How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

700 terms

BERK CH 1-10

STUDY
PLAY
According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is
industry versus inferiority.
Jacob, a sixth grader, entered the middle school academic bowl. According to Erikson, by entering the competition, Jacob shows
industriousness.
According to Erikson, a sense of _________ can develop in middle childhood when family life fails to prepare children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy childrens feelings of competence and mastery with negative responses.
inferiority
Eleven-year-old Leah has developed a sense of competence at a number of useful skills and tasks. She has a positive but realistic self-concept and takes pride in her accomplishments. According to Erikson, Leah has
positively resolved the psychological conflict of middle childhood.
During the school years, children refine their __________, organizing their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions.
self-concept
Beginning in middle childhood, childrens self-descriptions start to emphasize
both negative and positive characteristics.
School-age children use frequent _________ in their self-descriptions.
social comparisons
Which of the following statements is true about the development of self-concept?
Perspective-taking skills are crucial for developing a self-concept based on personality traits.
As school-age children move into adolescence, self-concept is increasingly vested in
feedback from close friends.
Sam is an American sixth grader. Compared to his Asian agemates, when asked to describe himself, Sam is more likely to say which of the following?
I like hockey.
Compared to his Western agemates, Chao, who lives in China, will most likely describe himself by referencing his
group memberships and relationships.
Self-esteem adjusts to a more realistic level in middle childhood largely as the result of
feedback about self-performance compared with that of peers.
During childhood and adolescence, perceived __________ correlates more strongly with overall self-worth than any other self-esteem factor.
physical appearance
Which of the following statements is true about self-esteem in elementary school?
It declines during the first few years of elementary school and then, from fourth grade on, rises for the majority of young people.
From middle childhood on, individual differences in self-esteem
become increasingly stable.
Self-esteem takes on a __________ structure in the mid-elementary school years.
hierarchical
Which of the following is true about cultural influences on self-esteem?
Asian children score lower in self-esteem than North American children.
Compared to his Caucasian-American agemates, Leonard, an African-American fourth grader, is more likely to have
higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of ethnic pride.
Children whose parents use a(n) _____________ child-rearing style feel especially good about themselves.
authoritative
____________ parenting is associated with unrealistically high self-esteem.
indulgent
Nadias parents are repeatedly disapproving and insulting. As a result, Nadia probably __________ and relies heavily on __________ to affirm her self-worth.
needs constant reassurance; peers
Mr. and Mrs. Rodriguez want to foster their sons self-esteem. Which of the following would you suggest?
Encourage him to strive for worthwhile goals because his eventual achievement will foster his self-esteem.
Children who are high in academic self-esteem and motivation make _________ attributions, crediting their successes to __________.
mastery-oriented; ability
When Tyler receives a high test grade, he attributes it to luck, but when he gets a low test grade, he attributes it to not being smart. Tyler has developed
learned helplessness.
Over time, the ability of __________ children no longer predicts their performance.
learned-helpless
When Sally fails, her parents say, You cant do that, can you? Its OK if you quit. Sally probably will develop
learned helplessness.
Despite their higher achievement, _______ often blame poor performance on __________.
girls; ability
In contrast to Americans, Asians focus more on ________ because ______________.
failure; it indicates where corrective action is needed
Teachers who are ________ and emphasize __________ tend to have mastery-oriented students.
helpful; learning over getting good grades
Attribution research shows that
well-intended messages from adults sometimes undermine childrens competence.
Marlena is enrolled in an intervention program that encourages learned-helpless children to believe they can overcome failure by exerting more effort. This approach is known as
attribution retraining.
Which of the following statements is true about self-conscious emotions in middle childhood?
Pride motivates children to take on further challenges, whereas guilt prompts them to strive for self-improvement.
Nine-year-old Marlons grandmother comes to live with his family. She is overly harsh and uses insensitive reprimands to shame him when he has done something wrong. Which of the following is likely?
Marlon will experience a sharp drop in self-esteem and will display depression and intense anger toward his grandmother.
Compared to preschoolers, school-age children are more likely to explain emotion by referring to __________ than to __________.
internal states; external events
During middle childhood, childrens emotional understanding develops as they become aware that
people can feel more than one emotion at a time.
Danielle saw a man carrying a sign that said Im hungry. She took the mans perspective, imagined how he felt, and asked her mom if she could give her allowance to the man so that he could buy some food. Danielle has developed
empathy
When Ericas best friend makes her angry, she takes a deep breath and counts to ten. Erica is using
emotion-centered coping.
Which of the following is true about emotional self-regulation in middle childhood?
By age 10, most children shift adaptively between problem-centered and emotion-centered coping.
Andrew has well-developed emotional self-regulation. He feels that he is in control of his emotional experiences. Andrew has acquired
a sense of emotional self-efficacy.
Which of the following is true about moral development?
By middle childhood, children have had time to internalize rules for good conduct, which leads them to become considerably more independent and trustworthy.
Martina recognizes that other people can have different thoughts and feelings from her own, but she frequently confuses the two. Martina is displaying behavior consistent with Level ____ of Selmans stages of perspective taking.
0
Fernando has reached the self-reflective level of Selmans stages of perspective taking. Which of the following statements is most likely true about Fernando?
He can step into another persons shoes and view his own thoughts, feelings, and behavior from the other persons perspective.
Kendall understands that third-party perspective taking can be influenced by one or more systems of large societal values. According to Selmans theory of perspective taking, Kendall is in what age range?
14 to adult
Which of the following is true about perspective taking?
Children with poor social skills have great difficulty imagining others thoughts and feelings.
When children in diverse cultures challenge adult authority, they typically do so
within the personal domain.
By the end of middle childhood, children display a strong desire for
group belonging.
Maddy spends most of her time with a particular set of friends. Within this group, there are specific standards of behavior, a specialized dress code, and identified leaders. Maddy is most likely
part of a peer group.
Research on peer groups during middle childhood shows that
within peer groups, children learn cooperation, leadership, followership, and loyalty to collective goals.
In middle childhood, __________ contributes to the development of trust and sensitivity.
friendship
Once a friendship forms, ________ becomes its defining feature.
trust
Studies of friendship during middle childhood show that
by age 8 or 9, most children say they have only a handful of good friends.
Research on aggressive childrens friendships reveals that
the social problems of aggressive children operate within their closest peer ties.
When classmates are asked to rate each others likeability, __________ children get many positive votes, whereas __________ children are seldom mentioned.
popular; neglected
On a measure of peer acceptance, Michael received a large number of positive and negative votes. Michael would be considered a __________ child.
controversial
On a measure of peer acceptance, Dustin was seldom mentioned either positively or negatively. Dustin would be considered a ___________ child.
neglected
__________ children are at the highest risk for poor school performance, antisocial behavior, substance abuse, and delinquency.
rejected
The majority of popular-prosocial children combine __________ and __________ competence.
academic; social
Harrison is a popular-antisocial child. Which characteristic is he likely to display?
He is athletically skilled but is a poor student who causes trouble and defies adult authority.
Rejected-aggressive children are
deficient in perspective taking and emotional self-regulation.
Skye, a rejected-withdrawn child, is most likely
very concerned about being scorned and attacked.
Which of the following is true about controversial and neglected children?
Controversial children display a blend of positive and negative social behaviors.
Jos is a rejected-withdrawn child who has developed a learned-helpless approach to peer difficulties. This means that Jos
assumes that he will never be liked, no matter what he does.
Research has shown that parents promote gender stereotypes by
behaving in a more mastery-oriented fashion with sons than with daughters.
Which of the following statements is true about peer victimization?
Biologically based traits, such as an inhibited temperament and a frail physical appearance, contribute to victimization.
Research on peer victimization shows that
developing a school code against bullying can reduce peer victimization.
Research shows that school-age children
rate masculine occupations as having higher status than feminine occupations.
School-age children are likely to view which of the following activities as nearly as bad as a moral transgression?
5-year-old Mark nail wearing polish
From third grade to sixth grade, boys ___________ their identification with masculine personality traits, whereas girls identification with feminine personality traits __________.
strengthen; declines
Which of the following is true about gender typicality?
Childrens psychological well-being depends, to some degree, on feeling that they fit in with their same-sex peers.
Octavio feels satisfied with his gender assignment, which consequently makes him happy. Which of the following selfevaluations reflects Octavios gender identity?
gender contentedness
Dwayne feels that his parents and peers disapprove of his knitting hobby. His parents have tried to encourage him to consider other hobbies, such as woodworking or coin collecting. Dwayne is distressed and stops knitting. Which of the following accurately describes Dwaynes gender identity self-evaluation?
felt pressure to conform to gender roles
Which of the following is true about gender identity and behavior in middle childhood?
Children who experience rejection because of gender-atypical personality traits suffer profoundly.
