NSCI-300 Final

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Terms in this set (...)

Fluyt
- originated in Netherlands (the Dutch)
- ship for trade not war, carried twice the cargo.
- handled by smaller crew
- cheaper to build and run: long and light
Quinine
Naturally occurs in the bark cinchona tree
- treatment for malaria
Electricity
- Once it was discovered, to use AC or DC, AC made more sense back then because it transmitted over longer distance.
Tesla AC
-Edison DC backed by JP Morgan
-Westinghouse financed Tesla
Artificial Dyes
-Perkin tried to make artificial quinine to try and cure malaria
accidentally discovered aniline dye, a synthetic dye, made the world colorful. First artificial aneline dye - mauve
Lloyds of London
- Insurance market in London founded by Edward Lloyd
-the first idea of insuring shipments, they used vowels to rate the quality of the shipment
- Rating the Hull (from best to worst) A, E, I, O, U
- Equipment rating (from best to worst): G(good),M(middling),B(bad).
Solar Energy
-Passive Solar (Energy from the sun)
-design factors
-thermal transfer
Refrigeration/A.C.
-compress gas heats up, expand it it cools, and draws heat from its surroundings.
-Refrigerator does that same thing
-John Gorrie created the AC system,
-condensation dripped in salt water and made ice and they figured out how to make it
-refrigeration—> meat from Australia to England
-great success
-ship things all over through refrigeration
Limelight
- Originally invented to survey in bad weather in Ireland.
- Ships would hit the wall.
- arc light replaced the lime light
invented by Thomas Drummond, white light, used for lighthouses then for theater
Photovoltaic cells vs. Reflectors:
-Photovoltaic cells: materials that when you shine energy when sun shines on material it produces electric energy small scale
-Reflectors: reflects the sun's light they track the sunlight, on big scale, use the heat energy from the sun to melt salts, and to boil water.
Coal Tar
- produced to coat the bottom of ships to preserve it, they didn't have any use for it anymore so they used it for town gas, gas lamps.
-Perkin tried to use it to make quinine for malaria, but made artificial dye. (mauve)
Naphtha, town gas:
- came from coal tar. 1819 a man who owned a clothes dying business was looked for naphtha which was found in coal tar, wanted to use it as cleaner for his dyeing machines, since it was being thrown away he was hoping to get it for cheap
he accidentally found out that the naphtha could dissolve rubber, this discovery made rubber useable in the clothing industry
Macintosh
Celluloid
-used as film for moving pictures, Eastman Kodak.
Were all on a strip in order to make a movie
Bottled/Canned Food
-French, Invented by Appert
- Pasteurization before they knew what it was.
- The first food was bottled in champagne bottles, and eventually was put in tin by the English.
Transistor
- used to switch electronic signals and power
-building block for modern electronic devices
-invented by Bardeen
- directs power in a digital device
- generated a lot of heat
Lightbulb
-Invented by Thomas Edison
Hardwick Hall
-Came about during the building boom
- "Hardwick Hall, more glass than wall."
- 1st of the mansions that took advantage after the chimney of the concept rooms, and made mansions with separate rooms the higher up the higher class.
Super Conductivity
- Certain materials when taken to very low temperatures they lose their resistance, they conduct electricity without energy loss or heat generation.
-Can create a magnetic field to lift a train as in Japan. Bardeen.
Motion Pictures
-Edison and Dickson invented the motion picture camera. Edison needed a light source so he created the lightbulb, then came about celluloid (film) from Eastman Kodak. Then the zoopraxiscope: pictures of horses (serial motion). Then the phonograph (Morse code receiver (sound)) Edison put it together to make motion pictures
Zoopraxiscope:
-is an early device for displaying motion pictures. 1st projector. Pictures of horses (serail motion)
Fluorescent Lighting vs. Conventional
-fluorescent more efficient for light, but has mercury
-conventional generates a lot of wasted heat
Chimney
-Came during the "little ice age" in Europe, to keep them warm.
-Structural changes to houses, allowed chimneys to be lower.
-Allowed work to be done in the winter
-Privacy for the first time
-Changed interior design
-Chimneys in separate rooms—> separate classes
Buttons and Knitting
-Came about from tapestries that decorated the homes after the chimney
allowed for closer fitting close to retain heat
Star-shapped Forts
- Fort in the shape of a star came about during the gunpowder age when the cannon dominated the battlefield
This allowed full coverage for the defense, no blind spots, and crossfire.
Pike Square
- Military tactic developed by the Swiss Confederacy during the 15th century for use by its foot soldiers. Soldiers hold up long spears and huddled together in a form of a square. Ended the era of the armored knight. Pikemen = inexpensive, knight = expensive.
