55 terms

Govt 2306 Exam 2

Chapters 4,5,6
STUDY
PLAY
participation paradox
the fact that citizens vote even though a single vote rarely determines an election
voter turnout
the percentage of people who are eligible to vote that actually vote
voting-age population
the total number of persons in the U.S. who are 18 YOA or older, regardless of citizenship, military status, felony conviction, or mental state
direct primary
a method of selecting the nominees from a political party where party members elect the candidates who represent them in the general election
runoff primary
a second primary election that pits the two top vote-getters from the first primary, where the winner in that primary did not receive a majority. the runoff primary is used in states such as Texas that have a majority election rule in party primaries.
open primary
a type of party primary where a voter can choose on election day in which primary they will participate
closed primary
a type of primary where a voter can participate only in the primary for the party of which they are a member
crossover voting
when members of one political party vote in the other party's primary to influence the nominee that is selected
plurality vote
an election rule in while the candidate with the most votes wins regardless of whether it is a majority
party-column ballot
a type of ballot used in a general election where all of the candidates from each party are listed in parallel columns
office-block ballot
a type of ballot used in a general election where the offices are listed across the top, in separate blocks
australian ballot
a ballot printed by the govt (as opposed to the political parties) that allows people to vote in secret
early voting
the practice of voting before electing day at traditional voting locations, such as schools, and other locations such as grocery and convenience stores
chad
the small pieces of papers produced in punching data cards, such as punch-card ballots
electronic voting
voting using touch screens similar to e-ticket check-ins at most airports
negative campaigning
a strategy used in election campaigns in which candidates attack opponents' issue or positions or character
political action committees (PACs)
organizations that raise and then contribute money to political candidates
soft money
money spent by political parties on behalf of political candidates, especially for the purpose of increasing voter registration and turnout
independent expenditures
money individuals and organizations spend to promote a candidate without working or communicating directly with the candidate's campaigns organization
pragmatism
the philosophy that ideas should be judged on the basis of their practical results rather than on an ideological basis. american political parties are pragmatic because they are more concerned with winning elections than with taking clear, uncompromising stands on issues
decentralization
exercise of power in political parties by state and local party organizations rather than by national party institutions
grassroots
the lowest level of party organization. in Texas, the grassroots level is the precinct level of organization
single-member district system
a system in which one candidate is elected to a legislative body in each election district
two-party system
a political system characterized by two dominant parties competing for political offices. in such systems, minor or third parties have little chance of winning
evangelical (fundamentalist) christians
a number of christians, often conservative supporters of the republican party, who are concerned with such issues as family, religion, abortion, gay rights, and community morals
party platform
the formal issue positions of a political party; specifics are often referred to as planks in the party's platform
precinct convention
a gathering of party members who voted in the party's primary for the purpose of electing delegates to the county of district convention
primary
an election held by a political party to nominate its candidates. Texas party primary elections are usually held in the spring
presidential preference party
a primary election that allows voters in the party to vote directly for candidates seeking their party's presidential nomination
party realignment
the transition from one dominant-party system to another. in Texas politics, it refers to the rise and possible dominance of the republican party in recent years
partisan identification
a person's attachment to one political party or the other
swing voters
people who cast their ballots on the basis of personality and other factors rather than strictly on the basis of party affiliation. swing voters are those "independents" that are persuadable by either party's campaign
tipping
a phenomenon that occurs when a group that is becoming more numerous over time grows large enough to change the political balance in a district, state, or county.
dealignment
the situation that arises when large numbers of voters refuse to identify with either of the two parties and become increasingly independent of party affiliation
ticket splitters
people who vote for candidates of more than one party in a given election
lobbying
direct contact between an interest group representative and on officer of government
interest group/pressure group
an organization that expresses the policy desires of its members to officers and institutions of government; also known as a pressure group
lobbyist
in state law, a person who directly contacts public officials to influence their decisions. registered lobbyists are paid to represent the interest of their employers
advocacy
promotion of a particular public policy position
implementation
carrying out by members of the executive branch any policy made by the legislative and judiciary
discretion
the power to make decisions on the basis of personal judgement rather than specific legal requirements
delegate
to legally transfer authority from one official or institution to another
co-optation
the capturing of an institution by members of an interest group. in effect, in such a situation, state power comes to be exercised by the members of the private interest
public interest
the good of the whole society, without bias for or against any particular segment of the society
conflict of interest
the situation that exists when a legislator, bureaucrat, executive, official, or judge is in a position to make a decision that might result in personal economic benefit or advantage
astroturf lobbying
the fabrication of public support for issues supported by industry and special interest groups but which give the impression of widespread public support
texas register
the official publication of the state that gives the public notice of proposed actions and adopted policies of executive branch agencies
revolving door
the interchange of employees between government agencies and the private businesses with which they have dealings
fragmentation
division of power among separately elected executive officers. a plural executive is a fragmented executive
access
the ability to contact an official either in person or by phone. campaign contributions are often used to gain access
late-train contributions
campaign funds given to the winning candidate after the election up to 30 days before the legislature comes into session. such contributions are designed to curry favor with individuals the donors may not have supported originally
umbrella organization
an organization created by interest groups to promote common goals. several interest groups may choose to coordinate their efforts to influence govt when they share the same policy goal. the organization may be temporary or permanent
iron triangle
a working coalition among administrative agencies, clientele interest groups, and legislative committees that share a common interest in seeing either the implementation or the defeat of certain policies and proposals
issue network
fluid alliances of individuals and organizations who are interested in a particular policy area and join together when policy-making topics affect their interests
political movement
a mass alliance of like-minded groups and individuals seeking broad changes in the direction of govt policies
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