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204 terms

Social Psychology 11-13

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Hatfield and her colleagues (1966) matched University of Minnesota freshmen for a Welcome Week dance. When the students were asked to evaluate their dates, what determined whether they liked each other?
physical attractiveness
All of the following are examples of implicit egotism EXCEPT
we want to name our children using family names.
You are a regular contributor to an Internet chat room. One day the other participants seem to ignore every comment you make. Research suggests you will likely
experience stress and a depressed mood.
The contrast effect of feeling less attractive after viewing a super attractive person applies to our self-perceptions, especially for
women
After learning about a former co-worker who recently passed away due to cancer, you call a loved one. This is an example of how reminders of death
heighten our need to belong.
The tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner is referred to as
disclosure reciprocity.
According to the text, the first step in scientifically studying romantic love is to
define and measure it.
The relationship between our degree of self-awareness and our willingness to help is
positive.
Social-exchange is a _______ theory, while social norms is a _______ theory.
psychological; sociological
If victims seem to have created their own problems by laziness or lack of foresight, people are less willing to offer help. Helping responses are thus closely tied to
attributions.
According to the social-exchange theory, the rewards that motivate helping are
internal or external.
When faced with potentially dangerous situations where strangers need help,
men help most.
According to the social-exchange theory, we use a _______ strategy in deciding when and whether to help others.
minimax
Altruism is to _______ as egoism is to _______.
another's welfare; one's own welfare
Attempting to explain one's own behavior situationally is a characteristic of
both dilemmas
In a small group, as opposed to large ones, individuals are
less likely to take more than their equal share
Ralph White reviewed ten wars from the last century and reported that each was marked by at least one misperception. Which of the following was NOT on this list?
overestimating the leaders' power
When considering reactions to a common external threat, approval of President Bush's performance after September 11, 2001
increased.
The U.S. Supreme Court's 2003 decision that racial diversity may be a criterion in admissions to colleges and universities was
based on research findings that revealed that racial diversity in the classroom has positive consequences.
When both sides of a conflict believe "we are peace-loving - they are hostile," each may treat the other in ways that _____ expectations.
confirm
According to Elliot Aronson, "as a relationship ripens toward greater intimacy, what becomes increasingly important is ___________."
authenticity
In an experiment by Zajonc and his colleagues, participants were exposed to brief novel passages of music while they focused their attention on other tasks. Results indicated that mere exposure led to liking
even when people were unaware of what they had been exposed to.
Kenrick and his colleagues (1989) found that to men who have recently been viewing a television show featuring three beautiful women, average women seem _______ attractive, confirming the _______.
less; contrast effect
One national survey found that 86 percent of those who were unhappily married but who stayed with the marriage, were, when re-interviewed five years later,
mostly "very" or "quite" happy.
Hatfield gave university women evaluations, affirming the self-esteem of some and wounding others with negative evaluations. Each participant was then asked to evaluate a man who had earlier asked her for a date. Women whose evaluations had been _______ expressed _______ the man.
negative; more liking of
In a survey of college-age individuals, Buston and Emlen (2003) reported that the desire for _______ mates far outweighed the desire for _______ mates.
similar; beautiful
Schafer and Keith (1980) conducted surveys of several hundred married couples and found that spouses who perceived inequity in their marriage felt more
distressed and depressed.
Latané and Darley (1968) had university students complete questionnaires in a small room, and then had smoke pour into the room from a wall vent. Students who were working _______ tended to notice the smoke in _______.
alone; less than five seconds.
In observing people's responses to staged emergencies, Darley and Latané (1970) found that _______ greatly decreased intervention.
the presence of other bystanders
According to the text, the _______ of altruism propose(s) two types of prosocial behavior: a tit-for-tat reciprocal exchange and a more unconditional, intrinsic helpfulness.
social norms, social-exchange, and evolutionary theories
The motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests defines
altruism
_______ are twice as likely as _______ to seek medical and psychiatric help.
Women ; men
People are more likely to help another person if
they expect to see them again.