Despite the concerns of middle childhood, child rearing becomes easier for those parents who established a(n) ___________ style in the early years.
authoritative
Mr. and Mrs. Pribesh have begun to change how they supervise their son. While they exercise general oversight, they now allow him to take charge of moment-by-moment decision making. The Pribeshes are engaging in
coregulation.
Effective coregulation is based on a(n)
cooperative relationship between parent and child based on give-and-take and mutual respect.
Which of the following statements is true about parentchild relationships in middle childhood?
When both parents are present, fathers engage in as much caregiving as mothers.
In middle childhood, the amount of time children spend with parents
decreases dramatically.
Which of the following is supported by research on sibling rivalry?
Sibling rivalry tends to be more frequent among siblings who are close in age.
Research demonstrates that only children __________ compared to children with siblings.
are higher in self-esteem and achievement motivation
Which of the following is an accurate statement about divorce rates?
About two-thirds of divorced parents marry again.
Which of the following statements is true about the immediate consequences of divorce?
Family conflict often rises in newly divorced households as parents try to settle disputes over children and possessions.
In the United States, the majority of single mothers with young children
live in poverty.
Noncustodial fathers who see their children only occasionally tend to take on a(n) __________ style of parenting.
permissive
Mr. and Mrs. Frishman recently divorced. Their 5-year-old son is likely to
blame himself for the marital breakup.
Which of the following is true about childrens temperament and sex differences in adjustment to parental divorce?
Boys active and noncompliant behaviors tend to increase in divorcing households where parental conflict and inconsistent discipline are common.
The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is
shielding the child from family conflict and using authoritative child rearing.
Research on the long-term consequences of divorce indicates that
most children show improved adjustment by two years after divorce.
Research shows that divorce mediation
increases cooperation in child rearing.
Jennifer and Joels children reside with Joel and see Jennifer on a fixed schedule. Both parents have an equal say in important decisions about their childrens upbringing. Which type of custodial arrangement do they have?
joint custody
According to research on blended families, which child is most likely to have adjustment problems when his or her mother remarries?
Selma, a 15-year-old girl
Marty, who has two children from a previous marriage, has just remarried and now has two stepchildren. Based on information in your text, you can anticipate that
Martys contact with his biological children will decline.
Children whose mothers enjoy their work outside the home and remain committed to parenting ___________ than children of stay-at-home mothers.
get better grades in school
Research shows that maternal employment
leads fathers to take on greater child-rearing responsibilities.
Part-time maternal employment and flexible work schedules are associated with
good child adjustment.
Which of the following is true about child care for school-age children?
Low-SES children who participate in after-care programs exceed their self-care counterparts in classroom work habits, academic achievement, and prosocial behavior.
Beginning in middle childhood, a common fear is
the possibility of personal harm.
Children in Western nations mention ___________ as the most common source of their fears.
exposure to negative information in the media
Often school phobia can be traced to
parental overprotection.
Elliott, age 11, is suddenly afraid to go to school. Which of the following is the best advice you can give to Elliotts parents?
Firmly insist that he return to school, and train him in how to cope with difficult situations.
Research on child sexual abuse indicates that
the abuser is most often a parent or someone the parent knows well.
Children who ____________ are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse.
live in homes with a constantly changing cast of characters
Goran is a child victim of war. Research shows that Goran is likely to experience
an increase in anxiety and depression.
Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, children in Public School 31 in Brooklyn, New York, unlike many war-traumatized children in the developing world,
received immediate intervention, which included a trauma curriculum.
Which of the following is true about the consequences of child sexual abuse?
Repeated sexual abuse is associated with central nervous system damage.
The best way to reduce the emotional trauma of child sexual abuse is to
prevent sexual abuse from continuing.
Which of the following statements about resilience is true?
Resilience enables children to use internal and external resources to cope with adversity.
Was among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents by writting child-rearing book
arnold gesell
Dr. Anodyne found a correlation of +.49 between illegal drug use and levels of adolescent delinquency. this correlation is
moderate to positive
__ brings together researchers from psychology, biology neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship betwen chages in the brain and the developing person's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
cognitive development theory
one limitation of debriefing is
young children often lack the cognitive skills to understand the reasons for deceptive procedures
which of the following is a personal characteristic that could offer protection from the damaging effects of early stressful life events?
musical talent
which of the following is an example of a non normative influence?
patty learned to speak spanish and french in college
according to __ theory, children learn primarily through modeling
social learning
in an experiment on the side effects of music versus acting lessons on intelligence, the independent variable would be the
type of lesson (music vs acting)
in a longitudinal study, __ effects when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical condition
cohort
behaviorism focuses on
stimuli and responses
In a longitudinal study, __________ effects occur when individuals born in the same time period are influenced by a particular set of historical and cultural conditions.
cohort
Developmental science is ___________ because it has grown through the combined efforts of people from many fields of study.
interdisciplinary
Within the ________________ view of development, new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
discontinuous
Dr. Kostel believes that development takes place in stages. This belief is consistent with the _________ perspective.
discontinuous
G. Stanley Hall regarded development as a _____________ process.
maturational
A(n) _______________ design permits inferences about cause and effect.
experimental
One limitation of longitudinal research is that participants' performance may improve as a result of
practice effects
In a __________ design, investigators study the same group of participants repeatedly at different ages.
longitudinal
To examine whether depression is stable or changes with age, Dr. Bleu followed a group of children from age 8 to age 40. This is an example of a __________ design.
longitudinal
Dr. George predicted that positive reinforcement would increase prosocial behavior in preschoolers. Dr. George's prediction is an example of a
hypothesis
_________ are the most common type of multiple birth.
Fraternal twins
The sex of a baby is determined by whether
an X-bearing or a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum.
Which of the following countries has a higher infant death rate?
The United States
Characteristics that vary on a continuum among people, such as height, weight, or intelligence, are most likely determined by __________ inheritance.
polygenic
Rodlike structures called ______________ store and transmit genetic information.
chromosomes
The one allele that affects the child's characteristics is called
dominant
Contemporary researchers view the family as a(n) _____________, or network of interdependent relationships.
social system
Accumulating evidence reveals that the relationship between heredity and the environment is
bidirectional
In _____________ , sperm from a man whose wife is infertile are used to inseminate a woman, who is paid for her childbearing services.
surrogate motherhood
__________ is/are a major cause of the dramatic rise in multiple births in recent decades.
fertility drugs
Social Security and Medicare consume about ______ percent of the U.S. federal budget for the elderly.
96
One reason that public policies safeguarding children are slow to emerge is because
children cannot vote or speak out to protect their own interests
Dizygotic twins
are no more alike than ordinary siblings
Within every cell (except red blood cells) is a control center, or
nucleus
The communication process of ________________ can help couples understand genetic principles, genetic testing, and prevention of genetic disorders.
genetic counseling
If the alleles from both parents _________, the child is ___________.
differ, heterozygous
____________ halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells.
Meiosis
To detect problems before birth, doctors use
prenatal diagnostic methods
High levels of prenatal lead exposure are related to
prematurity, low birth weight, and brain damage
Theo and Monique are parents of a newborn baby. Which of the following statements about Theo's adjustment to parenthood is true?
At times, Theo may feel ambivalent toward the baby, who constantly demands Monique's attention
By the middle of the second trimester, the
new being has grown large enough that the mother can feel its movements
Dana is pregnant with her first child and wonders how much weight she should gain during the pregnancy. You should recommend a healthy diet that results in a weight gain of ______ pounds.