Wade's Road
- built in Scotland by General Wade to help troops through improved roads and river crossings
-initiated map making in the new world
Steam Engine
- 1st made by Newcomen and then improved by Watt. steam condenses to create a vacuum since gases are less dense than liquid discovered due to an accident.
Bayonet
-combined the pike and musket called Bayonet, turned the rifle into a pike.
-is a knife, sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit in, on, over or underneath the muzzle of a rifle, musket or similar weapon, turning the gun into a spear.
Rate of Musket Fire
-1 shot/ 4 minutes
-needed a spark instead of a lit fuse
-more reliable and rapid loading
- flint instead of fuse
-it lead to mass produced guns with interchangeable parts, assembly line.
- The rate of fire of the musket in the hands of an experienced soldier improved to six times a minute.
Fuel Cells, Hybrid, Electric Automobiles
- Fuel cells: technology of burning hydrogen as fuel without burning it but by allowing hydrogen and oxygen to react without the fire and without wasting the energy, that is how electricity is created
-Hybrid: part fossil fuel part electric, burns gas to generate electricity, runs on electric motor, it can convert back and
-Electric cars: battery in environmental problem, if the electricity comes from fossil fuel then it is still harmful, but good for urban areas, limited range,
Plastics and Polymers
-Polymers: sport equipment largely made of different synthetic material (polymers)
-Long chain molecules made of carbon atoms chained together like beads
Also called macromolecules, made of repeating monomers
- Man made polymers can be called plastics
-Plastics and polymers are made almost exclusively from limited petroleum/fossil fuel reserves
Large Hadron Collider (CERN):
- is the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator. First started up on 10 September 2008, and remains the latest addition to CERN's accelerator complex. The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way.
- that's the way scientists have been able to study the most fundamental aspects of matter
Thomas Edison
- Invented light bulb, phonograph, moving pictures - invented the phonograph (one of his greatest inventions) -created 6 rules of invention that we still use today
-Invented inventing things
William Perkins
- invented artificial dyes
Nikola Tesla
-developed alternating current (AC), twice the current of DC
worked with Edison more effective current.
John Gorrie
-Thought malaria was due to heat, and humid weather(bad air) so he uses ice as cure
-Made a machine that made ice trying to cure malaria
-Invents ice machine-Air Conditioning
Carl Von Linde
-discovered refrigeration cycle
-1st to extract oxygen from air, and gas liquefaction
-Figured out how to cool beer through use of ammonia gases as opposed to air, because in Germany beer had to be made in cold season, inhibited making of beer in summer
-Von Linde: could only brew beer in non-summer months, because they used brewing technique that used cold air, used ammonia has highest temperature, liquefied the ammonia,
modern refrigeration uses
-make beer cold Von Linde used ammonia refrigerators
-used ammonia instead of gorrie's compressed air
Albert Einstein
- developed the theory of relativity, which states that time, space, and mass are relative to each other and not fixed.
- published 4 papers
1.photoelectric current-->if light consisted of quantum (particles) Nobel Prize, foundation of quantum physics
2.measure size of molecules in liquid (Browning)
3. determine their movement
4. special relativity
Nicholas Appert
-Sterilized food in champagne bottles. French.
-stumbled on pasteurization, to preserve food in champagne bottles, worked great for a while, later used tin cans instead of champagne bottles.
-later canned larger amounts, and they weren't heat treating long enough, some spoiled
Pasteurization discovered by Appert(wasn't it Louis Pasteur)
James Dewar
- Invented the Dewar flask
-Uses vacuum to make thermos. (Keeps items hot or cold).
-Idea of using vacuum, if no gas there is no heat transferred
John Bardeen
- Invented the transistor
-made possible the development of every modern electronic device
-superconductivity
Fritz Haber (Haber Bosch process):
-got nitrogen from the atmosphere, turn it into a compound to use it for fertilizer, and used it for gunpowder.
Wilhelm Maybach:
- tried to make a car, invented the carburetor, which changes liquid into spray like perfume
Wallace Carothers (DuPont):
-Invented nylon, 1st successful synthetic fiber, DuPont chemical company he worked for, 1st replacement for silk polymer
Henry VIII
Wanted to divorce Catholic Church wouldn't let him, so he made a new church protestant church. Confiscated all church land because it was very wealth, he wanted to sell them but buyers wanted to survey them which initiated a frenzy, so they needed to map to see between distant points with cloudy light, which brought about the lime light by Drummond which needed a lot of energy, then was used in theaters
Gottlieb Daimler:
-took a steam engine and used petroleum to move the piston. 1st car.