Which of the following is an effective way to increase helping behavior?
model prosocial behavior
According to Slavin (2003), a "practical, proven method for implementing contact theory in the desegregated classroom," is
cooperative learning
According to Staub and Bar-Tal (2003) all of the following are characteristics of a group in intractable conflict EXCEPT the group that
attributes similar characteristics to the other group.
Studies from eleven countries show adolescents have more positive peer relationships and may achieve more when working _____, rather than _____.
cooperatively; competitively
_______ occurs when a neutral third party attempts to facilitate communication and offer suggestions for how to resolve a conflict.
mediation
The misperceptions of those who are in conflict with each other, such as two nations who regard each other with suspicion and hostility, are usually
mutual
Those involved in relationships marked by long-term equity
are unconcerned with short-term equity.
_____ rank attractiveness as important in a mate, while _____ assign importance to honesty, humor, and dependability.
Men; women
"Negative information carries more weight because being less usual, it grabs more attention." This statement is an example of the
bad is stronger than good principle
Which group is most likely to report their lives as being "very happy"?
those who are married
Melanie believes that her boyfriend enjoys far more benefits from their relationship than she does, even though she invests more time, effort, and resources. Clearly, Melanie believes that her relationship with her boyfriend lacks
equity
You are asked to participate in a blood drive. In thinking about doing so, you weigh the costs (e.g., being pricked by a needle) and benefits (e.g., feeling good about yourself) of doing so. This strategy can be predicted by the
social-exchange theory
In an enactment of the Good Samaritan situation, Darley and Batson (1973) studied the helpfulness of Princeton seminarians in order to assess whether helping behavior was influenced by
time pressures
Research on the relationship between personality traits and helping behavior revealed that
the person and the situation interact to predict helping.
Mr. Lemming's neighbors mowed his lawn, but he was too sick and weak to reciprocate. We can predict that Mr. Lemming may feel
demeaned because he cannot reciprocate.
_____ were most closely associated with other forms of civic involvement, like voting, jury service, community projects, and giving to charity.
Members in religious groups
The idea that altruism towards one's close relatives enhances the survival of mutually shared genes is referred to as
kin selection
Latané and Darley attempted to explain people's failure to intervene in cases like that of Kitty Genovese, a woman who was violently attacked, in terms of
situational influences
Mio (1993) and her colleagues found that after reading about the commons dilemma, theater patrons
littered less
Peace us defined as
the outcome of creatively managed conflict
Sato (1987) gave Japanese students opportunities to harvest trees in a simulated forest for money. When the students equally shared the costs of planting the forest, the result was that
most of the trees were harvested before they had grown to the most profitable size.
Studies from eleven countries show adolescents have more positive peer relationships and may achieve more when working _____, rather than _____.
cooperatively; competitively
In the Prisoner's Dilemma, if both prisoners confess, each will get a _______; if neither confesses, each will _______.
moderate sentence; get a light sentence
If you are new in the office and want to make new friends, your best bet is to get a desk
near where people hang out
Each year Canada and the United States record _____ divorce/s for every _____ marriage/s.
1;2
Social ostracism evokes a brain response similar to that triggered by
physical pain
Darley and Berscheid (1967) gave university women ambiguous information about two other women. Asked how much they liked these people, the participants reported feeling more attracted to the person whom they
expected they would eventually meet
Which is NOT one of the three ways people cope with a failing relationship, according to Rusbult and her colleagues?
denial, denying the problem exists
Mary, a talkative, extraverted young woman, is strongly attracted to Shane, a quiet, introverted, middle-aged man. Mary's attraction to Shane would be predicted by the
complementarity hypothesis
Which of your friends is most likely to report a preference for a mate who is homely and warm over one who is attractive and cold?
your best friend Carol
According to the text, an attribution of an uncontrollable predicament (such as a family crisis or natural disaster) is likely to encourage _______ to help.