25 to 30
Some form of medication is used in ______ percent of U.S. births.
more than 80
The umbilical cord
connects the placenta to the developing organism
A teratogen is
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
The stress of adapting to parenthood
is manageable when marital relationships are positive, social support is available, and families have sufficient income
Fetal monitors
track the baby's heart rate during labor
If untreated, toxemia can cause
convulsions in the mother and fetal death
Babies who have frequent contact with members of other races
show no own-race face preference
Coating the neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath during the process of _________________ improves the efficiency of message transfer.
myelination
In the study of Romanian orphans adopted into Canadian homes, the longer the children spent in orphanage care, the
higher their cortisol levels
Which of these is an example of a fine-motor skill?
grasping
For most people, the left hemisphere of the brain is largely responsible for __________ and the right hemisphere handles _____________.
verbal abilities and positive emotion; spatial abilities and negative emotion
Newborn Sam's poorly coordinated swipes or swings toward an object in front of him are called
prereaching
Visual acuity is
the fineness of visual discrimination
The clumsy motion in which a baby's fingers close against the palm to hold an object is called
the ulnar grasp
Research suggests that cosleeping children
are no different from other children in any aspect of adjustment
Neurons send messages to one another by releasing chemicals called
neurotransmitters
_______ growth is a return to a genetically influenced growth path once negative conditions improve.
Catch-up
Neurons that are seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses in a process called
synaptic pruning
Human adults have especially elaborate ___________, which enable them to observe another's behavior while simulating the behavior in their own brains.
mirror neurons
In an investigation of children who had spent their first eight months or more in Romanian institutions and were then adopted into Canadian homes, late adoptees showed
extreme stress reactivity
Which picture is newborn Alex most likely to prefer to look at?
a black-and-white checkerboard with a few large squares
The best way of estimating a child's physical maturity is to use ________ age.
skeletal
Pound for pound, an infant's energy needs are __________ those of an adult.
twice
Baby Edda's body looks wasted, and she is withdrawn and apathetic. However, she is offered enough food and there is no biological cause for her condition. She most likely has
nonorganic failure to thrive
When _______ are adequate, height is largely determined by heredity.
diet and health
________ are nerve cells that store and transmit information.
neurons
During infancy, __________. These sex differences will __________ during adolescence.
girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys; be greatly magnified
At first, babies are sensitive to virtually all speech sounds, but around 6 months, they
narrow their focus, limiting the distinctions they make to the language they hear and will soon learn
At first, baby Mario was easily awakened every night by a barking dog in his neighborhood. Several weeks later, Mario's sleep is not bothered by the dog's barks. This is an example of
habituation
__________ refers to control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, whereas ___________ has to do with smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping.
Gross-motor development; fine-motor development
The average 2-year-old needs _____ hours of sleep.
12 to 13
Breastfeeding for just a few weeks
offers some protection against respiratory and intestinal infections
A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response is called a(n)
reinforcer
Maggi is concerned because her 8-month-old daughter has gained 10 pounds since birth and has transformed into a round, plump baby. You can assure Maggi that her daughter's rise in "baby fat"
helps her keep a constant body temperature
For exploring the environment, humans depend on _______ more than any other sense.
vision
__________ is the ability to judge the distance of objects from one another and from ourselves.
depth perception
Vygotsky believed that complex mental activities have their origin in
social interaction
Around 2 months, babies begin to make vowel-like noises called
cooing
When Sarah was 18 months old, her mother stood behind her, helping her throw a bean bag into a hole. As Sarah's skill improved, her mother stepped back, letting her try on her own. This example best illustrates the concept of
the zone of proximal development
According to some behaviorists, children rely on _________ to rapidly acquire complex utterances.
imitation
Professor Zettler regards language development as entirely due to environmental influences. Professor Zettler's belief is consistent with the ___________ perspective.
behaviorist
Today, infant mental tests are largely used for
screening to help identify babies who are likely to have developmental problems
In Piaget's theory, each time the back-and-forth movement between equilibrium and disequilibrium occurs,
more effective schemes are produced
Which of the following parent-child activities strongly predicts academic success during the school years?
reading and talking about picture books
In contrast to the United States, most European countries
nationally regulate child care to ensure its quality.
The goal of mental testing is to
measure behaviors that reflect development and to arrive at scores that predict future performance
Sayuri, who lives in a collectivist culture, wins a game. Her parents will probably encourage Sayuri to feel
embarrassed by the individual attention
According to Bowlby, the _____________ becomes a vital part of personality, serving as a guide for all future close relationships.
internal working model
Persistent nutritional and emotional deprivation ___________ temperament.
profoundly alters
Research on temperament indicates that
consistent ethnic and sex differences in early temperament exist
Once wariness of strangers develops after 6 months,
babies use the familiar caregiver as a secure base from which to explore
According to Thomas and Chess's research, __________ children are at high risk for anxious withdrawal and aggressive behavior in early and middle childhood.
difficult
Bindi quickly establishes regular routines, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences. In Thomas and Chess's research, Bindi would be classified as a(n) ________ child.
easy
One-year-old Noah follows his mother and climbs on her in preference to others. He becomes upset when his mother leaves the room. Noah is most likely in Bowlby's _________ phase.
"clear-cut" attachment
Maks, who lives in an individualistic culture, gets an "A" on his test. His parents will probably encourage Maks to feel
pride in his personal achievement
During the first few weeks of life, newborns are most likely to smile
when they are full
During a conversation, 4-year-old Maleeka will
adjust her speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of her listener.
Which of the following is supported by research on child care?
Good child care enhanses cognitive, language, and social development.
Which of the following is true about preschoolers' ablitiy to generate and follow a plan?
When parents encourage planning in everyday activities, they help children plan more effectively.
Metacognition involves
thinking about thought.
Compared with typically developing children, children with autism more often
use words to echo what others say and to get things they want, not to exchange ideas.
In industrialized nations, childhood diseases have declined dramatically during the past half century, largely as the result of
widespread immunization of infants and young children.
Contemporary researchers believe that make-believe play
not only reflects, but also contributes to, children's cognitive and social skills.
Vygotsky viewed __________ play as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood.
make-believe
Adults often provide indirect feedback about grammar by using _________, which restructures inaccurate speech into correct form.
a recast
According to Piaget, the most obvious change as children move from the sensorimotor to the preoperational stage is an increase in
representational, or symbolic, activity.
Which of the following is one reason the United States lags behind Denmark, Norway, Great Britain, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Canada in immunizations?
Many American children do not have the access to the healthcare they need.
Three-year-old J.T. understands that 3 is more than 2, and 2 is more than 1. J.T. is demonstrating a grasp of
ordinality.
The ______, located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing 2 hormones that induce growth
pituitary gland
Two-year-old Aidan says, "We saw two deers." Aidan is demonstrating
overregularization.
In Western societies, the role of equipping children with the skills they need to become competent workers is assigned to
schools.
Which of the following is true about computer use in early childhood?
Word-processing programs can support emergent literacy, enabling preschoolers to experiment with letters and words without having to struggle with handwriting.
Information processing focusses on __________ that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems.
mental strategies
Watching educational television programming like Sesame Street is associated with
getting higher grades, reading more books, and placing more value on achievement in high school.
Research shows that children more often use private speech when
tasks are appropriately challenging and they are confused about how to proceed.
In child-centered preschool programs, teachers
provide a variety of activities from which children select.
Five-year-old Chaim is participating in Piaget's three-mountains problem. When Chaim is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the doll's perspective, he will most likely select the
picture that shows his own point of view.
A major reason that sustained attention improves in the preschool years is:
A steady gain in children's ability to inhibit impulses and keep their mind on completing goal.
As children's bodies become more streamlined and less top-heavy
Balance improves greatly.
Consistent with Vygotsky's ideas, research shows that ______________ predict(s) gains in children's thinking.
Adult cognitive support.
____________ is necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals.
Growth hormone.
A central component of the Head Start philosophy is
Parental involvement.
After putting on a Halloween mask and looking at her reflection in a mirror, 3-year-old Maggi is frightened. This is probably because Maggi
Has a fragile understanding of the appearance-reality distinction.
_________ contribute(s) to the decline of magical beliefs.
Familiarity with physical events and principles.
Children with autism
have narrow and overly intense interests.
Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that preoperational children's thinking is characterized by __________ in that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.
Centration.
Which of the following is supported by research on individual differences in motor skills?
Parents tend to foster sex-stereotypic physical activities in their children.
______________ refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of object remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
Conservation.
Which child is most likely to get his or her permanent teeth first?
Brooke, an obese girl.
Research on language development in early childhood shows that recasts and expansions
Model grammatical alternatives and encourage children to experiment with them.
General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation are known as
Scripts.
Which of the following is supported by research on nutrition?
Preschoolers compensate for a meal in which they eat little by eating more at a later meal.
Between ages 2 and 6, the brain increases from ______ percent of its adult weight to _____ percent.
70; 90
In the United States, __________ are the leading cause of death among children more than 1 year old.
Motor vehicle collisions.
According to Piaget, magical thinking is common during preschool years because
Young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events.
In early childhood, on average, children add ____ inches in height and _____ pounds in weight each year.
2 & 3
X-rays of epiphyses enable doctors to estimate childrens
Skeletal age
An estimated 30 percent of U.S. preschoolers have ____________, a figure that rises to 60 percent by age 18.
Tooth decay
Between ages 2 and 6, the brain increases from ______ percent of its adult weight to _____ percent.
70; 90
EEG and fMRI measures of neural activity in various cortical regions reveal
Especially rapid growth from early to middle childhood in the frontal lobe
For most children, the left cerebral hemisphere
Is especially active between 3 and 6 years and then levels off
In contrast to activity in the left hemisphere, activity in the right cerebral hemisphere
Increases steadily throughout early and middle childhood
_______ skills increase at an astonishing pace in early childhood, whereas ______ skills develop gradually over childhood and adolescence.
