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Terms in this set (139)
Noncompetitve inhibitors bind the active site of an enzyme, reducing its activity and the subsequent formation of a product.....
What is a nonprotein "helper" of an enzyme molecule called?
Enzymes are consumed in chemical reactions and must therefore be replenished.....
Temperature and pH each play an important role in the proper functioning of enzymes.....
The process of breaking glycogen down to glucose is an example of.....
Using a catalyst
How can a living cell increase the rate of chemical reaction by?
Add more of the enzyme
If an enzyme solution is saturated with substrate, the most effective way to obtain an even faster yield of products is to.....
Reduce the energy of activation and increase the rate of a reaction
The primary function of an enzyme or any biological catalyst is to.....
It lowers the activation energy of a reaction
How does an enzyme work to catalyze a reaction?
Their enzymes have high optimal temperatures
Some bacteria are metabolically active in hot springs because....
Is involved in the catalytic reaction of the enzyme
The active site of an enzyme is the region that
Changing the structure of the enzyme
How does a noncompetitive inhibitor decrease the rate of an enzyme reaction by?
Enzymes provide activation energy for the reaction they activate?
Which of the following is true of enzymes?
All of these are true of enzymes
Which of the following is true of enzymes?
Where does glycolysis take place?
If an athlete is burning glucose, predict the ratio of oxygen consumed to carbon dioxide that will be produced....
Muscle cells in oxygen deprivation convert to _____, and in this step gain ______.
Which of the following processes will occur in the presence or absence oxygen?
Cellular respiration produces the most energy in the form of ATP from which of the following?
The equation, C6H12O6+ 6O2= 6CO2 (ATP + HEAT), describes which of the following processes?
ATP,NADH, and FADH2
Which of the following are produced during the citric acid cycle?
ATP and CO2
Which of the following are the final by-products of glucose oxidation during aerobic cell respiration
How many molecules of CO2 would be produced by 5 turns of the citric acid cycle?
During electron transport, H2O is formed. Where does the oxygen for the synthesis of the water come from?
In the citric acid cycle, the acetyl group is removed from the acetyl CoA and attached to oxaloacetate to form?
act as a hydrogen acceptor
The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to
The oxygen utilized during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?
Transition reaction and citric acid cycle
CO2 is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration
Sports physiologist at an olympic training center wanted to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles were functioning anaerobically. They could do this by checking for the building of.....
Which occurs only in anaerobic metabolism of glucose?
Which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon from one molecule of pyruvate?
2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the "net" products of glycolysis are....
Acetyl CoA, NADH, CO2
In aerobic respiration, pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First though the pyruvate 1.) loses a carbon which is given off as CO2, 2.) is used to form a 2-c compound, and 3.) is bonded to coenzyme A. These three steps result in the formation of.....
A,B, and C
Which of the following is required in the Calvin cycle?
ATP and NADPH
Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
What does the cyclic electron flow in the chloroplast produce?
The ultimate source of energy for a reaction in a plant is?
The organisms that most specifically utilize light energy to make organic molecules from inorganic molecules are....
The Calvin cycle is only capable of fixing carbon dioxide in the dark....
The main structure for gas exchange in the plants is called the....
The equation 6CO2 +6H2O=C6H12O6+6CO2, describes which of the following processes?
Yellow and Red
A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelength of visible light are not being absorbed by this pigment?
A,B, andC are true
Which of the following statements is incorrect about the light reactions of photosynthesis?
Absorb photons and transfer light energy to the reaction center chlorophyll
What is the main role of the pigment molecules within the light harvesting complex?
What structure best represents a polymer?
Which of the following is not one of the four major groups of macromolecules found in living organisms?
Glycogen is to animal cells as _____ is to plant cells
Which is an organic molecule
All of these
Altering which of the following levels of structural organization could change the function of a protein?
The macromolecule composed of amino acids is....
Identify the non-lipid molecule....
A,B, and C
Which of the following are polysaccharides?
The helix and pleated sheet are both common polypeptide forms found in which level of protein structure?
The substance richest in unsaturated fat is....
Organic chemistry is a science based on the study of....
Is used to form polymers
A dehydration reaction....
Are both polymers of glucose
Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose? They....
Removal of a water molecule
The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires which of the following?
Forms up to 4 covalent bonds
The formation of complex molecules that form life is made possible by what understanding regarding carbon?
Removal of water (dehydration reaction)
Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all synthesized from monomers by which process?
DNA contains a different sugar from RNA
The key structural difference between DNA and RNA is....
A nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar
Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?
The structure that easily distinguishes a plant cell from an animal cell is....
Which of the following are prokaryotic cells?
An endoplasmic reticulum
All of the following are part of the prokaryotic cell except....
The nucleus is to eukaryotes as the _____ is to prokaryotes....
Large numbers of ribosomes are present in the cell that specializes in producing which of the following molecules....
The specialized structure that stores pigments, water, inorganic ions, and maintains turgor pressure is the....
Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids
Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?
In animal cells, hydrolytic enzymes are packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles functions in this compartmentalization?
Chromosomes; genetic control
Which of the following relationships between cell structures and their respective functions is not correct?
The nuclear envelope
Cells can be described as having a cytoskeleton of internal structures that contribute to the shape, organization, and movement of the cell. All of the following are part of the cytoskeleton except....
All living organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the smallest units of life, and new cells only from pre-existing cells by cell division
The cell theory is based on some basic principles. Choose the description that best dresses these principles....
All of the following processes take material into the cells except....
The release of the protein insulin from pancreatic cell occurs by....
Which of the following would likely diffuse through the membrane proteins except....
All of the following would likely diffuse through the membrane proteins except....
