In the section "Three Types of Needs," which of the following was not discussed?
Monica put all her time and energy into getting into the acting club because her main goal in life "was to be a famous star!" Monica's drive to be famous was a (an) ______ drive.
Hugh has such powerful sexual needs that he engages in dangerously promiscuous behavior. In this case, Hugh's sexual needs are a_______.
follow the "Eye for an Eye" philosophy when seeking revenge
In Myer's book, The Pursuit of Happiness, all of the following are suggestions for living a happier life EXCEPT ______________________.
a. follow the "Eye for an Eye" philosophy when seeking revenge.
b. take control of your time
c. act happy.
d. focus beyond yourself
The ______ theory of emotion would predict that people with spinal cord injuries that prevent them from experiencing sympathetic arousal would show decreased emotion.
b. facial feedback
need for achievement
Luc said, "I don't care what I do as long as I am the best at it!" What need is this?
a. need for power
b. need for affiliation
c. need for achievement
d. need for sex
A famed psychologist claims that motivated behaviors result from an effort to reduce tension caused by bodily needs such as hunger or thirst. This psychologist's philosophy most closely matches ______ theory.
external locus of control
Donald believes all the teaching in the world will not change the fact that he is stupid and of below average intelligence. According to Dweck, what locus of control does Donald have?
b. internal locus of control
c. external locus of control
acquired over time
Evidence from a study with 2-year-olds who were given an opportunity to explore a black box with a hole in it suggests that sensation seeking may be ______.
b. acquired over time.
a sensation seeker
Indiana Jones goes off to foreign lands in search of artifacts hidden in dangerous places and guarded by fierce protectors. Dr. Jones would be described as _______________ in arousal theory.
b. a sensation seeker
c. a person high in nAff
d. a person high in nPow
Jerry gets a great deal of fulfillment out of visiting the new art exhibits at the museum in town. He usually visits each exhibit several times during a show and finds beauty in a variety of different types of art works. Jerry is likely to visit the new exhibits in an effort to meet aNo _______________ need.
internal locus of control
Glenn believes he can learn from his mistakes and that study and perseverance will help him improve his intelligence. According to Dweck, what locus of control does Glenn have?
a. external locus of control
b. internal locus of control
Which motivational theorist is associated with the following assumption? "Before higher level needs can be addressed or acted on, one's lower level needs must be met."
Dr. Lighthead works with her patients to draw from many of their strengths and successes in her therapy sessions. She often stresses the importance of achievements, strengths, and well-being while not dwelling on past issues of abuse, depression, and unmet goals. Based on the description of her work, Dr. Lighthead is likely to utilize ___________ in her sessions.
a. transient psychology
b. structural psychology
c. optimist psychology
d. positive psychology
"Magic mushrooms" are the source of ______.
his positive feelings will increase
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, when Noah complies with instructions to smile and look happy, it is most likely that __________.
a. his reaction will depend on his age
b. he will begin to feel angry
c. he will begin to feel annoyed
d. his positive feelings will increase
Some psychologists believe that an organism's behavior is motivated by the need to achieve a state of balance in which the body functions effectively—a state called ______.
your emotion would be sad since the context would affect your labeling
You just finished a cup of very strong coffee, which causes your body to have a general feeling of arousal. That afternoon you walk past a cemetery where several people are crying at a graveside. According to Schachter and Singer, which of the following would most likely occur?
a. Your emotional state would be impossible to predict.
b. Your emotion would be sad since the context would affect your labeling.
c. You would work very hard to control your emotion.
d. Your emotion would be happy in spite of the scene at the graveside.
Ward notices that as his supply of marijuana decreases he starts thinking more and more about where he can get another supply as well as feeling nervous and anxious. This is an example of ____________.
c. physiological dependence
d. psychological dependence
It is not always possible to distinguish one emotion from another by physiological reactions only
Your heart is racing, your breathing is rapid, and your mouth is dry. What emotion are you experiencing?
a. It is not always possible to distinguish one emotion from another by physiological reactions only.