Language; spatial
_______ may profoundly affect handedness.
Prenatal events
The _____________ aids in balance and control of body movement.
Cerebellum
Fibers linking the __________ to the __________ grow and myelinate from birth through the preschool years, contributing to dramatic gains in motor coordination.
Cerebellum; cerebral cortex
Casey suffered damage to his cerebellum. Casey will most likely display both _______ and __________ deficits.
motor; cognitive
The ___________, located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth.
pituitary gland
Thyroid-stimulating hormone prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release __________, which is necessary for brain development and for growth hormone to have its full impact on body size.
thyroxine
With the transition to early childhood, many children
become unpredictable, picky eaters.
Which of the following is supported by research on nutrition?
Preschoolers compensate for a meal in which they eat little by eating more at a later meal.
Four-year-old Erin is a picky eater. How can Erin's parents encourage her to eat a new food?
Repeatedly expose her to the new food without any direct pressure to eat it.
Which of the following statements is true about childhood diseases?
Childhood diseases occur earlier in developing nations than in industrialized countries.
Worldwide, _____ percent of deaths of children under age 5 are due to infectious diseases.
70
__________, often caused by unsafe water and contaminated foods, leads to nearly 2 million childhood deaths each year.
Diarrhea
Bullous lives in a shantytown. His parents can decrease the risks of persistent diarrhea by
administering oral rehydration therapy when he is sick.
Oral rehydration therapy
saves the lives of millions of children every year.
Developmental impairments and deaths due to diarrhea can be prevented with oral rehydration therapy, which consists of
a solution of glucose, salt, and water.
About _____ percent of U.S. preschoolers lack essential immunizations.
23
__________ are the leading cause of childhood death in industrialized countries.
Unintentional injuries
In the United States, nearly ______ percent of childhood deaths and ______ percent of adolescent deaths result from injuries.
35; 50
In the United States, __________ are the leading cause of death among children more than 1 year old.
motor vehicle collisions
Boys are _____ times more likely to be injured than girls.
1.5
_______________ are strongly associated with childhood injury.
Poverty, single parenthood, and low parental education
Which of the following is supported by research on childhood injuries?
U.S. children from advantaged families are at considerably greater risk for injury than children in Western Europe.
About ____ percent of U.S. parents fail to place their preschoolers in car safety seats.
40
By the end of the preschool years, most children
can tie their shoes.
Children first represent objects and events on paper by
making gestures that leave marks.
When ___________, preschoolers pictures become more comprehensible and detailed.
adults draw with children and point out the resemblances between drawings and objects
Preschoolers first attempts to print often involve writing
their own name.
Which of the following is true about sex differences in motor skills in early childhood?
Girls are ahead of boys in fine-motor skills.
Piaget acknowledged that ________ is a childs most flexible means of mental representation.
language
In early pretending, toddlers use
only realistic objects.
Which of the following is true about the development of make-believe play?
Older preoperational children are aware that make-believe play is a representational activity.
Preschoolers who _____________ are seen as more socially competent by their teachers.
spend more time in sociodramatic play
While playing house, 3-year-old Lindsay uses a straw as a bottle to feed her doll. Lindsay has begun to grasp
dual representation
Experiences with ___________ help preschoolers appreciate that one object can stand for another.
diverse symbols
According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is
egocentrism
The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions, is called
animistic thinking
Five-year-old Chaim is participating in Piagets three-mountains problem. When Chaim is asked to pick the picture that shows what the display looks like from the dolls perspective, he will most likely select the
picture that shows his own point of view.
Three-year-old Will brings all of his action figures to preschool for show-and-tell because he does not want any of them to feel bad if they are left behind at home. Will is demonstrating
animistic thinking.
Four-year-old Jasmine is shown two identical tall glasses of water and agrees that they contain the same amount of liquid. When the liquid is poured into a short, wide container, she says that there is more water in the shorter container because it is all spread out. Jasmine is demonstrating
an inability to conserve.
Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that preoperational childrens thinking is characterized by __________ in that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.
Centration
In Piaget's conservation-of-liquid problem, preoperational children are easily distracted by the ________ of objects and ignore the ___________ between events.
perceptual appearance; dynamic transformation
The most important illogical feature of preoperational thought is its
irreversibility.
Preoperational children have difficulty with ________________, which involves the organization of objects into groups based on similarities and differences.
hierarchical classification
One reason Piagetian problems do not always elicit responses reflecting preschoolers true cognitive abilities is that they contain
unfamiliar elements or too many pieces of information.
Follow-up research on preoperational thought indicates that
Most 3- and 4-year-olds believe in the supernatural powers of fairies, goblins, and other enchanted creatures.
Follow-up research indicates that even though preschoolers have difficulty with Piagetian class inclusion tasks, they
organize their everyday knowledge into nested categories at an early age.
Piaget called childrens self-directed utterances _________ speech, reflecting his belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others.
egocentric
According to Vygotsky, private speech during the preschool years
helps young children guide their behavior during challenging tasks.
According to Vygotsky, a parent engages in _______ when he adjusts the support offered to the child during a teaching session to fit the childs current level of performance..
scaffolding
_____________ refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication.
Guided participation
In village and tribal cultures, parents have little need to rely on conversation and play to teach children because
children spend their day in contact with adult work and start to assume mature responsibilities in early childhood.
Compared to their Western agemates, Yucatec Mayan preschoolers
seldom ask others for something interesting to do.
Itzel, a Yucatec Mayan preschooler, is hungry. She is most likely to
decide for herself when and how much to eat.
Information processing focuses on ___________that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental systems.
mental strategies
A major reason that sustained attention improves in the preschool years is
a steady gain in childrens ability to inhibit impulses and keep their mind on a competing goal
Which of the following is true about preschoolers ability to generate and follow a plan?
When parents encourage planning in everyday activities, they help children plan more effectively.
Recognition memory is
The ability to tell whether a stimulus is the same as or similar to one they have seen before.
Even preschoolers with good language skills recall poorly because
They are not skilled at using memory strategies.
Over spring vacation, Gerald goes to Disney World with his family. When he returns to school, Gerald excitedly tells his teacher about the trip. Gerald's representation of this personally meaningful, one-time event is known as
An autobiographical memory.
With regard to questions used to elicit children's autobiographical narratives, preschoolers who experience the ________ style recall _________ information about past events.
Elaborative; more.
Many studies indicate that __________ strongly predicts preschoolers grasp of false belief.
Language ability.
Children who spontaneously use, or who are trained to use, complex sentences with mental-state words are especially likely to pass __________ tasks.
False-belief
Childrens active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences are called
Emergent literacy
Growing evidence reveals that children with autism have
A deficient theory of mind.
_____________ is a strong predictor of emergent literacy.
Phonological awareness
Mastery of _________ increases the efficiency of children's counting.
Cardinality
Pramada attends a child-care program that stresses formal academic training. As a result, Pramada is more likely to _____________ than peers who attend a child-centered program.
Display a decrease in motivation and emotional well-being
One reason that gains in IQ and achievement test scores from attending Head Start quickly dissolve is that many of the children
Enter low-quality public schools.
According to Erikson, once preschoolers have a sense of autonomy, they become less _______ than they were as toddlers.
contrary
For Erikson, the negative outcome of early childhood is an overly strict ________ that causes children to feel too much _________ because they have been threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults.
superego; guilt
Erikson's image of _______ captures the diverse changes in young children's emotional and social lives.
initiative
As self-awareness strengthens, preschoolers begin to develop a
self-concept.
Preschoolers self-concepts
are very concrete.
If you ask 3-year-old Winnie to tell you about herself, she will probably describe herself in terms of
observable characteristics.
The stronger children's self-definition is, the more ________ they tend to be.
possessive
When trying to promote friendly peer interaction in her preschool classroom, Miss Dodge should
encourage compromise rather than insisting on sharing.
___________ are a major means through which caregivers imbue the young child's self-concept with cultural values.
Narratives
In a study of middle-SES Irish-American families in Chicago and Chinese families in Taiwan, Chinese parents
frequently told their preschoolers stories about the child's misdeeds.
Four-year-old Hobie is asked to rate his competence in ice skating. He will probably
rate his own ability as extremely high and underestimate the difficulty of skating.
During the preschool years, high self-esteem
greatly contributes to children's initiative during a period in which they must master many new skills.
Adults can avoid promoting self-defeating reactions in children by
adjusting their expectations to children's capacities.
Preschoolers are especially likely to engage in emotion talk
during make-believe play.
______________ contributes to preschoolers improved emotional self-regulation.
Language
Research on emotional self-regulation demonstrates that
preschoolers know they can blunt emotions by restricting sensory input.
