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provides the means for gas exchange necessary for living cells.

Describe the functions of the respiratory system.

1.Air Passageway. The respiratory tract is a passageway for air between the external environment and the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs
2.Site for the Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide. A thin barrier between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries provides the site for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood, while carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli.
3.Detection of Odors. Olfactory receptors located in the superior regions of the nasal cavity detect odors as air moves across them.
4.Sound Production. The vocal cords of the larynx (voice box) vibrate as air moves across them to produce sound; these sounds then resonate in upper respiratory structures.

1 Know the two structural regions of the respiratory system.
What structures are found in each?

1.upper respiratory tract -nose, nasal cavity, and pharynx
2.lower respiratory tract -larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles (including terminal and respiratory bronchioles), alveolar ducts, and alveoli

1. Know the two functional regions of the respiratory system.
2.What structures are found in each?

1.conducting zones- passageways from the nose to the end of the terminal bronchioles.
2. respiratory zones-bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli

What is the function of the conducting zones

Passageways that serve primarily to transport or conduct air

what is the function of the respiratory zone.

Structures that participate in gas exchange with the blood

mucosa (or mucous membrane).

what the respiratory passageway that is exposed to the external environment is lined internally by

How does the epithelium of the respiratory tract change as you move from the nasal cavity to the alveoli

The epithelium becomes progressively thinner from the nasal cavity to the alveoli; it changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to simple ciliated columnar to simple cuboidal to simple squamous

1.Know the function of goblet cells.
2.What is the function of their secretions?

1.Goblet cells and mucous glands
produce mucus that bathes exposed

What is mucin and what is its function?

a protein that increases viscosity of mucus to more effectively trap inhaled dust, dirt particles, microorganisms, and pollen.

What other substances are found in this secretion?

The secretions also contain specific substances to help defend the body against microbes, including lysozyme (an antibacterial enzyme), defensins (antimicrobial proteins), and immunoglobulin A (antibodies).

What is sputum?

When mucus mixes with saliva and materials it entraps, it may be coughed up as a viscous substance

Describe the function of the nose

is the main conducting passageway for inhaled air


It a paired openings lead into the pharynx.
Because the conchae help produce turbulence in the inhaled air,


conchae partition the nasal cavity into separate air passages (or "valleys)

vibrissae of the nasal vestibule

to trap large particulates.

olfactory region.

Airborne molecules that dissolve in the mucus covering the olfactory epithelium stimulate olfactory receptors to detect different odors

1.why are nosebleeds common
2.what relationship does this region have with the nasolacrimal duct?

1.Nosebleeds (epistaxis) common due to the large numbers of superficial vessels .
both the vast distribution of blood vessels and their superficial location (just deep to the epithelium).
2. nasolacrimal drain lacrimal secretions from the surface of each eye into the respiratory region of the nasal cavity

What is the primary function of the nasal cavity and how does it achieve this?

A primary function of the nasal cavity is to condition the air (which means to warm, cleanse, and humidify the air) as it enters the respiratory tract.
1. The air is warmed to body temperature by the extensive array of blood vessels within the nasal cavity lining.
2.The air is cleansed as inhaled microbes, dust, and other foreign material become trapped in the mucus covering the inner lining of the respiratory tract. Cilia then "sweep" the mucus and its trapped contents towards the pharynx to be swallowed.
3.The air is also humidified as it passes through the moist environment of the nasal passageway.

1.Describe the function of the paranasal sinuses.
2.What is their connection with the respiratory system?

1. sinuses are spaces within the skull bones and named for the specific skull bones in which they are housed.
2. Ducts connect all sinuses to the nasal cavity.
3 .The mucus, with its trapped particulate matter, is swept from each paranasal sinus into the nasal cavity and then into the pharynx, where it is swallowed.

Describe the function of the pharynx. What is the common name?

1. Air is conducted along its entire length, and both air and food along its inferior portions.
-contribute to both the flexibility and distensibility needed to accommodate swallowed food, and help force these materials into the esophagus.

2. throat,

Describe the functions of the larynx.

