each other" at a football game and noticed how they appeared to be "mirror images of each other." After proving they were twins by genetic testing, the families discussed some of the differences between the boys. Juan is very athletic and intelligent and excels in basketball but does not take school seriously and has F's in all subjects. Carlos is also athletic and intelligent, and excels in baseball and makes straight A's as a result of his strict home life and study routine. Although they are identical twins, what do you think accounts for the differences in their academic performance based on the research?
b. school district superintendent
d. teacher appraisals of performance
social learning theory
Rashid and Tawana are watching the classic TV show Leave It to Beaver. After watching the show, they decide to play. Rashid says he will be Ward Cleaver and Tawana should play June Cleaver. This play situation would be best explained by _________.
a. Piaget's theory of development
b. social learning theory
c. Freudian psychoanalysis
d. gender schema theory
Your little brother has a big ball of clay. While he watches, you roll the ball of clay into a long snake-like shape. He begins to cry because he thinks he has less clay now. Which of Piaget's stages is your brother likely to be in?
a. concrete operational
c. formal operational
nature; Nature versus Nurture controversy
Each of the 10 children born to Ernest and Elvira Orangeburg has been born with red hair. Each child is also very intelligent and athletic. The Orangeburg's are expecting an 11th child who is also likely to be born with the same traits according to ______________ as evidenced in the _____________________.
a. environmental factors; Conception Theory
b. nature; Nature versus Nurture controversy
c. teratogens; Conception Theory
d. nurture; Nature versus Nurture controversy
Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for blond hair color
Silvia has blond hair, even though her mother and father each have brown hair. What do we know about Silvia's parents?
a. Neither of her parents has a gene for blond hair.
b. At least one of her parents has a recessive gene for blond hair.
c. Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for blond hair color.
d. Each of her parents must have one dominant gene for blond hair.
is also a carrier
Ryan has cystic fibrosis. This means that his mother is a carrier for the cystic fibrosis gene, while his father ____________.
a. is also a carrier
b. does not have a cystic fibrosis gene
c. has two cystic fibrosis genes
d. is not a carrier
an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
What is the cause of Down syndrome?
a. neurotransmitter excesses
b. an extra chromosome on the 21st pair
c. neurotransmitter deficiencies
d. an extra X chromosome on the 23rd pair
Steve was born a male with an extra X chromosome on the 23rd pair. As result he has reduced masculine characteristics, enlarged breasts, and is obese and excessively tall. Which disorder is likely to be diagnosed?
Sheila was born a female with only one X chromosome on the 23rd pair. As a result she is infertile, has difficulty learning, and did not develop breast tissue and rounded hips as her female peers did. Which disorder is likely to be diagnosed?
_______________develop when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.
a. Fraternal twins
b. Dizygotic twins
d. Monozygotic twins
Marisa is at a point in her pregnancy when the zygote is moving down her uterus, and the placenta and umbilical cord are beginning to form. Which period of prenatal development is Marisa currently experiencing?
Emily and her husband are thrilled as they peer into Emily's uterus by means of an ultrasound. The physician reports that the pregnancy appears normal, and that their baby's fingers, toes, heart, and circulatory system are developing as expected. The couple learns that the baby is one inch long. Given this information, the current stage of prenatal development is the_________.
a. embryonic period
b. germinal period
c. fetal stage
d. zygotic period
Greta's child has facial deformities, a smaller than normal head, heart defects, mental retardation, learning difficulties, and delayed growth. If these defects can be traced to a teratogen used by Greta when she was pregnant, which was she most likely abusing?
the personal fable
Fifteen-year-old Todd is writing an impassioned novel about growing up in America. In his novel he describes his experiences in a way that portrays them as unique, such that no one has ever thought such deep thoughts or experienced such ecstasy before. Todd's writings most clearly reflect ______.
a. his developing sense of conscience
b. the personal fable
c. his sense of autonomy
d. the period of rebellion common to all adolescents
Mary is an adolescent who currently has a small pimple on her cheek that is causing her to be overly self-conscious. She is convinced that everyone she meets stares at and talks about her pimple. Mary's behavior exhibits____________.
a. personal fable
b. a sense of idealism
d. imaginary audience
identity versus role confusion
Brad is 18 and is looking into career options. He is currently deciding whether he wants to become a gourmet chef or a race car driver. Brad is at what stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development?
a. identity versus role confusion
b. intimacy versus isolation
c. integrity versus despair
d. generativity versus stagnation
vision and hearing
Megan just turned 32. She is keenly aware of biological changes that occur as she gets older. What's more, she measures the sensitivity of her senses and other physical characteristics by using sophisticated testing equipment. In which of the following areas is she likely to find some decline?
a. sensitivity to taste, muscular strength, and hearing
b. vision and hearing
c. sensitivity to taste, vision, and muscular strength
d. sensitivity to odors and temperatures
Sarah is in her forties. Her menstrual cycle is irregular and she is experiencing "hot flashes" that are keeping her awake at night. The changes Sarah is experiencing are called _____________.
b. the climacteric
According to Erikson, an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining one's sense of self, is called________