Inhibiting impulses and shifting attention through _____________ are vital in managing emotion during early childhood.
effortful control
Four-year-old Tristan experiences negative emotion intensely. He is more likely than other children to
react with anger or aggression when he is frustrated.
Preschoolers self-conscious emotions are
clearly linked to self-evaluation.
When 4-year-old Katherine throws a beanbag, her dad comments, You stood still as you were throwing. Now try taking a step toward me as you throw. Assuming Katherine's dad regularly gives this sort of feedback, which of the following is most likely true?
Katherine is likely to show moderate levels of shame and pride and greater persistence on difficult tasks.
Among Western children, when guilt occurs in appropriate circumstances and is not accompanied by shame, it is related to
good adjustment.
An important motivator of prosocial behavior is
empathy.
Empathy
can escalate self-focused personal distress in some children.
Children who are sociable and assertive are
more likely to help, share, and comfort others in distress.
Two-year-old Darcy has parents who encourage emotional expressiveness and show empathetic concern for her feelings. When another child is unhappy, Darcy is likely to respond with
sympathetic concern.
Children who are unable to regulate their emotions
display less pro-social behavior and sympathetic concern.
According to Mildred Parten, two forms of true social interaction are ________ and __________ play.
associative; cooperative
Follow-up research on peer sociability indicates that
all types of play coexist in early childhood.
Max plays with a funnel at one end of the sand table, while Madison makes a pie at the other end. The children talk and pass tools back and forth. They are engaging in __________ play.
associative
Candace and Christina sit side by side playing with their dolls. They do not talk or try to influence each other. They are engaging in _______ play.
parallel
Research on peer sociability demonstrates that
preschoolers move from one type of play to another and back again.
Larissa, age 3, often plays alone. Her parents should be concerned if she
engages in functional play involving repetitive motor action.
Four- to 7-year-olds regard friendship as
pleasurable play and sharing of toys.
Frank, a kindergartener, says that Pat is his best friend on days they get along. But when a dispute arises, he reverses himself: Pat is not my friend! Franks parents should
not be concerned because friendships in early childhood do not have a long-term, enduring quality based on mutual trust.
Research on friendships shows that
the ease with which kindergarteners make new friends predicts behaviors linked to gains in achievement.
Which of the following is an example of a direct parental influence on childrens peer sociability?
Maxine arranges for her 4-year-old to play with his friend at the park.
Research on parental influences on childrens peer sociability shows that
preschoolers whose parents arrange play dates tend to have larger peer networks.
Most theories of moral development agree that at first, a childs morality is
externally controlled by adults.
Truly moral individuals
have developed compassionate concerns and principles of good conduct.
Psychoanalytic theory stresses
the emotional side of conscience development.
According to Freud, children
act morally to avoid punitive feelings of guilt from their superego.
Research reveals that inductive discipline
helps children notice others feelings and points out the effects of children's misbehavior on others.
Which of the following statements is an example of induction?
Your sister is crying because you wont give back her truck.
Although good discipline is crucial, ___________ is also influential in conscience development.
a childs temperament
Maureen and Chris, the parents of an impulsive preschooler, can foster conscience development by
combining firm correction with induction.
Current research indicates that Freud was correct that
guilt is an important motivator of moral action.
According to social learning theorists, children learn to behave morally
by observing and imitating people who demonstrate appropriate behavior.
Frequent punishment
promotes immediate compliance, but not lasting changes in behavior.
Which of the following is true about the effects of harsh punishment?
Harsh punishment induces a sense of being personally threatened.
Mia bit her brother, so her father would not let her watch TV. This technique, known as withdrawal of privileges,
allows Mia's father to avoid harsh techniques that could easily intensify into violence.
Studies suggest that time out is useful as a disciplinary technique
when a child is out of control.
Research on the consequences of corporal punishment reveals that in African-American families,
the more mothers discipline physically in childhood, the less their teenagers display angry, acting out behavior.
Research on corporal punishment shows that spanking is
associated with a rise in problem behaviors if parents are cold and rejecting but not if they are warm and supportive.
Martha and Thomas can increase the effectiveness of their parental discipline by
offering reasons for mild punishment.
One strategy of positive discipline is
reducing opportunities for misbehavior.
In contrast to the psychoanalytic and behaviorist approaches to morality, the cognitive-developmental perspective
regards children as active thinkers about social rules.
Preschoolers distinguish ___________, which protect peoples rights and welfare, from ___________, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual.
moral imperatives; matters of personal choice
Four-year-old Ellie is shown two pictures: one depicting a child stealing an apple, and the other showing a child eating ice cream with her fingers. Ellie is most likely to view
the stealing as worse than the bad table manners.
Shelby tells her classmates not to play with Sophia because she lies. This is an example of __________ aggression.
relational
Marlena teases Jessica by calling her a dodo head. This is an example of ________ aggression.
verbal
_________ aggression in verbal and ________ forms tends to rise over early and middle childhood.
Reactive; relational
Which of the following is supported by research on sex differences in aggression?
Although girls have a reputation for being both more verbally and relationally aggressive than boys, the sex difference is small.
Reviewers of thousands of studies have concluded that TV violence
increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and aggressive behaviors in viewers.
Which of the following statements is supported by research on television programming and aggression?
Cartoons are the most violent TV programs.
Which of the following statements is supported by research on viewing television violence?
Aggressive children have a greater appetite for violent TV programming than nonaggressive children.
In the United States, __________ has hampered efforts to regulate TV content.
the First Amendment right to free speech
At present, ___________ bear(s) most responsibility for protecting children from exposure to media violence and other inappropriate content.
parents
In Michaelas preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers, while the boys play with blocks and Legos. This is an example of
gender typing.
During early childhood, childrens gender-stereotyped beliefs
strengthen so much that many children apply them as blanket rules that should not be violated.
Which of the following preschoolers is most likely to be shunned by agemates?
a boy who wears nail polish
Research on gender typing reveals that
the presence of male sex hormones leads to a rough, noisy play style in boys.
Which of the following is supported by research on gender typing?
By age 6, children spend 11 times as much time with same-sex as with other-sex playmates.
Research on environmental influences on gender typing suggests that parents
have different expectations for sons than for daughters.
The case of David Reimer, the boy who was raised as a girl after a circumcision accident, demonstrates
the impact of genetic sex and prenatal hormones on a persons sense of self as male or female.
David Reimers gender reassignment failed because his
male biology overwhelmingly demanded a consistent sexual identity.
Research on environmental influences on gender typing shows that teachers
give girls more encouragement than boys to participate in adult-structured activities.
The more preschoolers play with same-sex playmates, the
more their behavior becomes gender typed.
Maria more positively evaluates girls than boys. This is an example of
in-group favoritism.
Mark rates his personality as ambitious, competitive, affectionate, cheerful, and soft-spoken. Marks responses indicate a(n)
androgynous gender identity.
Research on gender identity demonstrates that
masculine and androgynous children have a higher self-esteem than those with a feminine identity.
According to social learning theory, __________ come(s) before __________ in the development of gender identity.
behavior; self-perceptions
Six-year-old Charlie realizes that his sister remains a girl even when she operates a bulldozer. Charlie has acquired the concept of gender
constancy.
Children younger than age 6 who watch an adult dress a doll in other-gender clothing typically
insist that the dolls sex has also changed.
Research on gender constancy demonstrates that
attainment of gender constancy is strongly related to the ability to pass Piagetian conservation and verbal appearancereality tasks.
Gender schema theory
explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development.
Molly says, Only girls can be nurses. Molly
is a gender-schematic child.
Nathan is shown a picture of a male nurse. Later, when asked to describe the occupation of the person in the picture, Nathan remembers him as a doctor. Nathan
is a gender-schematic child.
Douglas does not like volleyball. Douglas concludes that only girls like volleyball. Douglas
is a gender-schematic child.
By middle childhood, children who hold flexible beliefs about what boys and girls can do
are more likely to notice instances of gender discrimination.
The ____________ child-rearing style is the most successful approach.
authoritative
Authoritarian parents
rarely listen to the child's point of view.
Permissive parents
are warm but overindulgent.
Which of the following is true about the authoritative child-rearing style?
Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, give reasons for their expectations, and use teaching moments to promote the childs self-regulation.
Bobby is anxious, unhappy, and has low self-esteem. When frustrated, Bobby tends to react with hostility. His parents are most likely to fit which of the following child-rearing styles?
authoritarian
Which of the following is true about the permissive child-rearing style?
Instead of gradually granting autonomy, permissive parents allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so.
Tanners parents are withdrawn. They make no demands of Tanner and are indifferent to his point of view. Tanners parents have a(n) ____________ style of child rearing.
uninvolved
Uninvolved parenting
is, at its extreme, a form of child maltreatment called neglect.
