How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

316 terms

Music

Midevil to Classical
STUDY
PLAY
A simple and more familiar type of canon is called
round
Meter is an organizing principle shared by music and poetry
true
Traditional music of the Far East is largely
monophonic
Most large musical ensembles use a conductor in order to perform together
True
A short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern repeated throughout a musical work is called an ostinato
True
Which of the following terms describes a concordant or agreeable combination of tones
consonant
The smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called
motive
A musical form based on statement, departure, and a restatement of the first idea is called binary form
false
Describe the organ
Sound is created when air flows through pipes controlled by the organist, Some organs have more than one keyboard, including one played by the feet The sound of an organ can be imitated by electric keyboards and synthesizers
Ternary form is best outlined as A-B-A
true
The procedure in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another is called
Imitation
A heterophonic texture frequently occurs in music involving improvisation, such as jazz
true
Which of the following would be classified as an unpitched percussion instrument
bass drum
The striking emotional effect created by the high point in a melodic line is called
The climax
When a piece of music begins on the last beat of a measure, it is said to begin with
an upbeat
Which marking is appropriate for a slow tempo
adagio
The percussion family is comprised of a variety of instruments that are made to sound by
striking or shaking:
The trumpet is the lowest in pitch of the brass family
False
The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra by Britten is based on a dance tune by Beethoven
False
Meter is the measurement of musical time
True
A melody combined with an ornamented version of itself, often heard in jazz, produces a texture known as
heterophony
Harmonic movement is generated by motion toward a goal or resolution
True
Disjunct motion describes melodies that skip in disjointed intervals
True
The special effect produced on a string instrument by plucking the string with the finger is called
pizzicato
The guitar is most likely of African origin
False
Flutes and whistles are classified as idiophones
False
Most compositions use one type of texture exclusively
False
Which of the following is a double reed instrument
the oboe
Forms are fixed molds into which composers force their material
False
Which of the following songs is in compound meter
Rock-a-bye Baby
Which historical event did NOT take place in the Renaissance
the writing of the Magna Carta
The singing leader in Jewish religious services is called
the cantor
A key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitate
True
The Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instruments
True
The term a cappella refers to choral music performed_______ .
without any instrumental accompaniment
The texts for madrigals are generally drawn from the fixed poetic meters
False
The raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending forms
True
Which religious figure is praised in the text of Hildegard's Alleluia, O virga mediatrix
the Virgin Mary
Who is the Greek god of music?
Apollo
Women poet-musicians in southern France were called Minnesingers
False
The overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay's L'homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-A
True
The upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voices
True
The dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolved
True
The three most important triads used in diatonic harmony are
I, IV, and V
The Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the Magnificat
False
Instruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal line
True
The raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending forms
True
Which composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashion
Palestrina
Renaissance painters preferred symbolism to realism
False
The service in the Roman Catholic Church that symbolically reenacts the sacrifice of Christ is
the Mass
what does NOT describe Gabrieli's O quam suavis:
a cappella performance
The High Middle Ages witnessed
the building of great cathedrals,the founding of universities, and the rise of the bourgeoisie
In addition to composing music, Hildegard of Bingen is known for:
visions that foretold the future, founding her own convent and writing religious poetry
The value we place on music today is part of our ancient heritage
True
The vivid depiction of the text through music, known as word painting, is a hallmark of
the madrigal
Although feudal society was male-dominated, the status of women was raised by prevailing attitudes of chivalry and devotion to the cult of the Virgin Mary
True
Which of the following characterizes Monteverdi's madrigal Ecco mormorar l'onde
careful musical pictorialization of specific images
Which was NOT a function of secular music in medieval court life
devotional services
Claudio Monteverdi's career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periods
True
A key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitate
True
The dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolved
True
A sharp will lower the tone by a half step
False
Which of the following does NOT make frequent use of pentatonic scales
Western art music