political conservatives
The fact that a person is less likely to help in an emergency when other people are present is called
the bystander effect
A person who is intensely self-focused in profound grief would
be less likely to help others
Which of the following statements is NOT true? As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, any given bystander is
less likely to walk away
Helping _______ a bad mood and _______ a good mood.
softens;sustains
Evolutionary psychology contends that the essence of life is
gene survival
Gurin and her colleagues (2002) found that informal interactions enabled by ethnic diversity in college classrooms
tend to foster greater acceptance of difference among ethnic groups
_______ occurs when conflicted parties seek an agreement through direct negotiation.
bargaining
What do self-serving biases, group polarization, and negative stereotypes have in common?
They are potential seed of misperception
One aspect of mirror-image perception is that one side tends to
exaggerate its differences from its adversaries
According to Phinney (1990), someone who identifies with both his or her ethnic culture and the larger culture is said to have a _______ identity.
bicultural
Which of the following is cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?
communication
In Rubin's research, "strong-love" couples differed from "weak-love" couples in that they
gazed more into each other's eyes
Kalick (1977) had Harvard students indicate their impressions of eight women, judging from photos taken before or after cosmetic surgery, and found that
post-surgery women were judged to be kinder and more likable.
Which statement is NOT true?
Humans in only some cultures use ostracism to regulate behavior.
According to the text, the relationship between the extent to which we are in love with someone and how physically attractive we find that person to be is
positive
Research suggests that randomly assigned college roommates
will most likely become friends
University students were more willing to make a charity pledge when
it was for someone who had bought them candy
Myers suggests that there are a number of reasons why individuals who live in big cities tend to be less helpful. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons?
They become cold and uncaring after living in a city
Batson believes that true altruism does exist in feelings of sympathy and compassion for others. Which is NOT an example of genuine altruism?
Helping others by giving to a charity that supports an issue we think is really important
Darley and Batson (1973) gave Princeton seminary students time to think about a talk that they were about to have recorded, and then sent them to the recording studio. Participants who had been _______ were most likely to stop and offer aid to a "victim" they encountered en route to the recording studio.
given extra time to reach the studio
Which one of the following is an example of a non-zero-sum game?
both the Prisoner's and Commons Dilemmas
In order for contact between opposing racial groups to reduce conflict, the contact must
be structured to confer equal status on both races.
Conflict is defined as
perceived incompatibility of actions of goals.
In times of tension, such as during an international crisis,
views of the opposing side become more simplistic.
A motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions is the definition of
A need to belong
Williams and his colleagues (2001) found that when ostracized during an online Frisbee-like game, players were _______ to conform to others' wrong judgments on a subsequent perceptual task.
somewhat likely
Research indicates that friendships and romantic relationships that form on the Internet are more likely than in-person relationships to
last at least two years
Seven in ten infants exhibit _______ attachment.
secure
In terms of adult attachment styles, _______ individuals seem to be possessive and jealous, while _______ individuals are less invested in relationships and more likely to leave them.
preoccupied; dismissive
You were walking down the street with your friend Sabrina when she stopped to ask a child why he was crying. The boy said that he was lost, so Sabrina took time out of her busy day to help the child find his way home. Sabrina's behavior can be characterized by
altruism
The notion of egoism maintains that
self-interest motivates all behavior.
When faced with potentially dangerous situations where strangers need help,
men help most
A major weakness of the social-exchange theory is that it
easily degenerates into explaining-by-naming
We tend to help more often when
we have just observed someone else helping.
According to the evolutionary theory, genetic selfishness predisposes us to helping based on
reciprocity
In the commons dilemma, people often consume more than they realize when
resources are not partitioned
One potential way to prevent conflict is to
avoid making excess regulations.
If an attorney creates a Prisoner-like Dilemma for two suspects, the attorney's goal is to
create an incentive for both of them to confess privately.
