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PH 150B Questions/Readings
Terms in this set (53)
Lung function in woodsmoke-exposed Guatemalan
children following a chimney stove intervention
Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion = major contributor to global burden of disease, which considerable infections in children.
The CRECER prospective cohort study followed Guatemalan children who participated in RESPIRE trial of chimney stove intervention to determine the effect of early childhood HAP exposure on growth of lung function.
Who received chimney stoves?
When were chimney stoves received?
households of pregnant women and infant children
beginning or end of 18-month
What was used to measure biomass smoke exposure?
When did spirometry begin?
personal carbon monoxide
at age 5 of children
T or F
The study showed statistically significant associations observed between personal HAP exposure and lung function.
F; no statistically significant association
T or F
The impact of HAP on lung function is known.
Conclusion of lung function study?
A significant decrease in Peak expiratory growth and
a large non-significant decrease in FEV1 growth were
observed with later stove installation. Additional studies
including longer follow-up and cleaner stoves or fuels
Why is this article important?
Because HAP from solid fuel combustion is the
third greatest contributor to the global burden
of disease, it is important to understand the
relationship between early-life exposure to HAP
and growth of lung function.
How Moss revealed air pollution in Portland, Oregon?
Moss- underdog of plant world
Moss and Lichens absorb everything around them including pollutants.
Moss from two neighborhoods had huge levels of Cadmium and Arsenic around glass making places. Largest hotspot = industry not regulated. Nickel around metal company
Cadmium (50 times above state level)
Arsenic (100 times above state level)
One permanent air monitor in a regional scale due to cost (before MOSS study not neighborhood)
Not regulated were the Furnaces, where emissions were coming from
T or F Many native peoples, including the Chuckchi in Russia, use moss in diapers because of its absorbent qualities.
Association of Improved Air Quality with Lung Development in Children
Concluded that long-term reductions in pollution were associated with improvements in respiratory health among children. improvements in 4-year growth of FEV and FVC were associated with declining levels of nitrogen dioxide.
3 separate cohorts
In southern CA, motor vehicles are a primary source of
Article: Contaminants of Drinking Water
All water contains natural contaminants, particularly inorganic contaminants that arise from the geological strata, and anthropological pollution by both microorganisms and chemicals
Contamination can also take place in consumers' premises from materials used in plumbing, such as lead or copper, or from the back-flow of liquids into the distribution system as a consequence of improper connections.
T or F
Many species give rise to nuisance chemicals that can cause taste and odour and interfere with drinking water treatment.
T or F
The most common oxidative disinfectant used is chlorine.
What is the most common aspect of drinking water quality?
The contamination of drinking water by pathogens causing diarrhoeal disease is the most important aspect of drinking water quality.
One of the great scourges of cities in Europe and North America in the 19th century was outbreaks of
of waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid.
T or F
check monitoring on its own is an adequate means of assuring drinking water safety.
F; it is not
What are the most important barriers to infection?
coagulation, filtration, sedimentation
T or F
According to the WHO World Health Report 1998, over 1 billion people do not have an adequate and safe water supply of which 800 million are in rural areas.
T or F
However, the most important contaminants from a health standpoint are naturally occurring chemicals that are usually found in groundwater.
Nitrate is only contaminant that has been shown to be the cause of human cancers following exposure through drinking water.
F; Waterborne arsenic
T or F
IN a study in Bangladesh, concentration of arsenic can vary significantly between wells only a short distance apart.
High ________ intakes can give rise to loss of hair, weakened nails and skin lesions.
T or F
Both iron and manganeese can only occur in aerobic conditions.
F; anaerobic as well
T or F
Agriculture is another source of chemical contamination. In this case the most important contaminant is nitrate,
T or F
Nitrate is 5 x more potent than Nitrite.
F; Nitrite is 10 times more potent than nitrate
WHAT ARE THE TWO MOST COMMON CAUSES OF WATERBORNE DIARRHEA?
E. COLI AND CHOLERA
HOW WERE MUNICIPAL WATER SYSTEMS ALTERED AFTER THE "DECLINE OF DETROIT"?
EXPANDED TO INCLUDE SUBURBS - HIGHER INCOME AREAS PAYING THEIR WATER BILLS HELPED SYSTEM REBUILD
WHAT ELEMENT OF THE MULTI BARRIER CONCEPT BROKE DOWN IN THE CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER WITH AN ASPHALT EMULSIFYING AGENT?
