77 terms

Ch. 9: Marine Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals

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tetrapods ('four-footed')
land-dwelling vertebrates (including snakes)
lungs
air sacs inside body; allow oxygen intake from surroundings
amphibians
-class: Amphibia
-live on land & in water; lay eggs in water
reptiles
-class Reptilia
-evolved from extinct amphibians
-poikilotherms or ectotherms
birds
-class: Aves
-evolved from extinct reptiles
-homeotherms or endotherms
-oil from birds' glands makes their feathers waterproof
-have light, hollow bones to fly
-eggs' hard shells make them stronger against water loss than reptiles'
mammals
-class: Mammalia
-evolved from extinct reptiles
-give birth to live young
-have hair
poikilotherms
organisms whose temperatures depend on the environment
ectotherms
organisms that lose heat to their surroundings w/o experiencing a temperature change
sea turtles
-shell covering (carapace) fused to spine
-cannot retract head
-eat jellyfish, seaweed, sponges, barnacles, corals, crabs
-lay eggs on land; same species lays eggs in same area each generation
-lay 100 - 160 eggs at once; develop for 60 days & hatch
-7 species
-type of marine reptile
sea snakes
-55 species
-live only in water; mate in water
-in Indian & Pacific oceans
-type of marine reptile
ovoviviparous organisms
zygote develops fully inside female reproductive system; no placenta
marine iguana
-in Galapagos islands
-eats seaweed
-type of marine reptile
saltwater crocodile
-in mangroves and estuaries
-in Indian Ocean, Australia, western Pacific islands
-sometimes eat people
-6 m (20 ft) long or shorter
-type of marine reptile
homeotherms
able to maintain a stable body temperature regardless of surrounding conditions
endotherms
able to raise body temperature regardless of surrounding conditions
seabirds
-eat ocean-dwelling organisms & live at sea
-reproduce on land
-eat fish, squid, invertebrates, plankton
penguins
-have flippers instead of wings --> can swim instead of fly
-bones are more dense than flying birds'
-eat krill, fish
krill
-crustaceans; like plankton
tubenoses
-have circular nostrils & curved beaks
salt glands
remove surplus salt from organism's body
pelicans
-seabirds
-possess a bag under their beaks
cormorants
-seabirds
-stay just above or in water & dive down to catch prey
frigate birds
-seabirds
-steal prey from other birds or while prey is jumping out of water
-rarely actually enter water - feathers are not very waterproof
guano
-seabird poop
-builds up along dry coasts; coasts of Peru, Chile, southwest Africa
-used as fertilizer
gulls
-comfortable around people
-diverse diet: eat other birds' eggs/young, other birds' fish, garbage from people
terns
-seabirds
-fly above prey, then dive into water for it
-Arctic species flies btw poles each year
shorebirds
-no webbed feet
-different than seabirds since they don't swim
-common at coasts and inland waters
viviparous
-zygote develops inside female's body
-nourished by placenta
placenta ('afterbirth')
-membrane that connects mother & baby
-in mammals
-gives nutrients to baby from mother
mammary glands
-feeds milk to baby after it is born
-in mammals
pinnipeds
-order: Pinnipedia
-seals, sea lions, walrus
-eat fish & squid
-evolved from cats, dogs, bears
-can swim but breed on land
-have blubber
blubber
-thick layer of fat on pinnipeds
-helps them float & provides energy
sea lions ('eared seals')
-ears stick out of head (other seals' ears are holes except for fur seals')
-can move all 4 limbs
-used in circuses
fur seals
-ears stick out of head (other seals' ears are holes except for sea lions')
-can move all 4 limbs
-almost hunted to extinction for fur
walrus
-eats clams
-tusks used to anchor & defense walrus
sea otter
-order: Carnivora
-hunted almost to extinction until 1911; still 'threatened'
-have thick fur instead of blubber
-breed in water
-eat sea urchins, abalone, crabs, fish
-promote kelp growth
polar bears
-order: Carnivora
-eat seals - attack them when they come on land
-live in Arctic
manatees & dugongs (both called 'sea cows' or 'sirenians')
-live only in water
-only 4 species left & all close to extinction
-eat seagrasses - being destroyed by industrial farming runoff & boating
-order: Sirenia
-no rear limbs
-have blubber
-manatees: Atlantic Ocean, Amazon
-dugong: b/tw East African waters and west Pacific islands
cetaceans
-order: Cetacea
-whales (dolphins & porpoises are types of whales)
-live only in water
-stomachs have 3 regions
convergent evolution
when traits evolve separately in distantly-related species bc the species have similar lifestyles
fluke
-2 on end of cetaceans' tails
-like flippers
blowhole
-cetacean nostril - on top of head, not on nose
-can contain 1 - 2 holes
baleen whales
-have long, thin, flexible plates - baleen - instead of teeth