__________ commit the vast majority of child abuse incidents.
Parents
Mothers engage in _________ more often than fathers, whereas fathers engage in __________ more often than mothers.
neglect; sexual abuse
_________ and __________ are at the greatest risk for physical, emotional, and sexual abuse.
Preschool; school-age children
Which of the following children is the most likely to become a target of child abuse?
Cole, a premature baby
Maltreating parents
suffer from biased thinking about their child.
Research on child maltreatment shows that
maltreating parents lack lifelines to others and have no one to turn to in stressful times.
Which of the following is supported by research on child maltreatment?
Every industrialized country except the United States and Canada prohibits corporal punishment in school.
At school, maltreated children
present serious discipline problems.
Priscilla was abused by her mother. She does not want to repeat the cycle with her own children. Which of the following interventions is the most likely to help Priscilla?
Developing a trusting relationship with another person.
In an evaluation of its effectiveness, Healthy Families home visitation alone reduced only neglect, not abuse. But adding __________ dramatically increased its impact.
a cognitive component
In middle childhood, children grow an average of _____ inches in height and ______ pounds in weight each year.
2 to 3, 5
After age 8, girls
begin accumulating fat at a faster rate than boys.
As muscles adapt to an enlarging skeleton, children often experience
nighttime growing pains.
Between the ages of 6 and 12, ________ primary teeth are lost and replaced by permanent ones.
20
Research on nutrition in middle childhood indicates that
malnutrition that persists from infancy or early childhood into the school years usually leads to permanent physical and mental damage.
A BMI above the ______ percentile for a childs age and sex is considered overweight; a BMI above the _______ percentile is considered obese.
85th; 95th
Which of the following is supported by research on childhood obesity?
Overweight children tend to have overweight parents.
Obese children tend to
be less responsive than normal-weight children to internal hunger cues.
Research on weight gain reveals that children who get less nightly sleep are
more likely to be overweight five years later.
Inactivity is ____________ excessive weight gain in children.
both a cause and consequence of
Which of the following is true about the consequences of obesity?
Obese children are stereotyped as lazy, self-doubting, and deceitful.
Which of the following is regarded as one of the most effective interventions for treating childhood obesity?
a family-based approach focused on changing behaviors
The most frequent cause of school absence and childhood hospitalization is
asthma
Which of the following children is at the greatest risk for asthma?
Thomas, an overweight African-American boy who lives in an inner-city area
Along with body growth, _____________ plays a vital role in improved motor performance in middle childhood.
more efficient information processing
Paul is concerned because his 6-year-old son prints using large letters and numbers. You can tell Paul that his sons writing is large because he
makes strokes with his entire arm rather than just the wrist and fingers.
Research on sex differences in motor skills during middle childhood indicates that
girls outperform boys on skills that depend on agility and balance.
Research confirms that _________ plays a large role in accounting for boys gross motor superiority.
the social environment
___________ contribute greatly to emotional and social development and are rarely contests of individual ability.
Child-invented games
Gains in __________ contribute to a childs ability to play games with rules.
perspective taking
During middle childhood, child-invented games usually involve
simple physical skills and a sizable element of luck.
Ten-year-old Nadia enjoys making up games and playing them with her friends. Playing these child-invented games probably allows Nadia to
try out different styles of cooperating and competing with little personal risk.
One valid criticism of adult-organized youth sports is that
they overemphasize competition and substitute childrens natural experimentation with rules and strategies.
Which of the following is true about childrens rough-and-tumble play?
It helps children establish a dominance hierarchy.
Which of the following is supported by research on recess?
Elementary school students are more attentive in the classroom after recess than before it.
Many experts believe that schools should not only offer more frequent physical education classes but should put less emphasis on __________ and more emphasis on __________ in their physical education programs.
competitive sports; informal games and individual exercise
Which of the following is supported by research on physical education in the United States?
Only 42 percent of boys and 11 percent of girls are active enough for good health.
Piaget regarded __________ as an important achievement of the concrete operational stage because it provides clear evidence of __________.
conservation; operations
Jamal is able to think through a series of steps and then mentally return to the starting point. Therefore, Jamal is capable of
reversibility
During a conservation-of-water task, Emme can focus on several aspects of the problem and relate them, rather than centering on just one aspect. Therefore, Emme is capable of
decentration.
Margerite passed Piagets class inclusions task. This indicates that Margerite can
focus on relations between a general and two specific categories at the same time.
To test for ________, Piaget asked children to arrange sticks of different lengths from shortest to longest.
seriation
A concrete operational child can _________ mentally, an ability called _________________.
seriate; transitive inference
Kim Lee is able to mentally represent her neighborhood and describe it to others. Kim Lees representation is known as a
cognitive map.
According to Piaget, one limitation of concrete operational thought is that childrens mental operations work poorly with
abstract ideas.
School-age children master concrete operational tasks
gradually, in a continuum of acquisition.
The very experience of ____________ seems to promote mastery of Piagetian tasks.
going to school.
Some investigators have concluded that the forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks do not emerge spontaneously but, rather, are
heavily influenced by training, context, and cultural conditions.
In Robbie Cases neo-Piagetian theory, repeated practice of cognitive schemes
leads them to become more automatic.
In Cases neo-Piagetian theory, children acquire central conceptual structures
once cognitive schemes are sufficiently automatic.
Hannah listens to and tells stories but rarely draws pictures. According to Cases neo-Piagetian theory, Hannah probably displays
more advanced central conceptual structures in storytelling.
The information-processing perspective
examines separate aspects of thinking.
Individuals skilled at ___________ can prevent their minds from straying to irrelevant thoughts.
inhibition
When Taylor was given a list of ingredients to memorize, she immediately repeated the list to herself over and over. Which memory strategy did Taylor use?
rehearsal
When Mike had to learn the state capitals, he grouped the states by region to assist his memory. Which memory strategy did Mike use?
organization
According to one view of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),
deficient executive processing underlies ADHD symptoms.
Research on the origins of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicates that
ADHD is highly heritable.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
is usually a lifelong disorder.
To help herself remember that she needed cat food and gloves at the store, Cheryl imagined a cat wearing gloves. Which memory strategy did Cheryl use?
elaboration
Children who are expert in an area
are usually highly motivated.
Cross-cultural research on memory indicates that
people in non-Western cultures who lack formal schooling do not use or benefit from instruction in memory strategies.
Research on __________ reveals that school-age children view the mind as an active and constructive agent.
theory of mind
Research on metacognitive development shows that preschoolers
view the mind as a passive container of information.
esearch on metacognitive development shows that by middle childhood, children know that
doing well on a task depends on focusing attention.
Luke has a science test on Friday and knows that he needs to focus his attention during class and apply memory strategies when studying. Luke is demonstrating
metacognitive awareness.
Quinn knows that he should group items when memorizing lists, but he does not always do so. Quinn is not yet good at
cognitive self-regulation.
By adolescence, _________ is a strong predictor of academic success.
self-regulation
Children who acquire effective self-regulatory skills develop
academic self-efficacy.
Research on reading proficiency in middle childhood shows that improvements in __________ releases working memory for higher-level activities.
visual scanning and discrimination
Educators who advocate a whole-language approach argue that
from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language.
Educators who advocate a phonics approach argue that
children should learn the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds before being given reading material.
Most reading experts believe that
combining phonics with whole language is the best approach for teaching beginning reading.
In learning basic math facts, poorly performing children
use cumbersome techniques or try to retrieve answers from memory too soon.
Which of the following contributes to the superiority of Chinese over U.S. childrens math knowledge?
Chinese parents provide their preschoolers with extensive practice in counting and adding.
Why do IQ scores often enter into educational decisions?
They predict school performance and educational attainment.
The Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler intelligence tests
are most often used to identify students who are highly intelligent or have learning problems.
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition,
contains nonverbal subtests that do not require spoken language.
The basic information-processing, visual-spatial processing, and working memory factors of the Stanford-Binet
are thought to be less culturally biased than the other factors.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
was the first test to be standardized on children representing the total population of the United States.
Componential analysis involves
examining relationships between aspects of information processing and childrens intelligence test scores.
Componential research shows that
individuals whose nervous systems function efficiently appear to have an edge in intellectual skills.
A major shortcoming of the componential approach is that it
regards intelligence as entirely due to causes within the child.
In Sternbergs triarchic theory, intelligent behavior involves balancing
analytical, creative, and practical intelligences.
In his triarchic theory of intelligence, Sternberg argues that
people who are creative think more skillfully than others when faced with novelty.
Sternbergs triarchic theory helps explain why
out-of-school practical forms of intelligence are vital for life success.
Howard Gardner argues that
each intelligence has a unique biological basis and a distinct course of development.
According to Gardners theory of multiple intelligences,
cultural values and learning opportunities affect the extent to which a childs intellectual strengths are realized.
