72 terms

Art 1030 Test 3

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Early Artworks
- Made by human 35,000 years ago
- Cave paintings and small clay sculptures
- About procreation and food/hunting
Sumerians
- First great power of Mesopotamia
- Developed Cuneiform
Cuneiform
earliest known form of writing/wedge shaped symbols
Ziggurat
pyramid
Oculus
circular architectural feature
Characteristics of Egyptian art
- Subject matter relates to afterlife and pharaohs
- Paintin delineated flat figures/Sculpture static bodies
- Hierogylphs and symbols
- Hierarchic scale
Cosquer Cave
- Discovered in 1985 by Henri Cosquer in france
- Found 300ft below sea level
- 170 images of animals were depicted
When's the beginning
- 15-18 thousand yrs ago crossed land bridge that linked Asia to NA
Oldest Artifacts found? (oldest to youngest)
- Virginia 15,000 yrs
- Oregon 14,300 yrs
- Chile 12,500 yrs
- Clovis, NM 11,500
Contrapposto
counterpose
Aztecs
- Powerful empire in mesoamerica
- Areas: central mexico, guatemala, el salvador, honduras
North America
- First inhabitants 18,000 yrs ago
- Natural materials used for architecture and art
Cultures in North America
- Anasazi: southwest
- Lakota, Crow, Mandan: great plains
- Kwakiutl: northwest pacific coast
Art of Africa
- very diverse country
- Oral history has been more important than written documentation
- the art is an important form of communication and cultural expression, earliest examples date back 75000 years ago
New Zealand
- Inhabited by the Maori, have an elaborate tradition of tattooing
- Earliest preserved bodies w/ abstract tattoos date 3300 bce
Easter Island
- Famous abstract monolithic stone sculptures called "moai" meaning; seamount, image, statue, or bearers of the gift
Renaissance 1400-1600
"Rebirth"
Humanism
- Philosophical approach that stressed the intellectual and physical potential of human beings
Religion (Renaissance)
- Reformation and Counter-Reformation
- Catholic and Protestant beliefs were reflected in the art of the Italian Renaissance and northern Renaissance.
The Lives of the most excellent painters, sculptors, and architects
- Written by Giorgio Vasari in 1550
- Known as the first art history book
- Emphasized the intellectual ability required to make art
- Encouraged view of artist as creative geniuses
Early Renaissance in Italy
- Renewed classical past(study of mathematics/science for systematic understanding of the world)
- Art was a balance of real and ideal
Realistic
depictions of 3D space and perspective
Idelaistic
portrayal of mythological or religious subjects, nude figure
Leonardo Da Vinci
- The last supper 1497; refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan Italy
Michelangelo, Detail of Creation Of Adam, Sistine Chapel ceiling 1508-12 Vatican City
- Commissioned by pope Julius II
- Michelangelo preferred sculpting
- Nine central panels depict the old testament story of Genesis
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, with view of Last Judgment (1534-41)
Around 20 years after completing the ceiling.
Last Judgment painting
Souls called up on the left and blessed remain in heaven. The damned cast down into hell on the right
Renaissance In Northern Europe
Netherlands, Germany, France, and Belgium
Artists in NE
- Developed oil painting techniques
- Depicted everyday objects with religious symbolism
- Considered finest artists in Europe
Mysterious subject matter
- Believed to be Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife
- Perhaps a legal document, possibly a marriage certificate
- Highly symbolic
- Jan van Eyck was a master of oil paint
- Details, such as the mirror, give the illusion of reality
Late Renaissance 1530-1600
- Time of historical upheaval, times are changing
- Art reaction to high renaissance, dissonance instead of harmony, and distortion rather than precison
Mannerism
- From the Italian "di maniera" meaning charm/grace
- Exaggeration for emotional effect
Domenikos Theotokopoulos "El Greco"
- Mannerist painter from Greece.