Mout me fu grief/Robin m'aime/Portare has three voices, each with the same text
True
After the Protestant revolt of the early sixteenth century, the Roman Catholic Church responded with a movement to recapture the loyalty of its people
This was known as: the Counter-Reformation
Which of the following was a lively circle or line dance, often performed outdoors
ronde
In Western music, the octave is divided into how many equal intervals
twelve
During the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing was
St: Mark's of Venice
Secular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musicians
False
What characterizes the minor scale
It has a lowered third degree
A setting of plainchant with many notes per syllable is called syllabic
False
What characterizes humanism
thinking centered on human issues and individuality, inspiration from the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, and independence from traditional and religion
Instruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal line
True
The earliest operas took their plots from
Greek mythology
The overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay's L'homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-A
True
Bach wrote his Musical Offering for
Frederick the Great:
Dido's lament from Purcell's Dido and Aeneus is a da capo aria
True
The three main keyboard instruments of the Baroque were the harpsichord, organ, and piano
False
The libretoo for Handel's oratorio Messiah is a compilation of verses from the Bible
True
Bach completed just over one hundred cantatas in his lifetime
False
The French rondeau led directly to the rondo of the eighteenth century
True
The Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instruments
True
What Baroque genre was the direct ancestor of the symphony
sonata da camera
During the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing was
St: Mark's of Venice
Which of the following is noted as a reformer of eighteenth-century opera
Gluck
The approximate dates of the Baroque period are
1600-1750
Which does NOT characterize an oratorio
elaborate scenery
The expansion and reworking of a theme within a composition is called thematic development
True
All of the following are fast, lively dance types EXCEPT
the sarabande
Religion remained a driving force behind power struggles in the Baroque era
True
Johann Sebastian Bach lived a short, unhappy life and had no children
False
An early American polyphonic setting of a psalm or hymn in an imitative style is called
a fuging tune
The upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voices
True
In earlier times, a composer's choice of key for a piece depended largely on the capabilities of the instruments for which it was intended
True
Vivaldi lived and worked in
Venice
Bach's passions are musical setting of the account of the Crucifixion by one of the four Evangelists
True
As a reaction to the grandiose gesture of the Baroque, the Rococo style was a miniature and ornate art aimed at enchantment of the senses
True
The harpsichord is different from the piano because
it usually has two keyboards, rather than one, its strings are plucked rather than struck, it is not capable of a wide dynamic range
During the Baroque era, some boy singers were castrated to preserve the high register of their voices, allowing them to sing high-pitched operatic roles
True
The term trio sonata refers to the number of parts, or musical lines, rather than the number of players
True
Jean-Joseph Mouret died a celebrated, wealthy artistic hero
False
A theme may be fragmented by dividing it into smaller units called_____
motives
Late in life, Handel turned his efforts from opera to
the oratorio
It was through the musical innovations of the __________ that opera was born
Florentine Camerata
Which composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashion
Palestrina
The group of early Baroque writers, artists, and musicians whose aim was to resurrect the musical drama of ancient Greece was known as
The Florentine Camerata
Secular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musicians
False
Claudio Monteverdi's career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periods
True
In the Baroque era, music centered on frequent changes of mood
True
Which best describes how Baroque musicians made a living
as servants to royalty or nobility, as members of the church, and as employees of a free city
Which two instruments would most likely have played the basso continuo in the Baroque era
cello and harpsichord
A fugue is a form exclusively for solo keyboard performance
False
What is NOT a major choral work by Bach
Messiah
The Baroque era was an age of political freedom and democracy
False
A sinfonia is a short instrumental passage that facilitates scene changes
True
In London, Handel composed operas in Italian
True
In opera, the lyric melodies that release emotional tension are called recitatives
False
A short phrase repeated over and over in the bass is called
a ground bass
What is the typical form of a Scarlatti sonata
one-movement binary form
The opening movement of Bach's cantata A Mighty Fortress Is Our God is best described as
a fugal chorale
The orchestra plays a prominent role in the second movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No
2: False
Which best describes the form of the final love duet in The Coronation of Poppea
A-B-B-A, with ground bass
The French overture is composed in three sections
False
What is the form of the individual movements in a suite
binary