-the plates enable filter-feeding - whale licks food caught in plates
-largest animals on Earth
-blowhole has 2 holes
roquals
-blue, fin, & minke whales & 5 more species
-feed by swallowing entire schools of fish & krill groups --> throat bulges out (same with humpback whales)
amphipods
-small, squished crustaceans
-found in stomachs of gray whales (extinct)
toothed whales
-eat fish, squid
-blowhole has 1 hole
-catch prey w/ teeth & swallow whole - do not chew
-include dolphins & porpoises
great whales
-sperm & baleen whales
-breed in winter in tropics, feed in summer in cold areas
sperm whale
-largest toothed whale
-largest ever found = 42 tons (38 000 kg)
-eat squid, fish, lobster
ambergis
-undigested food in sperm whale stomachs
-sticky
-used in perfume
(dolphin) beak
-dolphin snout
-cone-shaped
pod / herd / school
group of dolphins
whaling
-whale hunting
-since Stone Age, but only became exploitive in 1600s
-right whales targeted first --> blue --> fin --> sei
-originally hunted for blubber (not meat): oil used for butter, lamps
-most prosperous in 1930s; tapered off with WWII and MMPA & when oil substitutes were found
-most whale species endangered now
International Whaling Commission (IWC) - 1946
-btw 20 whaling nations
-set limits on how many whales could be killed/year
-limits badly enforced & many nations did not participate --> not effective
-protected blue whales first
-allowed 'scientific hunting' until 1988 by Japan, Norway, Iceland (nothing to do with science)
Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) - 1972
-American
-outlawed hunting (in US waters) & product import of all marine mammals
drift nets
-used to catch fish & squid
-but trap other fish, dolphins, sharks, seals, birds
-useless - many targeted prey escape
-especially threatening to Dall porpoise and dolphins
spout / blow
-shot from blowhole - like exhaling
-seawater & mucus
-height & angle specific to each whale species
aerobic respiration
-in all cells
-glucose & oxygen --> CO2 & water & energy
apneustic breathing
-performed by marine organisms that breathe air
-take many deep breaths & exhale
-gives organism a lot of oxygen before diving
hemoglobin
-in red blood cells
-carries oxygen around body
-more hemoglobin in marine animals --> they can stay underwater for a long time
myoglobin
-in muscles; stores oxygen
-more myoglobin in marine mammals
bradycardia
-heart rate slows
-occurs in marine animals after a dive
anaerobic respiration
-in muscles
-glucose --> energy & lactic acid
-no oxygen input needed
-a lot of lactic acid is harmful but marine mammals have adapted
bends
-dive into water --> nitrogen in blood --> nitrogen blocks joints, blood flow to brain --> 'bends' occur: painful
-worse if you dive deep, come up quickly, or stay down for a long time
-not known if marine mammals get the bends or not - evidence on both sides
echolocation
-practiced by marine mammals & bats
-sound wave emitted --> bounces off objects
-echo takes a long time to return to animal = object is far away
-used to describe textures, placement, sizes of objects
-used by some toothed whales to hunt prey
melon
-in toothed whales
-sends sound waves of echolocation
-in front of brain
-renders skull asymmetrical and spherical
spermaceti organ
-melon of sperm whale
-function unknown - possibly controls whale's floating
spermaceti
-oil of spermaceti organ
vocalization
-specialized to each pinniped organism
-determines pinniped territory ownership
-specialized to cetaceans' moods
-male humpback whale mating call - groaning in repeated patterns; whales begins breeding season w/ pattern of previous one
play behavior
common in cetaceans
breaching
-unknown function
-in whales: animal jumps out of water, flips, and crashes down
stranding / beaching
-in whales & dolphins
-function unknown - possibly group follows one animal after it goes on land (because of a storm or injury)
-involves many animals choosing to stay on land; they all die
genital slit
-in whales & cetaceans
-btw anus and stomach
harem
-in sea lions, fur seals, elephant seals' mating method
-one male, as many as 50 females mate
-leftover males form bachelor groups & try to steal females from the harem; rarely have as many offspring as harem's male
ovulation
-involves release of egg from female's ovaries
gestation
-amount of time needed for fetus to develop pre-birth
-pinnipeds: less than a year; baby stops developing for 4 months while in utero & then continues (delayed implantation)
delayed implantation
-in utero, embryo forms, does not develop for 4 months, then attaches to uterine wall & develops
-in pinnipeds: occurs so that birth coincides w/ mother's return to land
whale reproduction
-1 baby produced every few years
-gray whales: mating couple held up in water by another male
-humpback whales: couple 'hugs' vertically, turns, slap flukes before mating