Came up with the idea of using
Westinghouse
- pioneered electricity and backed Tesla.
Edwin Drake
- First to drill for oil for the US
he found petroleum oil and it could be used instead whale oil. Threw away the gasoline.
Thomas Drummond:
- invented the limelight while surveying Ireland for mapping.
Joseph Priestly
-Created soda water
-discovered the existence of Oxygen, which spurred interest in respiratory medicine
-studied gases and combustibility of certain gases
Jarod Diamond
-wrote Guns, Germs, and Steel and Geographic Advantage
Thomas Newcomen
Created a pumping engine, that would cause condensation caused by air pressure to push the piston down
It later was turned into a machine that drove the industrial revolution
New more powerful pump
Piston action
used Darby's new cast iron for steam engine ( iron cylinders)
Used single cylinder (both hot and cold simultaneously)
James Watt
-Redesigns Newcomen's engine to improve efficiency
the power source for the Industrial Revolution
needed more precise fit of cylinders
General Georage Wade
-Marshal in British army, built wade's road to help troops. Killed Scots.
Parts of the Atom
- Protons +
-Electrons -
-Neutrons (no charge)
Guns, Germs, and Steel and Geographic Advantage:
- Book written by Jared Diamond
Domesticated Animals
- was the reason that certain civilizations got the jump on other civilization from guns germs and steels.
-all domesticated animals were in Middle East, eastern Europe, due to the right kind of grains.
E=mc2 and Nuclear energy:
-e=mc2 is how nuclear energy is created
AC vs. DC Current
Tesla= AC he won, Edison= DC
Electromagnetic spectrum- Visible light vs other wavelengths:
- Longer wavelength lower energy, higher energy shorter wavelengths
Greenhouse Effect
-The process by which solar energy is re-radiated by the earth is captured by atmospheric gases
-the earth was trapping energy from the sun
-most important is CO2 because it's the only one we have control over, and it's the most abundant
Climate Change
- Due to carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels
Thermoplastics vs. Thermosets
- Thermosets= mixed together they react and harden, 1 chance to make them work like glue
- thermoplastics= melted and molded like plastic kitchen stuff, made from a melt
Fossil Fuels
-Fuel: substance that burns readily to release a significant amount of energy
-Fossil Fuel: Coal, petroleum, and natural gas
-fossil fuels come from plants which get it from the sun
Gravity: Newton vs. Einstein
-Newton discovered gravity, but did not understand how it worked, how everything is affected by it and how it works
- Einstein explained what causes gravity
Higg's Boson Particle:
-all of space contains these Higgs particles, no way of testing back then.
Now they see if they slam particles together they would be able to knock some of the Higgs particles out.
Creates conditions similar to the beginning of the universe.
Internal combustion vs. Fuel cells vs. Electric vehicles:
- Fuel cells generates energy without too much heat 60-70& more efficient, you need water to transmit the electrons
-Internal combustion normal car, burn fuel lose energy lost in heat
Advantages/disadvantages of different Energy Alternatives- Wind, Solar, Fuel Cells, etc.:
Solar: design factors, thermal transfer, produce Electricity. Wind/Water: mechanical energy converted to electricity; disadvantage: not reliable. Fuel Cells: Water only exhaust, hydrogen produced by renewable sources, efficient than internal combustion engines; disadvantages: expensive, distribution system, produced from other sources of energy, fuel cells require catalysts made of rare materials.
Electricity wars, i.e.,:
AC vs DC:
Edison and the beginning of modern Science:
AC vs DC : direct current (DC), the electric charge (current) only flows in one direction. Electric charge in alternating current (AC), on the other hand, changes direction periodically. The voltage in AC circuits also periodically reverses because the current changes direction.Alternating current describes the flow of charge that changes direction periodically. As a result, the voltage level also reverses along with the current. AC is used to deliver power to houses, office buildings, etc.Direct current is a bit easier to understand than alternating current. Rather than oscillating back and forth, DC provides a constant voltage or current.
Edison and the beginning of modern Science: Although Edison (1847-1931) is best known as the inventor of the incandescent light bulb, the phonograph, and the motion picture, these innovations are a fraction of Edison's legacy. More than 85 years after his death, his accomplishments in the field of industrial research and development still resonate with scientists and engineers.
Edison First Industrial Research Laboratory:
Edison created the first industrial research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, in 1876, he was seeking to extend, not replace, this shop tradition.While Edison was working on perfecting the telephone, he started experimenting with the idea of being able to record the sound of the human voice.Edison's first major inventions at Menlo Park was the phonograph which was a basic machine that allowed a person to speak into a diaphragm that was attached to a pin that made indentations on a paper wrapped around wood.