Esses and his colleagues (2004) found that competition breeds conflict when
people perceive that resources are limited and available on a non-zero-sum basis.
When considering reactions to a common external threat, approval of President Bush's performance after September 11, 2001
increased.
Which of the following is NOT one of the four C's of peacemaking identified in the text?
correction
Paula has just arrived as a new student on campus and does not know anyone. All else being equal, is she most likely to become friends with Joni who lives next door, with Kristy who lives two doors down, with Beth who lives three doors down, or with Heidi who lives in the room directly above hers?
Joni
Which theory provides the best explanation for the effects of proximity, similarity, and attractiveness on liking?
reward theory
Studies on computer composites of faces show that
perfectly average is quite attractive.
When we have no strong feelings about a product or person ______ increases sales and votes.
repetition
We like people with whom we associate good feelings. This fact is consistent with the ___________ theory of attraction.
reward
Which one of the following is NOT one of the ways that Myers suggests to increase social altruism?
learn about egoism
In McMillen and Austin's research (1971), participants who had lied were more likely to
volunteer a large amount of time
You are asked to participate in a blood drive. In thinking about doing so, you weigh the costs (e.g., being pricked by a needle) and benefits (e.g., feeling good about yourself) of doing so. This strategy can be predicted by the
social-exchange theory
As Sherif noted, despite the fact that the competitive behavior of the boys in the warring camps seemed "wicked, disturbed, and vicious," what actually triggered their evil behavior was
an evil situation
David and Julie fought over what to name their new puppy, until finally they went to their children for a decision. David and Julie relied on _______ to resolve their conflict.
arbitration
In order for contact between opposing racial groups to reduce conflict, the contact must
be structured to confer equal status on both races
In order for contact between opposing racial groups to reduce conflict, the contact must
competition between the groups was introduced
What does your text refer to as the "golden rule" of social justice?
"Whoever has the gold makes the rules."
Mediators seek to establish _______ agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit.
integrative
Which of the following is NOT cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?
competition
_______ occurs when a neutral third party studies a conflict and imposes a settlement.
Arbitration
The communitarian synthesis emphasizes
both individualist and collectivist values
In both the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Commons Dilemma, people are tempted to explain their own behavior _______ and others' behavior _______.
situationally; dispositionally
What principle or concept suggests that rewarding people for their helpfulness may, in the long run, undermine their self-motivated altruism?
the overjustification effect
The fact that a person is less likely to help in an emergency when other people are present is called
the bystander effect
A person who is intensely self-focused in profound grief would
be less likely to help others.
Solomon and Solomon (1978) found that bystanders who _______ were more likely to offer aid to a person.
identified themselves to one another by name and age
You trip over a fallen branch and sprain your ankle. According to research on the bystander effect, a stranger who sees your plight will be most likely to offer aid if there are _______ others present.
no
Before agreeing to help out at the local homeless shelter, Sharon weighs the costs (e.g., getting up at dawn) and benefits (e.g., feeling good about herself) of doing so. This strategy can be predicted by the
social-exchange theory.
Miller and his colleagues (2001) reported that we are more empathic and helpful towards those who are _______ us.
similar to
In research conducted at the University of Warsaw, Lewicki (1985) asked students to choose which person in two photographs looked friendlier. Lewicki found that their choices were almost always influenced by whether or not the photographs
reminded them of friendly or unfriendly experimenters.
When two sides have clashing perceptions, at least one of them is misperceiving the other, and when that is the case, according to Bronfenbrenner (1961), "It is characteristic of such images that they are _______."
self-confirming
Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic that conflict expert Deutsch (1993) advises negotiators to exhibit?
sympathy
A goal that overrides people's differences from one another is called a(n)
superordinate goal.
John believes that he is hardworking and that his wife Rachel is lazy. Rachel believes that she is hardworking and that John is lazy. This is an example of
mirror-image perception.