A major shortcoming of Gardners theory of multiple intelligences is that
neurological evidence for the independence of his abilities is weak.
Which of the following is supported by research on group differences in IQ?
Differences in SES do not fully explain the blackwhite IQ gap.
Arthur Jensens 1969 monograph, How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? was controversial because he argued that
heredity is largely responsible for individual, ethnic, and SES differences in IQ.
Herrnstein and Murrays 1994 book, The Bell Curve, implies that
heredity plays a sizable role in individual and SES differences in IQ.
Although heritability estimates offer convincing evidence that genes contribute to IQ, they
do not reveal the complex process through which genes and experiences influence intelligence as children develop.
Adoption studies reveal that
when children of low-IQ mothers are adopted by parents who are above average in income and education, they score above average in IQ.
Dr. Whittier believes that many IQ tests sample knowledge and skills that not all groups of children have had the opportunity to learn. Dr. Whittiers belief reflects the controversial question that ethnic differences in IQ have to do with
test bias.
Compared with middle-SES white parents, low-SES black parents are more likely to ask their children
real questions that they themselves cannot answer.
Many ethnic minority parents without extensive schooling prefer a(n) __________ style of communication.
collaborative
Lindy directs each of her children to carry out an aspect of a task, and the children work independently. Lindy uses a _________ style of communication.
hierarchical
Which of the following is supported by research on IQ test bias?
Ethnic minority children, who often grow up in more people-oriented than object-oriented homes, may lack toys and games that promote certain intellectual skills.
Carter, an African-American boy, is told by a researcher that certain verbal tasks are not a test. He is told that other verbal tasks are a test of how good children are at school problems. If Carter is aware of ethnic stereotypes, which of the following is probably true?
He will perform far worse in the test condition.
Which of the following is supported by research on dynamic assessment?
Childrens capacity to transfer what they have learned to novel problems contributes to gains in IQ test performance.
American education
places greater emphasis on traditional test scores.
Studies suggest that the high-stakes testing mandated by the U.S. No Child Left Behind Act
often undermines the quality of education by using fear of failure to motivate performance.
Which of the following statements is true about high-stakes testing?
Some teachers are narrowing the scope of what they teach to strings of facts to be memorized for high-stakes tests.
School-age childrens attitude toward language undergoes a fundamental shift when they
develop language awareness.
Which of the following is true about language development during middle childhood?
School-age childrens more reflective and analytical approach to language permits them to appreciate the multiple meanings of words.
African-American childrens narratives are usually longer and more complex than those of white children because African-American children
tend to use a topic-associating narrative style.
Children of bilingual parents who teach them both languages in infancy and early childhood
separate the language systems from the start and attain early language milestones according to a typical timetable.
Which of the following is true about bilingual development?
As with first-language development, a sensitive period for second-language development exists.
Research on bilingual education shows that
a strategy that promotes childrens native-language skills while they learn English is most effective for nonEnglish-speaking minority children.
Research on educational philosophies indicates that
constructivist classrooms are associated with gains in critical thinking and greater social and moral maturity.
In social-constructivist classrooms,
students learning is jointly constructed with the teacher and peers.
Which of the following is true about cooperative learning?
Children profit more when their peer partner is an expert.
Studies show that educational self-fulfilling prophecies are especially likely to occur
when teachers emphasize competition and publicly compare children.
Which of the following statements about inclusion is true?
Children with special needs often do best when they receive instruction in a resource room for part of the day and in the regular classroom for the remainder.
Rochelle is taking a test in which she is asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a straw. This is most likely a test of
divergent thinking.
Research on giftedness indicates that
many gifted children and adolescents are socially isolated.
Which of the following is true about gifted education?
Gardners theory of multiple intelligences has inspired several model programs that provide enrichment to all students in diverse disciplines.
In international studies of reading, mathematics, and science achievement, U.S. students
typically perform at the international average, and sometimes below it.
Cross-cultural research shows that
in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the school year is more than 50 days longer than in the United States.
Toby moved with his family just before he entered grade 4. in ecological systems theory, the move represents a change in toby's
chronosystem
___ interviews do not yeild the same depth of information as ___ interviews
structured; clinical
____ theory views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment
ecological systems
a dependent variable is the
one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable
___ increases the chances that at least some members of a species will cope with ever-changing environments and survive
meiosis
Research on heritage suggest that
heritability of personality increases drastically over the lifespan
most chromosomal defects result from
mistakes occurring during meiosis
according to the concept of epigenesis
development results from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and the environment
__ is a sudden but permanent change in a segment in DNA that can create
mutation; genetic abnormalities
during mitosis
the chromosomes copy themselves
a genotype is a
complex blend of genetic information that determines the species and influences unique characteristics
the area surrounding the cell nucleus is called the
cytoplasm
heritability estimate
are likely to exaggerate the role of heredity
one limitation of twin studies is
most twin pairs are reared together under highly similar environmental conditions
the most serious criticism of heritability estimates is that they
provide no precise information about how the traits examined develope within individuals
donor insemination
is commonly used to overcome male reproductive difficulties
during mitosis
the chromosomes copy themselves
which age group is likely to do more niche-picking?
adolescents
fragile X syndrome is
the most common inherited cause of mental retardation
Development is best understood as
a series of complex exchanges between nature and nurture
Mark's Apgar ratings were 7 and 9. This indicates that Mark
was in good physical condition at birth and five minutes afterwards
at birth, infants are highly sensitive to
pain
babies born addicted to drugs
have abnormally shrill and piercing cries
the placenta
encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid
the longest stage of labor is the
first, dilation and effacement of the cervix
once doctors assumed responsibility for childbirth, women __ and Relatives __
became less knowledgeable about birthing procedures; no longer participated
Interventions that support parents of preterm infants
generally teach them about the infant's characteristics and promote caregiving skills
the amniotic fluid
helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant
which of the following is supported by research on colic?
colic usually subsides between 3 and 6 months
A teratogen is
any environmental agent that causes damages during the prenatal period
which of the following parts of blastocyst will become the new organism?
the embryonic disk
healthy babies often cry
at the sound of another crying baby
the placenta
delivers food and oxygen to the developing organism
white downy hair called __ appears over the entire body during the second trimester
lanugo
vernix
protects the fetus's skin from chapping
compared to elders in large cities, elders in small towns are
more likely to feel safe and secure
as a generation baby boomers are
healthier, better educated, and more self-focused than the previous generation
research shows that __ genes lie along the human chromosome
20,000 to 25,000
because environments of most twin pairs are less diverse than those of the general population,
heritability estimates are likely to exaggerate the role of heredity
an estimated __ percent of american women smoke during their pregnancies
17
two main types of designs used in all research on human behavior are
correlational and experimental
the field of developmental science is considered to be __ because investigators are interested in the practical implications of their research
applied
when the inherited blood types of mother and fetus differ, the most common cause of difficulties is
Rh factor incompatibility
Parents can reduce the likelihood of SIDS by
placing infants to sleep on their backs
the period of the embryo lasts from
implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy
although betty grew up in a rundown neighborhood, had divorced parents and rarely saw her father, she is a successful happy healthy adult. Betty's ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development is known as
resilience
law and government programs designed to improved widespread social problems are known as
public policies
in __ people hold different beliefs and customs from those held by the larger culture
subcultures
except for ___ prenatal diagnosis should not be used routinely because these methods have some chance of injuring the fetus
maternal blood analysis
phenotypes depend in part on an individual's
genotype
epidural analgesia
is the most common approach to controlling pain during labor
when Baby Ian is held horizontally on his back he sometimes makes an embracing motion by arching his back extending his legs throwing his arms outward and then bringing his arms in towards his body. ian is demonstrating
moro reflex
the amnion
encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid
compared with large urban areas, small towns offer
stronger connections between settings that influence children's lives
the exchange of chromosome segments during meiosis results in
incredible variability among siblings
a __ is an inborn automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
reflex
a major weakness of the information-processing perspective is that it
virtually ignores the cognition that are not linear and logical
contemporary researchers view the family as a __ or network of interdependent relationships
social system
Research on the effects of neighborhoods suggest that n
neighborhoods affect the well-being of children and adults
In __ experiments, investigators capitalize on opportunities to assign participants randomly to treatment conditions in natural settings
field
which of the following is supported by research on immigrant children in the United states?
adolescents from immigrant families endorse their parents' value of education more strongly that age mates with native-born parents
if untreated, toxemia can cause
convulsions in the mother and fetal death
theorists who believe that change is possible and even likely if new experiences support it emphasize
plasticity
the __ folds over the __, which will become the spinal cord and brain
ectoderm : neural tube
the __ reflex permits feeding
sucking
alfred binet and theodore Simon's intelligence test was originally constructed to
identify children with learning problems who needed to be placed in special classes
approximately __ percent of US children have no health insurance
10%
critics worry that fetal monitoring
identifies babies as in danger who in fact are not
down syndrome most commonly results from
a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
An __ design permits inferences about cause and effect
experimental
Dr. Rudy wants to compare the characteristics of family members. What kind of research method would you recommend that DR. Rudy Use?
a kinship study
which of the following is true about fetal alcohol syndrome
it is distinguishable by slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities and brain injury
which of the following countries has a higher teenage birthrate?