Laocoon "El Greco"
- Story from Greek myth of a Trojan priest
- Mannerist exaggeration
- Elongated and distorted forms
- Expressionistic use of color and modeling
Baroque 1600-1750
- Increase in trade, advancements in science
- Permanent split between Roman Catholics
- and Protestants
art tends to be full of motion and emotion
Time of exploration and discovery (Baroque)
Theory that sun was center of universe
Religion (Baroque)
post-reformation
Artwork characteristics (Baroque)
Emphasis on light, diversity of approaches, and dramatic movement and theatrical compositions
Art of Europe and America
- Period of social, economic, and political upheaval
- Period also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Rococo 17th/18th century
Stylistic characteristics:
-Light-hearted subject matter
-Whimsical, flirtatious
-Ornamental, elaborate, opulent
-Organic shapes and lines
-Pastel colors, gold, white
French Academy of Painting and Sculpture
-Founded in 1648 under rule of the Sun King
-Provided training for artists and a platform to exhibit their work
-The Prix de Rome was the most important competition
William Hogarth, The Marriage Settlement, 1743, Oil on canvas
-Series of six paintings
-Turned into prints
-Scene 1: The Marriage Settlement
William Hogarth, The Lady's Death. Engraving published London, 1833
Scene 6 the message the wealth do not necessarily have morals
Realism
-mid 19th century
-depicted modern-day subjects
Stylistic characteristics:
Figures realistic rather than idealized
Showed respect for working-class people
Artworks appear less finished, less concerned with illusionism than previous traditions of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century art
Henry Ossawa Tanner
-African-American painter
-Educated at Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Art
Banjo Lesson (Tanner)
-Depicts passing of knowledge between generations
-Gives dignity to those from humble circumstanc
Impressionism
-Exhibited together in eight Impressionist exhibitions (1874-1886)
-Depicted modern subject matter
-Artists had very individual styles, but united in rejecting the formal approach of the Academy
- often painted outdoors
Claude Monet, Impression Sunrise, 1872, Oil on canvas
-Hung at first Impressionist exhibition in 1874
-A critic's negative response to the artwork coined the term "Impressionism"
Post-Impressionism
- Rejects Impressionist idea of capturing the essence of modern life
- stylistic characteristics: Methods often scientifically based ; Abstraction of form and color
Symbolism
-A subset of Post-Impressionism
-Literary and artistic movement
-Dreamlike and emotionally potent images
-Universal symbols encourage individual interpretation
Van Gogh, Starry Night,
-View from the asylum for the insane where he was staying. Infused with his emotions at the time
Thick Impasto
Act of applying paint this way is very physical
Pioneers of Modernism
-Henri Matisse (1869-1954) color and form
-Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) form and shape
Henri Matisse
- Key figure in the development of Modern art •
- French artist (1869-1954)
- Influential and unique style by expressive forms, decorative style and bold use of color
Henri Matisse
Painting "Joy of Life"
Cubism
an art movement that favored a new perspective emphasizing geometric form 2D
Early Cubism Painting
George Braque, House at L' Estaque 1908
Pablo Picasso Weeping Woman 1937
Composite View: Representation of a subject from multiple viewpoints at one time
Expressionism 1905-20
- explored ways of portraying emotions to their fullest intensity
- Self-portraits were a way to explore the greatest variety and intensity of emotions
Dada
1916: movement started in Zurich, Switzerland
-Reaction to World War I
- name was chosen at random in a dictionary
Sculptural objects, performance and events, and posters, pamphlets.
Surrealism
- Movement began in 1917 in Paris
- Based on ideas of Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud
- aimed to challenge the idea of objective reality
Futurism
- Originated in Italy 1909-20
- Influenced by Cubism
-Clashing planes and geometry
Departures from Cubism:
-Celebrated dynamic movement, progress, and modern technology
-Aligned with political beliefs (that were later to become known as Fascist)
-Expressed contempt for the past
Abstraction
- Continuation of Cubist experimentation
- Cubist artists still had an external reference
- Abstract artists moved into the realm of complete non-objectivity
De Stijl
- Dutch meaning "the style"
- Combining art, furniture and architecture
Abstract Expressionism
- First Modern art movement to originate in the U.S.
- Evolved in the 1940s and 1950s
- Sought to create a universal visual experience
- Artist was Jackson pollack
Pop Art 1950's
- Embraced recognizable subject matter and borrowed imagery from popular culture
- Pop artists bridged the division between fine art (part of "high" culture) and popular culture
- Artists include: -Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, and Claes Oldenburg
Minimalism 1960's
- Reaction against Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art
- Artists include: -Donald Judd, Dan Flavin
- Strips away emotion and underlying meaning
Conceptual Art 1960's
- Extension of some of the ideas of Minimalism
- Examples of conceptual art:
Documentation, sketches, instructions, performances, mail art
Postmodernism
- Complex and sometimes ambiguous
- Visual references to past artworks, ideas, or issues
Identity an important theme
Artists draw on personal and cultural history
Multiculturalism
- By the 1980s, artists and institutions recognized the need to consider a whole range of cultural experiences
Modernism
- Late nineteenth century to the 1960s
- Straight lines, geometric shapes
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