Barbara Strozzi was probably trained as a courtesan, in singing, lute playing, and writing poetry
True
What does NOT characterize Vivaldi's concertos The Four Seasons
They avoid ritornello form
While playing the basso continuo, musicians in the Baroque era improvised on the figured bass
True
The chaconne is a variation form based on a repeated succession of harmonies
True
The role of the chorus was especially important in the oratorio
True
The Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the Magnificat
False
Purcell's opera, Dido and Aeneus, was composed for
a girls' school production in Chelsy:
Corelli's trio sonatas served as models for the establishment of the church and chamber sonata
True
In a fugue, the areas of relaxation where the subject is not heard are called
episodes
The only basic rule of theme and variations form is that the theme must always be easily heard
False
The instrument which Mozart played and for which he wrote many concertos was
the piano:
The American Declaration of Independence reflects the intellectual climate of the Classical era
True
Mozart is remembered today as________
the most gifted child prodigy in the history of music
Which best describes the form of the first movement of Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik
sonata-allegro
In the nineteenth-century symphony, the minuet was often replaced by the scherzo
True
The classical attitude toward art is considerably more objective than the Romantic
True
Modern scientists have shown that listening to Mozart
helps with solving math problems
The famous four-note figure at the beginning of Beethoven's Symphony No 5 is best described as
a motive
Ancient people (the Greeks and Romans, especially) believed that music had no effect on the body
False
A string quartet consists of
2 violins, viola, and cello
The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, development, and
recapitulation
The Classical string quartet literature follows the same basic formal design as the symphony and sonata
True
What best describes the opening of the first movement of Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik
a march-like character
Romantic elements can be found in the late works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven
True
In sonata-allegro form, the section that features the most tension and drama through modulation and motivic interplay is called
the development
Mozart was consistently supported by Vienna's most important patrons
False
The harmony of the Classical-era composers was largely chromatic
False
The term multimovement cycle is applied not only to sonatas and chamber music but also to concertos and symphonies
True
The percussion section of a modern orchestra includes a number of instruments of Turkish origin
True
The first movement of a Classical concerto features sonata-allegro form with
a double exposition
In the first movement of a Classical concerto, there is usually a double exposition
True
Beethoven, like Mozart, wrote music very quickly and with great ease
False
Mozart's Symphony No 40 in G minor can be viewed as Romantic in spirit
True
Beethoven opposed democracy in favor of the rule of a strong leader
False
The third movement of a Classical symphony is most frequently in
minuet and trio form
How many movements were typical of pre-Classical symphonies
three
In Haydn's time, the trumpet had not yet advanced beyond the natural form of the instrument with no valves
True
In Haydn's The Creation, the soloists include three archangels Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael
True
Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op27, No: 2, was subtitled "Moonlight" by______
the poet Rellstab shortly after the composer's death
How is the melody of Schubert's Lied The Trout used in the quintet of the same name
It is the basis of a theme and variations movement
The __________ accompanies the baritone voice in the Tuba mirum section of Mozart's Requiem
trombone
A trouser role is sung by a man in eighteenth-century opera
False
The Trumpet Concerto in E-flat major, composed in 1796, was Haydn's last orchestral work
True
Turkish percussion instruments can be heard in Beethoven's Symphony No_____
9
Mozart's Requiem was sung in a worldwide memorial for the victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States
True
Which character in Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro is best described as a young, innocent man who is in love with love
Cherubino
Who was Haydn's principal patron
Prince Esterhazy
The music of which composer inspired Haydn to write an oratorio
Handel
In the Classical era, the sonata was intended for professional musicians only
False
Haydn's orchestras in London were smaller than his earlier ensembles
False
The career of Joseph Haydn spanned the years from the formation of the Classical style to the beginning of Romanticism
True
The Janissary band was
a Turkish military ensemble
Mozart wrote his piano concertos primarily for his own public performances
True
The text of the Ode to Joy, set as the finale of Beethoven's Symphony No 9, is by
Schiller
The last movement of Mozart's Sonata in A major, K 331, is inspired by music from which country
Turkey
The first movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto in G major, K 453, is monothematic
False
Of the following, which characterizes Maria Theresa Paradis
woman virtuoso pianist, student of Mozart, blind since birth
Unlike Mozart, Beethoven used sketchbooks to work out musical ideas
True