What is the major lipid found in membranes?
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient with the help of energy input is....
Cellular membranes are mosaic and....
It exhibits a specificity for a particular type of molecule
Which of the following is a characteristic feature of a carrier protein in a plasma membrane?
Animal cells are permeable to water and urea but not to sucrose. the inside of a cell contains 1% sucrose and 1% urea and the outside 1% sucrose and 2% urea. The solution inside with respect to outside the cell is....
Following a meal, glucose must move from the gut lumen where there is a high glucose concentration into the intestinal cell where there is a relatively low level of glucose. this movement is called....
Phospholipids and proteins
Which of the following types of molecules are the major structural components of the cell membrane?
The artificial membrane lacked the appropriate types of phospholipids for glucose transport
A scientist produces an artificial membrane from phospholipids and notices that oxygen, but not glucose, readily moves through the membrane. What might account for the inability of glucose to move through the artificial membrane?
The celery is hypertonic to fresh water
Placing celery sticks in fresh water will make them more turgid and harder. This is because....
The patient's red blood cells will swell because the blood fluid is hypotonic compared to the cells
A patient has had a serious accident and lost blood. In an attempt to replenish body fluids, distilled water, equal to the volume of blood lost, is transferred directly into one of his veins. What will be the most probable result of this transfusion?
When cells in an organism associate with each other they form....
Which level of organization includes all of the others in that list?
Single-celled organism; multicellular organism
In terms of the hierarchical organization of life, a bacterium is at the _____ level of organization, whereas a human is at the _____ level of organization....
Ecosystem, community, organism, tissue, cell, organelle
Which of the following sequences represents the hierarchy of biological organization from the most to least complex level?
Neurons and gila cells
The two broad classes of cells in the nervous system include....
Sensory neurons and interneurons carry the heat sensation to the brain where it is interpreted as painful
If you touch a hot stove and burn your hand, the pain isn't actually in your hand- its in your head. what evidence can you provide to substantiate this claim?
Neural impulses cause the release of chemicals that diffuse across the gap
Which of the following offers the best description of neural transmission across a synaptic gap?
The resting period in which the membrane is hyperpolarized
After an action potential, the resting potential restored by....
Sodium gates open
In the sequence of permeability changes that depolarizes then repolarizes the membrane of a neuron during an action potential, which of the following changes occurs first?
Node of Ranvier to node of ranvier
An impulse relayed along a myelinated axon "jumps" from ______ to _______....
Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell
The sodium-potassium pump of neurons pumps....
You are out at night and hear a sound in the bushes. The electrical signal carrying this information to your brain is carried first by....
When the cell is not sending signals, the electrical difference between the inside and outside of a neuronal membrane is specifically referred to as the _____ potential....
Sensory neuron>>Interneuron>>Motor neuron
In a reflex arc, the correct sequence of cell types through which an electrical signal would pass would be....
What type of neuron is responsible for carrying electrical signals away from the CNS to elicit a response in the body?
Where do synaptic vesicles discharge their contents by exocytosis?
Integration of simple responses to certain stimuli, such as the patellar reflex, is accomplished by which of the following?
Neurotransmitters are released from presynaptic axon terminals into the synaptic cleft by which mechanism?
Duct tape is to its cardboard roll as the myelin sheath is to the....
To serve as a center for reflex as a center for reflex actions and to facilitate communication between the brain and spinal nerves
The primary functions of the spinal cord are....
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
The divisions of the NS that have antagonistic actions, or opposing actions are....
Incoming sensory nerve impulses are lost
When the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is cut....
The simplest nervous system found in nature is the nerve net. An example of an organism that senses and responds to the environment with this system would be a....
Decreased ability to balance
Damage to the cerebellum could result in....
Somatic and autonomic
The peripheral NS can be divided into....
Is an automatic, involuntary response
A reflex action....
I,II & III
The general functions of the NS include which of the following: I. integration II. Motor output III. Sensory input
Brain and spinal cord
The central NS of animals consists of....
Which part of the NS is most involved in preparation for the fight or flight response?
What controls the heart rate and breathing?
The brain region that has become especially important as a "relay center" for information paling from sensory structures to the cerebellum is the....
If the regulation of hunger and thirst mechanisms goes haywire, the brain region that is most likely damaged is the....
Cranial nerves are connected directly to the brain....
We only use 10% of our brains
Which of the following is a neuromyth?
Changes in the brain with experience
____ limits learning....
A nerve impulse induced by sugar stimulated sweet receptors on the tongue
Which of these is a sensation and not a perception?
Part of the inner ear that recognizes rotational equilibrium and movement
What are the semicircular canals?
Choroid layer contains the light receptor cells and connects them with the optic nerve
Which is not true of the layers of the human eye?
Pinna, ear drum, ossicles, oval window, basilar membrane, hair cell
The correct sequence for a sound traveling into the mammalian ear would be listed as....
Cornea, aqueous humor, pupil, lens, vitreous humor, retina
The correct order in which a light ray reaches the retina is....
The fluid in the eye between the cornea and lens
What is the aqueous humor?
Rods are activated by bright light and cones are better suited to night vision
Which of the following statements about the eye is not true?
Hair cells and tectorial membrane
The organ of Corti consists of....
Only in the CNS
Where does perception of sensory stimuli occur?
The ____ changes shape to focus light on the retina....
Mostly rods with some cones
If you were building an eye to function primarily in low light but preserve some ability to perceive color, you would construct it using....
Nerve impulses are sent to the brain from the ear by way of the cochlear nerve....
The ____ of the retina, which is responsible for acute vision, has densely packed cone cells....
Focusing the eye by changing the shape of the lens is called....
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