Before they married, Melinda and Michael, who are both employed full time and collect the same pay, agreed to share equally in routine household tasks such as cleaning and grocery shopping. In reality, Melinda is now doing about 80 percent of the household work. This situation is an example of
an inequitable relationship.
When Bush called Iraq "evil" in the buildup to the invasion, he was making which common misperception?
demonizing the enemy
Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Darley and Latané's decision tree?
weighing the costs and benefits of helping
Pedestrians who are more likely to help another pedestrian pick up a dropped envelope are those who
just had their photograph taken.
Social-exchange is a _______ theory, while social norms is a _______ theory.
psychological; sociological
The notion that humans interact in such a way as to minimize costs and maximize rewards to the self is referred to as
the social-exchange theory.
Williams and his colleagues (2001) found that when ostracized during an online Frisbee-like game, players were _______ to conform to others' wrong judgments on a subsequent perceptual task.
somewhat likely
_______ includes strategies, such as flattery, by which people seek to gain another's favor.
Ingratiation
When benefits are proportional to contributions in a relationship,
equity exists.
The tendency for opposites to mate or marry
has never been reliably demonstrated.
Self-disclosure involves
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Rodney and Ralph are twin brothers who each contributed $75 to purchase a new bicycle. Rodney rides it 75 percent of the time. This would be an example of
an inequitable relationship.
Triandis (1994) reported that _______ immigrants felt more comfortable identifying with their ethnicity than _______ immigrants.
grandchildren of; second-generation
Which of the following statements is NOT true? As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, any given bystander is
less likely to walk away.
Pedestrians who are more likely to help another pedestrian pick up a dropped envelope are those who
just had their photograph taken.
The network of traits that predisposes a person to be helpful are all of the following EXCEPT
high in awareness.
Studies of the effects of mood on helping suggest that adults who feel _______ are more likely than those in a neutral control condition to help.
guilty
In a study by Latané and Rodin (1969), a female experimenter apparently fell and hurt her ankle. What percentage of participants who were alone offered help?
70 percent
Which of the following is an effective way to increase helping behavior?
model prosocial behavior
The advice to continue having romantic dinners, trips to the theatre, and vacations once married would most probably be offered by the
reward theory of attraction.
Spouses are more likely than random paired people to share common attitudes, beliefs, and values. The _____ the similarity the _____ they are.
greater; happier
Which of the following proverbs is clearly NOT supported by the research findings?
"opposites attract."
What you find is attractive depends on
what you are comparing it to.
The opposite of altruism is
egoism
Who of the following is LEAST likely to help an injured pedestrian?
Ivan, who is five minutes late for a committee meeting.
Which statement tends NOT to be true, related to misperceptions in conflict?
There are no issues related to "bias blind spots."
Which of the following is cited in the text as a method for resolving social dilemmas?
communication
Motto and Yoko are roommates and are experiencing a conflict about what type of cable television service is within their budget. They negotiate by having Yoko, who wanted a more expensive service, pay the remainder of the bill after both of them have paid for half of the cost of the less expensive service. What form of communication did Motto and Yoko use to resolve their conflict?
bargaining
Through the use of _______, Muzafer Sherif made boy camper enemies into friends.
superordinate goals
In a non-zero-sum game
both can win and both can lose
According to the text, which characteristic is NOT true of people who usually stay married?
They cohabited or became pregnant before marriage.
We like people with whom we associate good feelings. This fact is consistent with the ___________ theory of attraction.
reward
The relationship between mimicry and rapport is
positive
An example of implicit egotism is our tendency to
like the familiar
Darley and Latané described a sequence of decisions a bystander must make before he or she will intervene in an emergency. Which of the following is NOT one of the specific steps?
assessing the victim's desire for help
According to the text, the social responsibility norm gets selectively applied according to which one of the following principles?
Give people what they deserve.
Some noncapitalist cultures define justice not as equity but as
either equality or the fulfillment of a need.
According to research, it seems that just knowing about the dire consequences of noncooperation in a social dilemma
has little real effect on people's behavior.
