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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
scientific revolutions and enlightenment
Terms in this set (48)
Proposed by Greek philosopher Aristotle in the 300s BC, the theory states that the earth is the center of the universe
New theories about the world around us, and ideas to test those ideas using procedures
Five basic steps to test an idea. Developed by Rene Decartes and Francis Bacon
Helped to develop the Scientific Method, believed in using reason to answer scientific questions.
Recognized that the geocentric theory (earth in the center of the solar system) did not explain the movements of the earth, moon, sun and planets correctly
Argued by Copernicus, this theory states the sun is in the center of our solar system
Supported Copernicus and the heliocentric theory; built the first telescope used for astronomy
Wrote scientific laws on gravity and motion; invented Calculus.
Idea that reason can be used to understand the natural world (universe)
1600s-1700s in Europe; time period of optimism and new thinking that was also referred to as the Age of Reason
Social gatherings in Paris where Enlightenment thinkers discussed philosophy and politics
One of the most well-known French philosophers, argued for justice, religious freedom and liberty
Idea from Thomas Hobbes (as well as a book written by Rousseau) that citizens must give up some freedom to a leader in exchange for that leader providing protection and peace
Argued that people were born happy and reasonable, and with equal natural rights.
Life, liberty and the right to own property. John Locke argues that we are all born with natural rights
Rights that all people are born with that can't be taken away - life ,liberty, property (John Locke)
Jean Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher who believed that people were basically born good at heart; also believed that the government should work for the people to benefit the good of everyone
Baron de Montesquieu
French philosopher who developed the idea of separation of powers. His ideas lead to the formation of three branches of government in the United States (Executive, Judicial and Legislative)
A philosopher of the Enlightenment era.
state of nature
imaginary place where philosophers would use view of human nature to determine how human beings would act without government; used this to understand why government existed and what type of government was best
Enlightenment philosopher who wrote about economics. Laissez-faire: an economy without government interference. Developed the theory of capitalism, idea of private property and He believed that human nature was to do what was in the individual's best interest, and that would benefit everyone in the economy
Monarchs who ruled with some Enlightenment ideas, such as freedom of religion
The idea that we can solve society's problems using reason
Wrote the Leviathan, a book that outlined the how people are brutal and nasty in his opinion. He also stated that citizens must give up some freedom to a leader in exchange for that leader providing protection and peace (social contract).
Wrote the Encyclopedia over 27 years in order to spread new knowledge about art, science, government and religion
believed that women should have the same educational rights as men; had the same ability to use reason
monarchy with no limits, kings often used divine right as justification for power
best form of government according to the philosophes. Monarch's power was limited by elected assembly and people had guaranteed rights
A complete change over a relatively short period of time
what kinds of revolutions can there be?
Revolutions in thought/ideas, revolutions in technology, political revolutions. Does not have to involve overthrow of a government
What is the Scientific Revolution?
New way of thinking that developed when scholars began to pose theories about the natural world and develop procedures to test those ideas
what factors led to the scientific revolution?
Factors leading to it included ideas from the Middle East during the Crusades and through trade (Islamic science, math), Renaissance (challenged church thinking, interest in Ancient logic) The Age of Exploration (saw new plants, people that the ancients hadn't known);
what changes in society led to the dawn of modern science?
challenging of traditional thought; Geocentic and Heliocentric theories for example
what discoveries occurred in astronomy, physics, and math during the Scientific Revolution?
Heliocentric theory, orbiting the sun in an oval pattern, telescope, explanation of universal gravity, calculus
step one of the scientific method
identify a problem- Nicolas Copernicus: recognized geocentric theory was not accurate
step two of the scientific method
form a hypothesis/theory-Issac Newton: gravity impacted objects in space as closer to earth
Step 3 of Scientific Method
Testing the hypothesis/observe/experiment- Galieo Galilei-build the first telescope used for astronomy-observation
Step 4 of Scientific Method
Record Results/findings- Tycho Brahe: made detailed measurements of planets
Step 5 of Scientific Method
Analyze Results/make conclusion-Johannes Kepler: used Brahe's measurements and mathematics to prove Copernicus' heliocentric theory right and planets travel in elliptical orbits
Newton: Laws of Universal Gravitation
how did the scientific revolution affect society?
People began to question the role of the Roman Catholic Church. Expanation of the ideas of collecting facts, using logical reason
how did the catholic church respond to many new scientific theories?
over time, embraced reason, but with limits
how was the Enlightenment influenced by the use of reason?
Scientists made discoveries about the physical world. Led to question can they use reason to develop human nature and society
what new views did philosophers have about human nature and government?
Hobbes- Need gov't to impose order. Give up some freedoms to have peace. Need a strong leader (Absolute Monarch)
Locke- Purpose of gov't is to protect natural rights. Need consent of governed. People have the right to overthrow if gov't fails to protect rights.
Rousseau- Gov't should work to benefit common good-not just the wealthy. There isn't a contract with gov't, but a contract with each other.
Montesquieu- Separation of powers (prevents abuse of power). Divide power among branches/Checks and balances
what type of government did most support?
what new views did philosophers have about society?
Hobbes- People are selfish and greedy. Life was poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
Locke- People are happy, tolerant, and reasonable.
Rousseau- Born good, but society corrupts human nature.
Montesquieu- Humans are basically good, but power corrupts.
Adam Smith - all will work in own self-interest, but this benefits everyone; laissez-faire economics
where did the Enlightenment originate?
how did the Enlightenment ideas spread?
Social gatherings called Salons- Wealthy Parisian women
Urbanization (growth of cities)
what did the ideas of the enlightenment inspire in places like American colonies and France?
why was there a limit to the reforms that Enlightened Despots would be willing to enact?
Only helped a certain group of people, they would take themselves out of power, made reforms to increase their own power
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