1.Serves as a passageway for air.
2.Prevents ingested materials from entering the respiratory tract by covering
3.Produces sound for speech.
4.Assists in increasing pressure in the abdominal cavity.
5.Participates in both a sneeze and cough reflex

What is the common name of the larynx

voice box,

know the laryngeal prominence and why it is generally larger in males

This protuberance is generally larger in males because (1) the laryngeal inlet is narrower in males (90 degrees) than in females (120 degrees), and (2) it enlarges at puberty due to testosterone-induced growth.

function of the true and false vocal cords (or vocal folds and vestibular folds)

1. True(vocal folds) -they produce sound when air passes between them.
2. False(vestibular) -they have no function in sound production, but serve to protect the vocal folds.

How is sound produced?

when vocal folds begin to vibrate.

What is meant by the range, pitch, and loudness of sound?

1.range of a voice (be it soprano or bass) is determined by the length and thickness of the vocal folds.
2. Pitch - the frequency of sound waves.
3.Loudness depends on the force of the air passing across the vocal cords.

How are different vocal ranges produced and why do males and females differ?

1.Males generally have longer and thicker folds than do females, and thus males produce sounds that are in a lower range.
2. Different vocal ranges are produced by thickness and length of the vocal cord

How are different pitches produced?

Pitch is determined by the amount of tension or tautness on the vocal folds
1. increase the tension on the vocal folds cause it vibrate more when air pass and produce higher sound
2.the less taut the vocal folds, the less they vibrate, and the lower the pitch of the sound.

How are a scream, normal voice, and whisper achieved?

Scream- A lot of air forced through the rima glottidis produces a loud sound.
Normal voice - little air produces a soft sound.
Whisper-only the most posterior portion of the rima glottidis is open, and the vocal folds do not vibrate. all the same pitch

What structures are used for articulation and how do they affect speech?

the structures of the lips, teeth, and tongue that help form different sounds.

Describe the functions of the trachea. What is the common name?

2.Flexible, slightly rigid, tubular organ

shape and function of the tracheal cartilage rings

C-shaped "rings" hyaline cartilage called
These rings reinforce and provide some rigidity to the tracheal wall to ensure that the trachea remains open (patent) at all times,

What is the function of the trachealis muscle?

1.allows for distension during swallowing of food through the esophagus.
2.They contract during coughing helping to dislodge material (foreign objects or food) from the air passageway

What is a tracheotomy and why would it be performed?

1.An incision is made in the trachea to facilitate breathing
2.Performed when an airway is blocked or respiratory ventilation is compromised

function of the cilia and how it works with mucus to protect the respiratory tract.

Cillia located in the mucosal epithelium move mucus with dust, microbes and other partciles toward the larynx and the pharynx where it may be swallowed or expelled

the components of the bronchial tree

the main, lobar, and segmental bronchi ,bronchioles,
Terminal bronchioles-last part of conducting zone
and respiratory bronchioles-first part of respiratory zone

Know the function of the cartilage found on the main bronchi.

hyaline cartilage support the walls of the main bronchi to ensure that they remain open

How does the diameter and amount of cartilage change as you go down the bronchial tree in the main bronchi

Diameter and the amount of cartilage decrease as you go down

How are bronchioles different in terms of cartilage and smooth muscle?

1.bronchioles have no cartilage in their walls compare to bronchi
2..bronchioles thicker layer of smooth muscle than do bronchi


Contraction of smooth muscle narrows the diameter of the bronchiole
and decreases the amount of air passing through the bronchial tree.


Expansion of the diameter of the bronchiole from relexation of the smooth muscle and
increases the amount of air passing through the bronchial tree.

Know the components of the respiratory zone.

being composed of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.

What type of epithelium is found in the alveoli and why?

simple squamous epithelium because it is thinner and it helps facilitating gas diffusion between the alveolus and pulmonary capillaries.

Describe alveolar pores and know their function.

Openings in their walls and Provide for collateral ventilation

What surrounds each alveolus and why?

pulmonary(blood) capillaries it help facilitate gas exchange.

What is the function of the elastic fibers found here in the alveolus

help the lungs contract and expand

Know the two cells types of the alveolar wall

simple squamous alveolar type I cell, and the cuboidal-shaped alveolar type II cell

Why are alveoli prone to collapsing?

internal surface of alveoli formed by type I cells is moist creating high surface tension.

What is produced by the type II cells to prevent collasping from happening?

pulmonary surfactant- it coats the internal surfaced during expiration

What is the function of the alveolar macrophage?

engulf any microorganisms or particulate material that reach the alveoli.