DISTRIBUTION OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE
NAME THE FOUR CATEGORIES OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY GOVERNED BY SWDA
PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, MICROBIAL PARAMETERS
degrades to BPA
NAME THE PATHOGEN AND FOOD ITEM IN THE FOOD BORNE OUTBREAK IN THE SALINAS VALLEY
PATHOGEN: E.COLI O157:H7
FOOD ITEM: LETTUCE; SALINAS VALLEY CALLED THE LETTUCE BOWL OF THE US!
WHAT FOOD ITEM WAS RECALLED IN 2006 DUE TO E.COLI OUTBREAK?
BAGGED BABY SPINACH. AFFECTED 26 STATES
IN THE MOVIE, THE HUMAN EXPERIMENT, WHAT WAS FEMALE PROTAGONIST CONCERNED WITH REGARDING HER EXPOSURE TO BPA?
WHY DID CONGRESS LAUNCH AN INQUIRY REGARDING THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM'S FIRST REVIEW OF BPA TOXICITY IN 2007?
CONGRESS LAUNCHED A CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST INVESTIGATION OF THE INDUSTRY CONTRACTOR CONDUCTING THE NTP REVIEW. NTP FINAL REPORT IN 2008 EXPRESSED "SOME CONCERN" FOR BPA'S REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS
ARE ANIMAL STUDIES WITH BPA GENERALIZABLE TO HUMANS?
YES! EVOLUTIONARILY, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR IS HIGHLY CONSERVED ACROSS SPECIES, MICE AND HUMANS (INTERSPECIES). BPA IS PROCESSED SIMILARLY AMONG MAMMALIAN SPECIES.
ARE FOOD BORNE DISEASES UNDER OR OVER-REPORTED IN THE US? EXPLAIN HOW THIS RELATES TO THE BURDEN OF ILLNESS PYRAMID
UNDER-REPORTED. FOOD BORNE ILLNESSES HAVE TO BE LABORATORY CONFIRMED CASES. ONLY SOME WHO ARE SICK WILL SEEK CARE AND OUT OF THOSE, MD DETERMINES IF SERIOUS ENOUGH TO REQUEST AND STOOL SAMPLE ANALYSIS
NAME 2 WAYS WE CAN CONTROL/REDUCE CONTAMINATION OF PRODUCE
WASHING, COOKING, INCREASED/IMPROVED TESTING, DEVELOP SANITIZERS, MICROBIAL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT
DEFINE CRITERIA POLLUTANTS VS HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (HAPS)
CRITERIA POLLUTANTS: AIR POLLUTANTS BEST KNOWN TO THREATEN PUBLIC HEALTH (CAUSE DISEASE!)
HAPS: MOSTLY CARCINOGENS AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANTS. REGULATED AT THE SOURCE.
WHAT DOES THE CALIFORNIA CLIMATE POLICY AB 32 WISH TO ACHIEVE?
EFFORT TO FLIGHT CLIMATE CHANGE.
REDUCE GHG EMISSIONS TO 1990 LEVELS BY 2020. REDUCE 80% BELOW 1990 LEVELS BY 2050. NECESSARY TO HOLD 2.0C WARMING.
Why Did Californians Pass Proposition 13 in 1978?
1.People were annoyed with Governor Brown's "Rainy Day Fund"?
2.They wanted to protect the elderly from rapidly increasing property taxes?
3.They wanted to protect corporations from increasing property taxes?
T or F
Hepatitis A vaccine became available in 1996.
The majority of people infected in this ___________ are homeless, use illicit drugs (injected or noninjected), or both."
Hep A outbreak
T or F Homeless persons in the US --635,000
21% are in California
Lessons Learned from Oakland Fire
Brush and dead tree removal
Building Codes including Fire Resistant Roofs
Uphill water storage
Public Education and Preparedness.
Unified Incident Command and Communications
Strategy: Fight these as wildland fires not as individual structuralfires.
Wheres majority of heat?
T or f Since the Industrial Revolution, the oceans have become 30 percent more acidic --the pH of ocean surface waterhas droppedfrom roughly 8.18 to 8.07.
2017: For the first time in recorded history, Gulf of Mexico temperatures never dropped below 73 degrees F
Crashes are the number one death
T or F
There are more fast food restaurants in white neighborhoods.
F; more in black/low-income neighborhoods
As BMI increases,
risk of type 2 diabetes increases
We are all at risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Best Preventive and TreatmentIs...
High ozone high schools:
Low ozone high schools:
asthma rate was 3.3x higher in children playing three or more sports.
sports had no effect on asthma rates
What is the greatest threat to humanity?