When volunteers in a research experiment spent time with strangers in self-disclosing conversations, they felt
remarkably close to their partners.
Which adult attachment style is marked by individuals being less invested in relationships and more likely to engage in one-night stands?
dismissive
Rosalinda, who is attractive, very intelligent, and high in social status, marries Jorge, who is also attractive, very intelligent, and high in social status. Their relationship is best understood as an example of
the matching phenomenon.
In studies at the University of Maryland, Clark and Mills found that tit-for-tat exchanges _______ people's liking for each other when _______.
diminished; they sought true friendship
Which of the following techniques should elementary schoolteachers use if they hope to promote enduring altruistic tendencies in students?
Show them films of heroes who risked their own welfare to help others.
Which is NOT one of the reasons that affect us as to when we will help others?
avoiding eye contact
Group conflicts are often fueled by an illusion that top leaders are _____ and their people are _____.
evil; good
Which statement is NOT true? Win-lose competition _____
will usually have a negative outcome.
The smaller the group, the more
responsibility each person feels for it.
At the beginning of 2000, people were aware that global warming was already occurring, yet they were also buying gas-slurping SUVs in record numbers. This is an example of
how knowing good does not always lead to doing good.
What do self-serving biases, group polarization, and negative stereotypes have in common?
They are potential seeds of misperception.
Desegregation could be expected to have poor results when contacts were competitive, unsupported by authorities, and unequal. Contact should be _____
equal in status
Which one of the following is NOT one of the seeds of misperception, according to your text?
reduced competition
For Blacks, the most noticeable consequence of desegregated schooling is
the increased likelihood of living and working in integrated settings.
According to the text, individuals who identify as _______ in terms of spiritual commitment are most likely to report working among the poor, infirm, or elderly.
highly committed
DeBruine (2002) found that when students played an interactive game with a supposed other player, participants were _______ when the other person's pictured faced had some features of their own face morphed into it.
more trusting and more generous
Which of the following statements is NOT true? As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, any given bystander is
less likely to walk away
There are many ways to increase helping behaviors in people. Which is NOT one of the ways identified in the chapter?
Guilt-laden people don't tend to help others.
After Mr. Walters' neighbor helped him paint his house, Mr. Walters felt obligated to offer to help the neighbor remodel his kitchen. Mr. Walters' sense of obligation most likely resulted from the
reciprocity norm
In a study by executives who were asked to describe a recent conflict, Thomas and Pondy (1977) found that 12 percent described the opposing party as _______ and 74 percent perceived themselves as _______.
cooperative; cooperative
In order for contact between opposing racial groups to reduce conflict, the contact must
be structured to confer equal status on both races.
Review of desegregation situations show that sometimes increased contact improves racial attitudes and sometimes it does not, especially when there is
anxiety or perceived threat.
Knowing that one's group has over-benefited can trigger
devaluation of others' inputs.
Simpson, Campbell, and Berscheid (1986) suspected that the rising divorce rate over the past 20 to 30 years is at least partly due to the
growing importance of romantic love in people's lives.
Anticipatory liking-expecting that someone will be pleasant and compatible-increases the chance of
forming a rewarding relationship.
A stranger rides the same bus you do to school every day. According to the mere exposure effect, as the days pass you will come to view the stranger
more favorably
In real life, which of the following parallels the tragedy of the commons?
pollution of rivers and streams
Factory workers want a pay rate of $15 per hour, and management offers $12 per hour. After weeks of conflict, they agree to have a third party set the pay scale. After hearing both sides, the third party sets the rate at $14. This is an example of resolving conflict through
arbitration.
Keisha is stopped on the street by a panhandler. She is most likely to give money if
she just had her picture taken
Researchers have found that with door-to-door solicitation, there is more success with requests for contributions when they are
small
Kenrick and his colleagues (1989) found that to men who have recently been viewing a television show featuring three beautiful women, average women seem _______ attractive, confirming the _______.
less; contrast effect