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BIO 101 FINAL

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following questions CANNOT be answered by the scientific method
Did the US act appropriately when it invaded Iraq?
Which of the following areas is NOT heavily influenced by biology
Biology influences ALL theses areas
Your friend believes astrology should be considered a scientific discipline and you want to explain to her why its not. What is the reason why astrology isn't considered a true scientific discipline?
Astrology cannot be tested and proved by controlled experiment
The set analytical and mathematical tools designed to help researchers gain understanding from the data they gather called
Statistics
After generating a hypothesis, a scientist next:
makes a prediction
You hypothesize that there is a casual connection between having the name Kyle and becoming a pitcher. Which of the following is a reasonable testable prediction for your hypothesis?
Examination of the list of all minor league players named Kyle will reveal that they are all pitchers as well
A powerful way to demonstrate that observed difference between a treatment group and a control group truly reflect the effect of the treatment is for researchers
to conduct the experiment over again
Which of the following is usually employed before the others by an investigator using the scientific method?
make observations
Biology is to science as ____is to _____
basketball to sports
Which of the following is the BEST was to state the relationship between "data" and "results"
"data" are the facts you collect from your experiment, while "results" are your interpretation of what the data mean
What is step 4 of the scientific method
conduct a critical experiment
In a scientific experiment a control group
can be compared with an experimental group to assess whether one particular variable is causing a change in the experimental group
In science, theories tend to be ___ then hypothesis
broader in shape
Which of the following statements is correct
A hypothesis that does not generate a testable prediction is not useful
__may have biases that affect their abilities to perform in an objective fashion
all of the above are correct
if your hypothesis is rejected then
you may still have learned something important about the system you were testing
Statistical Methods make it possible to
determine how likely it is that certain results may have occurred by chance
All of the following are branches of biology EXCEPT
geology
Why is it that creationism can never be accepted as a scientific explanation of the origin of life?
because the ideas of creationism can't be tested through experiment and observation
Superstitions are
irrational beliefs that actions not logically related to a course of events influence its outcome
In a well designed experiment
A & B are both correct
Biology is
the study of living things
Which of the following is an important feature of the scientific method
Anyone should be able to repeat an experiment
Which of the following is NOT of central importance to the study of biology
the technical application of research findings
The raw materials of science are
observations
When a chewing gum manufacturer makes claim, "4/5 dentists surveyed recommended sugarless gum for their patients that chew gum", how many dentists need have been surveyed for the statements to be true?
5
Which of the following is most correct?
you can accept/reject a hypothesis, but it to be true
which of the following questions would be least helped by application of scientific method?
formulating public policy on euthansia
if you conduct an experiment that rejects your hypothesis, then:
the null hypothesis was a better fit to your data
in a scientific experiment, a control group
can be compared with an experimental group to assess whether 1 particular variable is causing a change in the experimental group
How can science best help each of us understand the role of humans in nature?
science can provide understanding of how the systems of nature work
all of the following are branches of science except
logic
saturated fatty acids have _____ than unsaturated fatty acids, which is why they exist as a _____ at room temperature
fewer double bonds : solid
on food packages, insoluble "fiber" refers to plant material that we can't fully digest but it is important for maintaining a healthy digestive tract. this substance refers to an
carbohydrate
the nucleus of an atom is usually made up of
protons and neutrons
Which of the following nucleotide bases are present in equal amounts in DNA?
A & T : adenine and thymine
the principal components of cell membranes are
lipids
an element is:
a substance that can't be broken down chemically into any other substance
Helium is not reactive molecule because
it's 1st shell is full with 2 electrons
the secondary structures of a protein refers to
alpha helices and beta sheets
which statement about phosolipids is false
because their phosphate groups repel each other, they are used as organisms, chief form of short term energy
a complex polymer built of amino acids is called
polypeptide
an amino acid is a polypeptide as a
nucleotide is to a nucleic acid
which of the following statements about cellulose is false?