Describe the structure of the respiratory membrane

alveolar epithelium and its basement membrane
capillary epithelium and its basement membrane
basement membrane are fused

What is the function of this respiratory membrane and why is it imperative that it is thin?

is the thin barrier that oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across during gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries.

Which way does oxygen and CO2 flow across this respiratory membrane?

-Oxygen diffuses from alveolus into capillaries
•erythrocytes become oxygenated
-Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to alveolus
•expired to external environmen

Describe the location of the lungs.

within the thoracic cavity on either side of the mediastinum, the median region that houses the heart.

What provides the protection for the lungs?

thoracic cage

Know how the right and left lung differ in shape and why.

-right lung is larger and wider than the left lung
left lung -smaller than the right lung because the heart projects into the left side of the thoracic cavity

Understand how portions of the lung can become diseased while other portions can remain healthy

Both lungs (left and right ) are partitioned into self-contained bronchopulmonary segments each supplied by a segmental bronchus-
-so doctors can remove damage segment

pulmonary circulation
What vessels are found in each
what is the function, and what do they supply?

1. Pulmonary circulation replenishes oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
2. -Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to pulmonary capillaries
-Blood is reoxygenated
-Blood enters pulmonary venules and veins, returns to left

the bronchial circulation.
What vessels are found in each, what is the function, and what do they supply?

Bronchial circulation transports oxygenated blood to bronchi and bronchioles
-Bronchial arteries branch off the descending aorta, divide to form capillaries
-Bronchial veins collect venous blood
-Some drains into the pulmonary veins
•makes pulmonary veins slightly less oxygenated than blood leaving the pulmonary capillaries
-Alveoli exchange respiratory gases directly with air

function of the lymph vessels and lymph nodes located in the lungs

1. lymph vessels - remove excess fluid from the lungs
2. Lymph nodes - collect carbon, dust particles, and pollutants that were not "swept out" by cilia lining the respiratory tract

Describe the effect of sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation

-sympathetic innervation primarily causes bronchodilation.
-parasympathetic innervation - stimulates bronchoconstriction

Know the two pleural membranes surrounding the lungs and where each of these are found.

1. visceral pleura - cover the outer surface of the lung
2. parietal pleura - inner surface of the thoracic wall

Why are the lungs considered "compartmentalized" and how is this beneficial?

each lung is enclosed in a separate visceral pleural membrane,
helps limit spread of infections.

Where is the pleural cavity located? What is found here and what is the function?

1. Located between the visceral and parietal serous membrane layers.
2. oily, serous fluid a lubricant, ensuring the pleural surfaces slide by each other with minimal friction during breathing.

Know the properties that keep the lungs inflated.

-expanding properties of the chest wall,
-the recoiling properties of the lungs,
-the anatomic arrangement of the pleural cavity between chest wall and lungs.

what causes the lungs to cling to the chest wall.

surface tension caused by the serous fluid within the pleural cavity.

What is the function of the elastic connective tissue in the lungs?

recoil, which causes the lungs to exhibit a inward pull.
expand- cause outward pull

What effect do the elastic connective tissue have in the pleural cavity

create a vacuum or "suction" within the pleural cavity.

1.Define intrapleural pressure and intrapulmonary pressure.
2.How do these to pressures keep the lungs inflated?
3.What happens is these two pressures are equal?

-Intrapleural - lower pressure outside the lung
-intrapulmonary- higher pressure inside the lungs,
-difference in pressure keeps the lungs inflated.
-the lungs deflate


exchange of respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere and the tissue cells of the body—

pulmonary ventilation

movement of respiratory gases between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs

alveolar gas exchange

(external respiration)—exchange of respiratory gases between the alveoli and the blood

gas transport

transport of respiratory gases within the blood between the lungs and systemic cells of the body

systemic gas exchange.

(internal respiration)—exchange of respiratory gases between the blood and systemic cells of the body

know the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and systemic cells.


Know the two cyclic phases of breathing (or pulmonary ventilation) and their definitions.

1.inspiration, also called inhalation, which brings air into the lungs and
2.expiration, also called exhalation, which forces air out of the lungs.

Define quiet and forced breathing.

1.Quiet breathing is the rhythmic breathing that occurs at rest;
2.forced breathing is vigorous breathing that accompanies exercise or hard exertion.