After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking the drug. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing?
a. physical dependence
c. drug intoxication
need for power
Jack said, "I want to rule the world." What type of need is this?
a. need for affiliation
b. need for power
c. need for sex
d. need for achievement
Which level of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy is epitomized by the U.S. Army's slogan "Be all that you can be"?
Jenna skipped dinner last night to stay up late studying for her final exam. She went to bed at 6 am and had to be at class by 8 am. Her alarm clock did not go off as scheduled, and she raced out the door without eating. As a result, she was very distracted by hunger pangs and lack of energy while taking the test. She later learned that she failed her exam. Jenna could have likely performed better on her final if she had met a_______________ need before the final.
Jack, compared to most other people, appears to need a high level of arousal. He enjoys doing potentially life-threatening hobbies such as sky diving, swimming with sharks, and bungee jumping from bridges. Jack is likely to be a __________.
a. sensation seeker
c. show off
d. mentally unstable
Although Kim just ate a huge meal and feels "stuffed," the idea of a chocolate sundae is too good to pass up, so she orders one. Which motivational term explains the appeal of the sundae?
a. drive reduction
b. cognitive dissonance
Jocelyn needs to be the one whose ideas are always used and craves prestige among others. She drives an expensive car and wears nothing but the most expensive clothes. Jocelyn is high in the need for ______.
Jill is motivated by money and the things money will bring her. Jack is motivated by a belief in the importance of doing good things, and his incentives are based on that belief. Which theory incorporates both these types of motivational causes?
a. expectancy-value theory
b. entity theory
c. increment theory
d. sensation-seeking theory
need for affiliation
Sydney said, "I don't care much about my grades as long as I'm the most popular girl in the class!" What need is this?
a. need for sex
b. need for achievement
c. need for power
d. need for affiliation
The observation that people often seek stimulation and that not all motives are aroused by internal states contradicts the _______ theory of motivation.
Bill will select the lunch
Bill hasn't eaten for four days and is very hungry. A friend offers to take him to lunch or to a new Arnold Schwartzennegger movie that she knows Bill wants to see. The drive theory of motivation would predict:
a. Bill will select the movie.
b. Bill will select the lunch.
c. Bill will not select either option.
d. Bill is equally likely to select either option.
Which of the following is one of the three inborn and universal needs that help people gain a complete sense of self and whole, healthy relationships with others, according to the self-determination theory?
high approach motivated
Little 2-year-old Dennis is always getting into things. He climbs up trees, jumps into lakes, and explores strange boxes. According to research, Dennis would be considered __________________.
a. no approach motivated
b. moderate approach motivated
c. high approach motivated
d. low approach motivated
use relaxation exercises before each test
Lester has high test anxiety, which tends to affect his test performance even though he studies a lot. According to the Yerkes-Dodson Law, which of the following activities will help Lester improve his performance?
a. Get a tutor.
b. Study harder.
c. Study less since his performance won't be that good anyway.
d. Use relaxation exercises before each test.
Bill has felt isolated and an "outsider" since coming to college for his freshman year. As a result, he decided to rush a fraternity and was very excited when he was selected to pledge. According to Maslow, Bill may be attempting to meet the need of _______________.
Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing _______________.
a. drug tolerance
b. drug detoxification
his positive feelings will decrease
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, when Jose complies with instructions to look angry, it is most likely that ____________.
a. he will be pleased that he does it so well
b. he will be amused to be simulating anger
c. his reaction will depend on his age
d. his positive feelings will decrease
physical arousal; labeling
Schachter and Singer proposed that two things have to happen before emotion occurs: _____ and _____.
a. physical arousal; fight or flight
b. behavior; physical arousal
c. physical arousal; labeling
d. cognition; behavior
According to cognitive-mediational theories, appraisal of the situation would come _______ the physical arousal and _______ the experience of emotion.
a. after; before
b. before; before
c. before; after
d. after; after
Michael has trained very long hours in order to qualify for the Olympics in diving. He has sacrificed a great deal as he put his education on hold and spent a lot of time away from his 2 small children and wife. To Michael, qualifying for the Olympics is a __________.
a. instinctual drive
b. innate goal
c. optimum goal