Mozart's librettist for The Marriage of Figaro was
Lorenzo da Ponte
In depicting "Chaos" at the beginning of The Creation, Haydn
composes a dramatic C-minor overture
Beethoven belonged to a generation of artists who were influenced by the full impact of:
the French Revolution
Beethoven's famous Moonlight Sonata has _______ movements
three
The early Classical symphony was characterized by quickly ascending themes with a strong rhythmic drive
These are known as: rocket themes
In the nineteenth century, the Mass was performed only in church
False
The first movement of a symphony is usually in
sonata-allegro form
During the Classical era, the prevalent form of opera that occupied itself mainly with the affairs of nobility and Greek legends was
opera seria
A typical feature of a concerto is a free solo passage without orchestral accompaniment called
the cadenza
Comic opera was generally in the language of the audience or in the vernacular
True
Beethoven and Mozart wrote duo sonatas that treated the two instruments as nearly equal partners
True
What is the form of the last movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto in G major, K 453
sonata
The fourth movement of a Classical symphony is usually quicker and lighter than the first movement
True
Beethoven's Battle Symphony pays tribute to
Wellington's victory over Napoleon:
What is unusual about Beethoven's Symphony No 5
There is no break between the third and fourth movements
The text for the Dies irae is a poem in 3-line rhymed verses
True
Rapid-fire, talky singing whose primary function is to advance the plot in an opera is called
recitative
The terzetta, or trio, from Act I of The Marriage of Figaro is in rondo form
False
Opera buffa was typically serious in tone, with plots dealing with historical or legendary figures
False
In the Classical concerto, the marking of andante or adagio would most likely apply to the third movement
False
Using material from an earlier movement in a symphony is called
cyclical form
Schubert set his Trout Quintet in the standard four-movement structure
False
The form of the first movement of Beethoven's Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op 27, No 2
is a modified song form
In the latter part of the eighteenth century, new opera types were devised that featured naturalness and simplicity
True
Beethoven achieved much acclaim during his lifetime and died a famous and revered composer
True
The establishment of a four-movement cycle for the symphony is generally credited to the London school of composers
False
The sonata is an instrumental work in one movement for one or two solo instruments
False
Beethoven was unable to compose music after he became deaf
False
Who wrote Kyrie," from the L'homme Armé Mass
Guillaume Du Fay
What year was Guillaume Du Fay born
1397
What year did Du Fay die
1474
What is the significance of Kyrie
This movement, which is the opening movement of the mass, is divided into three sections based on the text. Each section begins with 3 of the 4 voice parts; the tenor
joins later and has the slower moving fixed tune (cantus firmus)
cantus firmus
"fixed melody", usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the Renaissance
Who wrote "Gloria," from Pope Marcellus Mass
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
What year was Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina born
1525
What year did Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina die
1594
What is the significance of Gloria
Monophonic chant opening, Changes of density and texture set in various registers, A cappella performance, Clearly audible text set syllabically, Alternation of homorhythmic and polyphonic textures, Full, consonant harmony
polyphonic
all parts sing different notes or rhythms at the same time
monophonic
single melodic line without supporting harmonies
homorythmic
where all the voices move in the same rythm
Who wrote Fair Phyllis
John Farmer
What year was John Farmer born
fl 1591
What year did John Farmer die
1601
Who wrote A Mighty Fortress is our God or Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gott
Johann Sebastian Bach
What year was Bach born
1685
What year did Bach die
1750
What is significance of Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gott
imitative treatment of the familiar tune in all voice parts and in the trumpets. Dense polyphonic texture created between chorus and orchestra for each line of text, Canon on chorale tune heard in the instruments , played in augmentation
Cannon
Same sequence as someone else but one beat after.
Augmentation
the statement of a theme in notes of greater duration (usually twice the length of the original)
Who wrote "Spring" from the Four Seasons
Antonio Vivaldi
What year was Antonio Vivaldi born
1678
What year did Antonio Vivaldi die
1741
What is the significance of Spring from the four seassons
Musical pictorialization of images of spring, based on the poem, Virtuosity of solo violin part, with fast-running scales and trills. Recurring theme
ritornello
short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
trill
a note that alternates rapidly with another note a semitone above it
Who wrote Water Music in D Major
George Frideric Handel
What year was Handel born
1685
What year did Handel die
1759
What is significant about Spring from The Four Seasons
tenary form, section with dotted rhythms, followed by a return of the opening material, Fanfare-like opening with quick exchanges between brass and strings. Percussion (timpani) added to orchestra.