Know the general steps involved in breathing

oStimulus: The nervous system must stimulate the skeletal muscles involved in breathing. If there is no stimulus from the nervous system, breathing will not occur.
oVolume Change: The skeletal muscle will contract or relax because of the stimulus from the nervous system. When the muscles contract or relax, the volume of the thoracic cavity will change.
oPressure Change: When the volume of the thoracic cavity changes, this will change pressure in the thoracic cavity. This creates a gradient between the atmosphere and the lungs.
oAir Movement: This difference in pressure between the atmosphere and the lungs will cause air to move- either in or out of the lungs. Air moves down a pressure gradient (moves from high to low pressure).

quiet breathing muscles

skeletal muscles involved in normal rhythmic breathing that occurs at rest
diaphragm - floor of the thoracic cavity
external intercostals-elevatest the ribs

forced inspiration muscles

used during a deep inspiration, such as occurs during heavy exercise or prior to "holding a long note" while singing.
sternocleidomastoid, lifts the ribs cage
scalenes, elevated the ribs
pectoralis minor -elevated the ribs
serratus posterior superior -lifts the ribs cage
erector spinae.- extends the verbebral colum
-superior location relative to the thoracic cavity

forced expiration muscles

contract during a hard expiration, for example, when one blows up a balloon or coughs
-internal intercostals,
-abdominal muscles,
-transversus thoracis,
-serratus posterior

What are "accessory muscles of breathing"?

muscles of forced inspiration and forced expiration

three dimensions of volume changes in the thoracic cavity.

vertically, laterally, and in an anterior-posterior direction

What causes the vertical volume change

movement of the diaphragm as it contracts and relaxes

what happens when the diaphragm contracts and relaxes

Relaxed- forms rounded floor and dome shaped-decreased thoracic cavity
Contracts- increase the thoracic cavity and central position flatten and moves inferiorly

How are the movements of the diaphragm different in quiet and forced breathing?

Quiet- small changes in the movement of the diaphragm
Forced- large changes in the movement of diaphragm because of contraction of the abdominal muscles.

What causes the lateral volume change?
How does the volume change in the thoracic cavity?

as the rib cage is elevated and the thoracic cavity widens, or as the rib cage depresses and thoracic cavity narrows

What causes the anterior-posterior volume change? How does the volume change in the thoracic cavity?

As the inferior portion of the sternum moves anterior and then posteriorly.
inferior portion of the sternum moves anterior thoracic cavity expends.
-inferior portion of the sternum moves posteriorly thoracic cavity compress

Define Boyle's Law and know the formula for Boyle's Law

constant temperature, the pressure (P) of a gas decreases if the volume (V) of the container increases= p1v1= p2v2

What type of relationship do volume and pressure have?

inverse relationship

How do changes in volume cause changes in pressure

Increase in volume cause a decrease in pressure-
Decrease in volume cause increase in pressure

Know how an air pressure gradient occurs.

force per unit area is greater in one place than in another.

How does air move along a pressure gradient?

air moves from the region of higher pressure to the region of lower pressure until the pressure in the two regions becomes equal.

Define atmosphere and atmospheric pressure

1. atmosphere is the air in the environment that surrounds us.
2.Atmospheric pressure is the pressure (weight) gases in the air exert in the environment.

What is the value for atmospheric pressure at sea level? How does this change with an increase in altitude?

760mm- it increase

Does Atmospheric pressure change in the context of breathing.


1.Define alveolar volume.
2. What is its associated pressure?
3. How does this pressure change?

1. collective volume of the alveoli within the lungs
2. intrapulmonary pressure (higher pressure inside the lungs)
3.fluctuates with breathing and may be higher, lower, or the same as atmospheric pressure

What causes this pressure change (remember Boyle's Law!)? What happens to the pressure gradient and air movement?

1. Volume changes
2. establishes a pressure gradient between the atmosphere and the thoracic cavity that determines the direction of airflow.
3. Volume increase and preasure decrease causing air moving into the lungs during inspiration.

Quiet Breathing-Inspiration:-contracting is active
How do intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure correspond at the start of inspiration?

They are both at 760 mm(equal)

Quiet Breathing-Inspiration:
What muscles are stimulated and how do they change the volume of the thoracic cavity (and in turn alveolar volume)?

1. diaphragm muscles are stimulated
2. Thoracic cavity volume increases and alveolar volume increase

Quiet Breathing-Inspiration:
What happens to the intrapulmonary pressure? How does this correspond to atmospheric pressure (what is the gradient?)?

