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Terms in this set (143)
Edward Titchener was concerned primarily with the study of
The early school of psychology that used introspection to reveal the mind's makeup was known as
Compared with the structuralists, early behaviorists were much less likely to focus on the study of
The scientific study of behavior without reference to mental processes was of special interest to
Professor Schroeder argues that children have an innate concept of justice that enables them to distinguish between fair and unfair rules. This argument is most consistent with the views of
In the context of debates over the origins of ideas, nature is to nurture as ________ is to Locke.
Debates as to whether the excessive use of alcohol is biologically determined or culturally influenced are most relevant to the issue of
nature and nurture
An integrated explanation of human behavior provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by
a biopsychosocial approach
Understanding why the fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
Which perspective would be most helpful for understanding the role of retrieval practice on long-term memory of information?
Inherited traits are to learned habits as the ________ perspective is to the ________ perspective.
Basic research on persistent human traits like optimism and pessimism is most characteristic of the specialty known as ________ psychology.
Professor Thurstone investigates whether a teacher's negative perceptions of some students can affect the students' test scores. Professor Thurstone is most likely a ________ psychologist.
Testing your ability to recall information you have just studied improves your long-term retention of that information. Psychologists have referred to this as
Who was the functionalist who authored a textbook for the emerging discipline of psychology?
To study inner sensations, images, and feelings, Edward Titchener engaged people in self-reflective
Which early school of psychology was most clearly focused on understanding the adaptive value of complex mental processes?
The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized by
A study of the relationship between reasoning capacities and brain functions would be of most direct interest to
The suggestion that psychology is less a set of facts than a method of evaluating ideas best highlights the ________ character of psychology.
Wilhelm Wundt was both a
physiologist and philosopher
In debating the origins of human traits, Plato and Aristotle disagreed about the relative importance of
nature and nurture
The importance of inherited behavioral traits was most clearly highlighted by
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the links between hormone levels and sexual motivation?
Professor Reed attempts to assess the relative contributions of heredity and home environment on children's susceptibility to depression. Her research best illustrates the concerns of the ________ perspective.
Focusing on the extent to which personality is influenced by motives outside our own awareness is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
The marriage rituals of different ethnic groups are of most relevance to the ________ perspective.
Professor Helms conducts basic research on the progressive changes in infants' perceptual skills during the first year of life. Professor Helms is most likely a ________ psychologist
Dr. Stevens provides psychotherapy to people who suffer from excessive anxiety. Dr. Stevens is most likely a ________ psychologist.
SQ3R is an acronym for an effective
After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates
Political officials who have no doubt that their own economic and military predictions will come true most clearly demonstrate
Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate
the accuracy of our intuition
The tendency to perceive meaningful patterns in random sequences of outcomes often leads us to underestimate the extent to which outcomes result from
When Leanne read a newspaper report that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the children's behavior had been assessed using scientifically appropriate methods. Leanne's reaction best illustrates
Hindsight bias leads people to perceive psychological research outcomes as
Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates
If someone were to flip a coin six times, which of the following sequences of heads (H) and tails (T) would be most likely?
all sequences would be equally likely
By testing their predictions with the observational methods of science, psychologists are most clearly relying on
an empirical approach
Considering the credibility of one's sources of information is most indicative of
Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?
After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. She has probably suffered damage to her
The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the
To monitor the electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n)
Your life would be most immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the
Stimulation of the reticular formation will cause a
sleeping can to awaken
When people were shown happy and angry faces, their ________ was found to activate in response to the angry faces.
Research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to
substance use disorders
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?
The brain devotes more tissue within the ________ for body areas requiring the most precise movement control such as the fingers.
The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as
If you lose a finger, the somatosensory cortex that received its input will begin to pick up signals from the neighboring fingers. This best illustrates the value of
Speech is processed primarily in the right hemisphere by the ________ of those who are left-handed and by the ________ of those who are right-handed.
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
The visual cortex is located in the
Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by
Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates
Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.
left cerebral hemisphere
Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are
more similar in their risk of developing autism spectrum disorder and more similar in risk of being emotionally unstable
Adoptive parents are LEAST likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.
Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new or strange situations. This best illustrates the impact of
Heritability refers to the extent to which trait variations among individuals are attributable to their differing
Researchers studying mice have found that in utero exposure to certain chemicals can cause genetically identical twins to have different colored fur. This is best explained by the fact that genetically linked traits can be modified by
Chromosomes are composed of
Identical twins who have separate placentas are somewhat less similar than identical twins who share a placenta. This best illustrates the influence of ________ on development.
Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are
fraternal twins who were raised apart
Adopted children are especially likely to have similar ________ if raised in the same home
Identifying the interactive influence of specific DNA sequences and child-raising practices on the development of traits such as anxiety best illustrates the specialty area known as
molecular behavior genetics
The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of
The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by
Piaget's cognitive developmental theory
Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a
concept of conservation
A child's realization that others may have beliefs that the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of
a theory of mind
The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as
a critical period
Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother's side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of
"I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.
After Nadia learned that penguins can't fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of
During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a
sense of object permanence
Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others' emotional states is most characteristic of
autism spectrum disorder
Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of
Intense and reactive infants become unusually anxious and aroused when facing new or strange situations. This best illustrates the impact of
Compared with the children of authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are
more likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence
Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates
The first time that Liza heard the loud sound of her father's bass drum, she responded with fear. The fear response is most clearly an example of
John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of
Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n)
Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a
Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates
A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Kim-Li still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates
If you have a "frightening experience" immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n)
You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a
Months after she was beaten up by a robber, Courtney's heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney's anxiety
After being bitten by his neighbor's dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of
The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the
Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates
the law of effect
In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as
If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.
Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin's behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule
Punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant responding.
If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates
Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of
A word of praise is to a soothing back rub as ________ is to ________.
conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer
A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustrates
For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.
Some teachers have reduced the disruptive classroom behavior of students by imposing a time-out following disruptive behavior. In this case, the time-out is a
Rats most easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with
An organism's ability to mentally anticipate that a US will follow a CS is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective.
If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates
An empathic husband who sees his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity she is showing. According to many researchers, this best illustrates the functioning of
Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to
perceive the injuries of victims of violent crimes less severe
If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained b
Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. This provides evidence for the role of ________ in operant behavior.
Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?
When Evie saw that her classmates got the teacher's attention after asking questions in class, Evie started asking questions in class. This best illustrates the impact of
Like European Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis, civil rights activists of the 1960s had parents who
modeled a strong moral of humanitarian concern
After Maya told her friend the 5-digit password to a protected website, her friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. In this instance, the password was clearly stored in her friend's ________ memory
The encoding of information directly into long-term storage without the aid of working memory best illustrates
Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf several times each week on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between
explicit memory and implicit memory
Another term for implicit memory is ________ memory.
Mentally rehearsing the glossary definitions of unfamiliar terms in order to remember them for a later test illustrates
Employing the single word HOMES to remember the names of North America's five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of
Many students review course material at various times during a semester so they will be prepared for the final exam. These students are especially likely to retain the information far into the future. This best illustrates the value of
The semantic processing of the words in a short poem illustrates
A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of
Researchers now recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory and refer to it as ________ memory.
When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impossible not to register the meanings of the words. This best illustrates the importance of
Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?
mental image of one's bestfriend
When you have to make a long-distance call, dialing an unfamiliar area code plus a seven-digit number, you are likely to have trouble retaining the just-looked-up number. This best illustrates the limited capacity of ________ memory.
Combining individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best illustrates the value of
Which of the following questions about the word depressed would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you had seen the word on this quiz?
how well does the word describe you?
Which of the following is central to the processing of procedural memories?
Conscious memories of emotionally stressful events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the
Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory?
The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls positive life experiences. This best illustrates that emotional states can become
At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she remembers only the names of the first three and last two neighbors. Her experience best illustrates
serial position effect
Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster the second time even though they can't recall having seen the story before. They have most likely suffered damage to the
Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they first learned of the death of a close friend or family member. This best illustrates ________ memory.
Activating memories of your childhood by forming vivid mental images of various locations in your childhood home best illustrates
Eyewitnesses to a crime often recall the details of the crime most accurately when they return to the scene of the crime. This best illustrates
encoding specificity principle
Whenever Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie's experience best illustrates
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