ternary form:
3 part form. The piece divides into 3 parts of which the 3rd is an exact repeat, or almost so, of the first part
binary form
a musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other
fanfare
a short lively tune played on brass instruments
Who wrote String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth Movement
Joseph Haydn
What year was Joseph Haydn born
1732
What year did Hayden die
1809
What is the significance of String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth Movement
Folklike character, with strongly syncopated dance rhythms, Opening theme introduced by first violin, stated in 2 parts, each repeated (A-A-B-B), First violin dominates the melody throughout, Shift from opening minor key (D minor) to brighter, major key (D major)
minor key
a piece of music based in the minor scale, with a sad or haunting sound
major key
a piece of music based in the major scale, Scale built on thee formula of two whole steps, one half step, three whole steps, one half step.
syncopation
temporary irregularity in musical rhythm
Who wrote Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
What year was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born
1756
What year did Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart die
1791
What is the significance of Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music)
Sonata-Allegro form, Intimate string chamber music style. Quick-paced movement with 3 themes, sonata-allegro form Overall homophonic texture. First theme is disjunt, marchlike, and ascends quickly (rocket theme); second theme, graceful and conjunct.
Sonata Allegro
Classical period, dramatic musical form involving exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda
Rocket theme
quickly ascending rhythmic melody used in Classical-era instrumental music; the technique is credited to the composers in Mannheim, Germany
Homophonic
musical texture which focuses on a single melody with accompaning harmonies (mainly chordal)
Disjunct
progressing melodically by intervals larger than a major second
Conjunct
melody that moves in stepwise motion without major skips and leaps between the intervals, Smooth, connected melody that moves principally in stepwise motion,
pitch
the highness or lowness of a particular sound
Frequency
number of vibrations per second.
Amplitude
volume or loudness of sound
Melody
the tune in music, a sequence of moving pitches that create thought
Range
span of pitches
Contours
general shape of a melody.
Intervals
distances between any two pitches of a melody.
Phrase
a unit that makes up a melody
Counter melody
a melody accompanied by a second melody
Cadence
the point where the musician takes a deep breath, the punctuation for music.
Rhythm
the movement of music in time.
Beat
the basic unit of rhythm.
downbeat
first beat of any patter
upbeat
the last beat of a measure
offbeat
a weak beat
meter
the organized pattern of rhythmic pulses
Duple meter
a simple marching meter (left-right-left-right)
Triple meter
a simple meter that has three beats to a measure and is often used for waltzes
Quadruple Meter
a simple that has four beats to a measure with the primary accent on first beat and second strongest on the third
Compound meters
a meter where the beat is divided into three
Measure
what marks of meter, contains a fixed number of beats
Harmony
a term used to describe simultaneous events in music, also the movement of one chord to the next
Chord
three or more notes all sound together at once.
Octave
interval of eight notes
Scale
group of eight pitches arranged in ascending and descending order
Triad
a combination of three notes or tones
tonic note
the first note of a scale or key, also called a keynote
Dsonance
a combination of tones that are dcordant
Dcordant
a combination of tones that need to be resolved
Consonance
The resolving of dsonance, notes are pleasing to the ears
Drone
the sustained sounding of one or more tones for harmonic support, common in Asian and folk music
Counterpoint
the combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines
strophic form
melody repeated with each stanza
Grave
solemn or very, very slow.
Largo
broad or very slow
Adagio
quite slow.
Andante
a walking pace.
Moderato
of course moderate.
Allegro
a fast or cheerful pace.
Vivace
a lively pace.
Presto
very fast.
Molto
very.
Meno
less.
Poco
a little.
Non troppo
not too much
Piansimo (pp
very soft.
Piano (p)
very soft
Mezzo piano(mp)
moderately soft
Forte(ff)
loud
Mezzo forte(mf)
moderately loud.
Fortsimo(ff)
a very loud piece of music.
Sforzando
to accent a single note or cord
Aerophones:
instruments that produce sound by using air., horns, bagpipes, whistles and accordions.
Chordophones:
produce sound from vibrating sting that is stretched between two separate points, Violins, sitars, guitars, harps and Chinese yangquins
Idiophone
instrument that produces sound by vibration of materials they are made of
Membranophone
instrument that makes sound when its stretched membrane is struck or rubbed