United states
the force of contractions during child birth causes the infants to produce high levels of stress hormones that
help the infants withstand oxygen deprivation during contractions by sending a rich supply of blood to the brain and heart
the cross-sectional design is an efficient strategy for describing
age-related trends
studies of mutations demonstrate that
some mutations occur spontaneously, simply by chance
the spot on the ovary from which the ovum is released is called the
corpus luteum
children conceived through in vitro fertilization
may be genetically unrelated to both of their parents
generally, human chromosomes com in __ matching pairs
23
in the lifespan perspective, every age period of human development
has its own agenda and its unique demands and opportunities that yield some similarities in development across many individuals
in a historic experiment with 11 month old albert, john watson demonstrated that
children can be conditions to fear a formerly neutral stimulus
which of the following is true about the consequences of smoking during pregnancy?
smoking during pregnancy can increase the likelihood of miscarriage, prematurity, asthma, infant death, and childhood care
the lifespan perspective assumes that
development is affected by a blend of biological physiological and social forces
___ theory views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment
ecological systems
mr. and mrs. hopewell are concerned because they have been trying to have a baby for over a year. which of the following procedures would you recommend to them?
genetic counseling
in a cross-sectional design
the investigator studies groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time
which of the following is true about the results of Kauai study?
the impact of early biological risks wanes as children's personal characteristics and social experiences contribute increasingly to their functioning
which of the following is true about the harm done by teratogens?
the genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays an important role
skeletal age is determined by
X-raying the long bones of the body
infants with a lot of crawling experience
are more likely than their inexperienced age mates to remember object locations
Motion
is the first depth cue to which infants are sensitive
rachel is concerned that she might accidentally suffocate her baby if she shares a bed with him. what information can you share with rachel about precautions taken in cultures where cosleeping is widespread?
parents and infants usually sleep on hard surfaces such as floor mats, firm mattresses or wooden planks
during synaptic pruning
neurons not needed at the moment return to an uncommitted state
Dr. Sardoza is interested in research on the organization and interpretation of what we see. Dr Sardoza studies
perception
at birth, the brain is
nearer to its adult size than any other physical structure
during infancy, ____. these sex differences will ___ during adolescence
girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys ; be greatly magnified
breastfed and bootle-fed children in industrialized nations
do not differ in emotional adjustment
which is an example of a fine-motor skill?
grasping
of all motor skills, __ may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development
voluntary reaching
Synapses
tiny gaps where fibers different from neurons come close together but do not touch
Which of the following is true about brain development
voluntary reaching
around 7 to 9 months, infants
begin to divide the speech stream into word-like units
good quality child care
can reduce the negative impact of a stressed poverty stricken home life
research on language acquisition indicates that
childhood is a sensitive period for language acquisition
infant's earliest categories are
perceptual
compared with cognitive theories, mental tests
focus on the products of cognitive development rather than on the process of development
around 2 months, babies begin to make vowel like noises called
cooing
success at object search tasks coincides with
rapid development of the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex
research on infantile amnesia suggests that adults typically cannot remember events that happened during the first few years of life because
adults cannot translate early preverbal memories into language
an intelligence quotient (IQ)
indicates the extent to which raw score deviates from the typical performance of same age individuals
miranda say more apple. this two word utterance is an example of
telegraphic speech
recall is more challenging that recognition because it
involves remembering a stimulus that is not present
in piaget's theory___ are the building blocks of sensorimotor intelligence
newborn reflexes
compared with referential children, toddlers who use an expressive style
produce many more social formulas and pronouns
baby Greer says bababababababa this is an example of
babbling
according to B. F. Skinner, language is acquired as the baby babbles and parents reinforce those sound that are most like words, this is an example of
operant conditioning
which of the following is true about first spoken words?
they usually refer to important people animals or actions
in working memory children actively apply __ as they work on a limited amount of information
mental strategies
which of the following statements about the influences of the environment on temperament is true?
temperament and personality can be understood only in terms of complex interdependencies between genetic and environmental factors
self conscious emotions typically appear
between 18-24 months
in erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of basic trust versus mistrust is resolved on the positive side when
the balance of care is sympathetic and loving
basic emotions are
universal in humans
newborn babies respond with generalized distress
to changes in body temperature
during the first few weeks of life, newborns are most likely to smile
when they are full
heritability research indicates that genes __ to shyness and sociability
contribute only modestly
temperament is assessed through
parental reports and observations
according to erikson's theory, a mistrustful baby
protest herself by withdrawing from people and things around her
goodness of fit
involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning
toddlers who sleep alone and expereience frequent daytime separations from their parents
sometimes develop strong emotional ties to comfort objects such as blankets and stuffed animals
Generally father __ that mothers do
interact and play differently with babies
babies develop attachments to
a variety of familiar people
sensitive caregiving
is moderately related to attachment security in diverse cultures and SES groups
laughter first appears around
3 to 4 months
with the transition to early childhood, many children
become unpredictable picky eaters
the most important illogical features of preoperational though is its
irreversibility
the practical social side of language is called
pragmatics
in child-centered preschool programs, teachers
provide a variety of activities from which children select
Pramada attends a child-care program that stresses formal academic training, as a result, pramada is more likely to __ than peers who attend a child-centered program
display a decrease in motivation and emotional well being
contemporary researchers believe that make believe pal
not only reflects but also contributes to children's cognitive and social skills
children with autism
have narrow and overly intense interests
metacognition involves
thinking about thought
blended, or reconstituted, families
A family structure resulting from cohabitation or remarriage that includes parent, child, and steprelatives
controversial children
Children who receive many votes, both positive and negative, on self-report measures of peer acceptance, indicating that they are both liked and disliked. Distinguished from popular, neglected, and rejected children.
coregulation
A form of supervision in which parents exercise general over-sight while permitting children to take charge of moment-by-moment decision making
divorce mediation
A series o f meetings between divorcing adults and a trained professional that are aimed at reeducating family conflict, including legal battles over property division and child custody
emotion-centered coping
A strategy for managing emotion that is internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done to change an outcome. Distinguished from problem-centered coping.
industry versus inferiority
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of middle childhood, which is resolved positively when experiences lead children to develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks
joint custody
A child custody arrangement following divorce in which parents are granted equal say in important decisions about the child's upbringing
learned helplessness
Attribution of success to external factors, such as luck, and and failure to low ability, which cannot be improved through effort. Distinguished from mastery-oriented attributions
mastery-oriented attributions
Attributions that credit success to ability, which can be improved through effort, and failure to insufficient effort. Distinguished from learned helplessness.
neglected children
Children who are seldom chosen, either positively or negatively, on self-report measures of peer acceptance. Distinguished from popular, rejected, and controversial children.
peer acceptance
Likability, or the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of age mates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner
peer group
A collective of peers who generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers
peer victimization
A destructive from of peer interaction in which certain children become frequent targets of verbal and physical attacks or other forms of abuse
perspective taking
The capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling
phobia
An intense, unmanageable fear that leads to persistent avoidance of the feared situation
popular children
Children who receive many positive votes on self-report measures of peer acceptance, indicating they are well-liked. Distinguished from rejected, controversial, and neglected children.
popular-antisocial children
A subgroup of popular children who are admired for their socially adept yet belligerent behavior. Includes "tough" boys who are athletically skilled, aggressive, and poor students, as well as relationally aggressive boys and girls. Distinguished from popular-prosocial children
popular-prosocial children
A subgroup of popular children who combine academic and social competence. Distinguished from popular-antisocial children.
problem-centered coping
A strategy for managing emotion in which the individual appraises the situation as changeable, identifies the difficulty, and decides what to do about it. Distinguished from emotion-centered coping
rejected children
Children who receive many negative votes on self-report measures of peer acceptance, indicating they are actively disliked. Distinguished from popular, controversial and neglected children
rejected-aggressive children
A subgroup of rejected children who show high rates of conflict, physical and relational aggression, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior. Distinguished from rejected-withdrawn children
rejected-withdrawn children
A subgroup of rejected children who are passive and socially awkward. Distinguished from rejected-aggressive children
self-care children
Children who are without adult supervision for some period of time after school
social comparisons
Judgments of one's own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others