1.The intrapulmonary pressure decreases from 760 to 759 mm
2. gradient is the pressure difference

Quiet Breathing-Inspiration:
How does air move because of the gradient? What causes the air to stop moving? What is tidal volume?

1. air moves down the pressure gradient from the environment
2.when intrapulmonary pressure is once again equal to atmospheric pressure.
3.volume of air that moves from the atmosphere into the lungs during a single breath in quiet breathing

Quiet Breathing-Expiration:
How do intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure correspond at the start of expiration?

They are equal 760

Quiet Breathing-Expiration:
What happens to the muscles and how do they change the volume of the thoracic cavity?
How does the recoil of the thoracic wall affect alveolar volume?

1. diaphragm and external intercostals muscles relax and decrease the volume of thoracic cavity
2.the alveolar volume decreases because the lungs are pulled inward by the recoil of elastic connective tissue in the lungs

Quiet Breathing-Expiration:
What happens to the intrapulmonary pressure? How does this correspond to atmospheric pressure (what is the gradient?)?

Pressure increase and intrapulmonary pressure is more than the atmospheric pressure
2. intrapulmonary pressure is 761
3. gradient different= +1

Quiet Breathing-Expiration:
How does air move because of the gradient? What causes the air to stop moving?

1.air is forced out of the alveoli into the atmosphere
2. When intrapulmonary pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure

Forced Breathing:

both forced inspiration and forced expiration are active processes, meaning that additional muscles are required to contract

Quiet Breathing

Quiet inspiration is an active process because the muscles used contract. However, quiet expiration is a passive process because no muscles are contracting.

Forced Breathing:
How does the addition of extra muscles affect the volume and pressure changes?

There is a larger volume and pressure change

Know where the nuclei are located that controls the skeletal muscles of breathing.


What are the two centers that make up the respiratory center and where are these located?

1.medullary respiratory center within the medulla oblongata
2.pontine respiratory center (also called the pneumotaxic center) within the pons.

Medullary respiratory center:
1.What is the function of the VRG and DRG and where are these located?

1.The VRG initiates neural impulses for inspiration and expiration; -ventrolateral region of the medulla
2. DRG relay inputs into VRG-dorsomedial region of the medulla

What do these axons eventually form?

phrenic nerves -innervate the diaphragm
intercostal nerves -innervate the intercostal muscles

What do the inspiratory neurons stimulate and what is the effect?

Action potentials it cause both the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles to contract causing an increase in thoracic cavity volume.

What happens when the inspiratory neurons are inhibited (what causes the inhibition?)?

1.inspiratory impulses cease and muscle are relax and thoracic cavity volume is decrease
Inhibition is cause by VRG neurons and the pontine respiratory group

Pontine respiratory center: What is the function of this center?

provide for a smooth transition between inspiration and expiration by sending impulses to the VRG.

average respiratory rate in the pontine

average respiratory rate of 12 times per minute.
1. 2 seconds inspiration
and 3 second expiration


The average range for the rate of quiet breathing is generally between 12 and 15 times per minute

Altering Breathing Rate and Depth: Where are sensory impulses sent when receptors are stimulated?
How does this eventually change breathing rate and depth?

1. DRG
2. Rate-Rate is changed by altering the amount of time spent in both inspiration and expiration
3. Depth-Depth is change by the stimulation of accessory muscles, which results in greater thoracic volume changes

The levels of respiratory gases are given as partial pressures

higher the partial pressure for a gas, the greater its concentration.

What are the internal chemoreceptors,

include both central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors.

central chemoreceptors
1. Where is it located
2. what do they monitor
3.How does each of these affect breathing rate and depth?

1.ventrolateral surface of the medulla.
2. only pH changes of CSF induced by changes(increase) in blood Pco2
3.Respiration rate and depth are increased

peripheral chemoreceptors.
1. Where is it located
2. what do they monitor
3.How does each of these affect breathing rate and depth?

1.within the walls of specific blood vessels.
---(carotid bodies and aortic bodies )
2.detect changes in arterial blood.
3.increase or decrease in rate and depth

What is the most important stimulus affecting breathing rate and depth and why?
Why is this detected quicker in the CSF?

blood Pco2. The respiratory center is very sensitive to changes in carbon dioxide levels;-small increase can double breathing rate
2. the CSF lacks proteins to buffer the gain or loss of H+

Where are proprioceptors and baroreceptors (for the lungs) found

1.proprioceptors- within joints and muscles
2. baroreceptors- visceral pleura and bronchiole smooth muscle

How do proprioceptors stimulate a change in breathing rate and depth?

By increasing the body movement will stimulate a change

What is the function of the barorecptors?

initiate a reflex to prevent overstretching of the lungs by inhibiting inspiration activities

What is the inhalation (or Hering-Breuer) reflex? What does this protect?

protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation.

? How do the baroreceptors here work in inhalation reflex (and what cranial nerve is used?)?

baroreceptors send sensory impulses through the vagus nerves to the respiratory center to shut off inspiration activity

What is the function of coughing and sneezing and what is involved with these reflexes?

1.exaggerated intake of breath,
2. closure of the larynx and contraction of abdominal muscles, followed by an explosive blast of exhaled air when the vocal cords open abruptly.

What higher brain centers influence breathing rate and how?

1.hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex
2. The hypothalamus increases the breathing rate if the body is warm and decreases it if the body is cold
3. The limbic system alters the breathing rate in response to emotions and emotional memories
4. Cerebral cortex controls voluntary changes in our breathing pattern for various activities, such as talking, singing, breath-holding, performing the Valsalva maneuver, and other actions.

Nervous Control of Breathing Versus Nervous Control of the Respiratory Center:
How does the innervation for breathing and anatomic structure of the respiratory system differ?
What parts of the brain control each

1.Respiratory system- innervated by the axons of lower motor neurons of the autonomic nervous system and controlled by brainstem nuclei.
2.Breathing - composed of skeletal muscle tissue, are innervated by axons of the lower motor neurons of the somatic nervous system.
3.brainstem and the cerebral cortex

Define airflow.

amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.

What two factors determine the efficiency of airflow and how?

(1) the pressure gradient established between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure,
2) the resistance that occurs due to conditions within the airways, lungs, and chest wall.

What formula expresses airflow?

F = flow, ΔP = difference in pressure between atmosphere (atm) and the intrapulmonary pressure within the alveoli (alv), and R = resistance.


How is airflow related to pressure gradient and resistance?

1.flow is directly related to the pressure gradient
2.inversely related to resistance

For pressure gradient, how can the airflow be altered?

It can be changed by altering the volume of the thoracic cavity

What is resistance

1.all the factors that make it more difficult to move air from the atmosphere through the respiratory passageway into the alveoli.

what are the three ways resistance can be altered?

(1) a decrease in elasticity of the chest wall and lungs,
(2) a change in the bronchiole diameter or the size of the passageway through which air moves, and
(3) the collapse of alveoli.

How does a decrease in elasticity affect resistance?

increase in resistance

What are some ways elasticity can be decreased?

(1) an individual has vertebral column malformation, such as scoliosis;
(2) arthritis develops within the thoracic cage; or (3) elastic connective tissue in the lungs is replaced with inflexible scar tissue, which occurs with pulmonary fibrosis.

How does brochoconstriction and brochodilation affect resistance? What are some causes of brochoconstriction and brochodilation?

1.Resistance increases with bronchoconstriction
which are cause by parasympathetic stimulation, histamine release, or exposure to cold.
2.Resistance decreases with bronchodilation caused by sympathetic stimulation and the subsequent release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla, or with external administration of epinephrine.

What can cause alveoli to collapse and how does this affect resistance? Why is this more important in premature infants?

1. lack of pulmonary surfactant , it increases resistance
2.premature infants are unable to produce sufficient pulmonary surfactant

What is ARDS?

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
when premature infants experience greater resistance to airflow.

Define compliance.

the ease with which the lungs and chest wall expand.

What factors affect compliance? How does this relate to lung expansion?

1.surface tension and elasticity of the chest wall and lung are factors that affect compliance
2. the easier the lung expansion, the greater the compliance

1.How can respiratory diseases (such as asthma and pulmonary fibrosis) affect resistance?
2.How does this affect energy expenditure does this affect individuals with breathing disorders?

1.increase resistance to airflow
2.greater amount of the body's metabolic energy must be spent on breathing
3. They can become exhausted simply from breathing.

Define alveolar ventilation

-The amount of air that reaches the alveoli and is available for gas exchange per minute
-pulmonary ventilation may also refer to the amount of air that is moved between the atmosphere and alveoli in 1 minute

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