all are true
the number of protons in an element also called its ___ identifies the element
atomic number
3 principal bonds
covalent, ionic, hydrogen bonding
sucrose and lactose are examples of
disaccharides
which of the following statements about enzymes is NOT TRUE
enzymes are permanently changed when they take place in a chemical reaction
covalent bonds
2 atoms that share electrons
ionic bonds
2 atoms of opposite charge are attracted to each other
pH of a fluid is a measure of
how acidic/basic it is
adenine strands to
thymine
number of protons in a element is the
atomic number
phosolipids assemble into bilayers driven by the attraction of their "tail" portions to each other and of their "head" portions to each other the tail regions are
hydrophobic
multiple atoms linked together are called
a molecule
the tendency of molecules to stick together, cohesion, is stronger in water then in other liquids because
the polarity of water allows a hydrogen atom from 1 water molecule to form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen atom of another water molecule
which of the following molecule is not formed by covalent bonding
NaCl
phosphate groups are important components of
nucleic acids
water molecules form which type of bond with other water molecules
hydrogen bonds
which of the following is not an important biological function of lipids?
all above are true
all matter on earth, both living and non-living is made up of
atoms
a complex polymer built of monosaccharides is called
polysaccharides
pure water and AQS are neither acidic/basic are sad to be
neutral
a nucleotide consists of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar and __ are linked together by covalent bonds
a nitrogen containing base
all monosaccharides important in living systems contain
carbon
__ smallest chemical unit of a type of pure substance
an atom
certain molecules act like bank accounts for H+ ions because they can absorb excess H+ ions to keep solutions from becoming too acidic and release H+ ions to keep the solution from becoming too basic such molecules are called
buffers
. In which organelle are lipids synthesized and modified with in the eukaryotic cell?
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum
In the figure, the round, knobby structures are _________ and the Y-shaped post-like structures with semi-circular receptors are ____________.
HIV Particles: CD4 markers
Membrane-bound vesicles containing a substance synthesized by a cell fuse to the outer cell membrane and release their contents to the outside world. What is this process called?
exocytosis
You measure the concentration of a polar molecule inside and outside of a cell. You find that the concentration is high and gradually increasing inside the cell. You also measure the ATP concentration inside the cell and find that it is dropping. What would be your best hypothesis for the process that is occurring?
active transport
Which of the following organelles is responsible for degrading waste within the cell?
lysosome
Eukaryotic cells may contain all of the following EXCEPT:
a peptidoglycan cell wall
"Beta-blockers" do all of the following EXCEPT:
bind to the cytoplasmic side of a receptor protein
The lipids within the fluid mosaic of the plasma membranes are held in place by:
hydrophobic interactions
Prokaryotic organisms lack:
organelles
What is the main function of the nucleolus?
It is the site of ribosome-subunit synthesis.
_________ are found in all metabolically active cells and are involved primarily in transporting materials within, into, and out of cells.
vesicles
Osmosis is _________ specialized than diffusion because it involves _________
more; water
Sugar and CO2 are dissolved in water to make carbonated soft drinks. Which of the following is the solute?
the sugar and the CO2
In eukaryotic cells, vesicles connect which of the two major organelle compartments?
the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus
If the solution surrounding a cell contains less solute than the cytoplasm, the osmotic condition is said to be:
hypotonic
Interacting systems of molecules enclosed in compartments called __________ evolved 3.8 billion years ago in living organisms.
cells
The primary function of molecular membranes is the transport of ions and molecules in and out of cells. The movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to those of high concentration against chemical gradients is best described as:
active transport
The rough ER is the site of protein synthesis and the smooth ER is the site of lipid synthesis. What is the third compartment of the endomembrane system and what is that compartment's function?
Golgi apparatus: finishes the processing of the proteins and sorts them for export out of the cell
Which of the following is NOT a way in which the cell's surface membrane interacts with the exterior environment?
The cellular surface organizes the interior organelle organization of the cell
Although cells tend to be spherical, several factors influence cells to assume other shapes. Which of the following is NOT such a factor?
number of mitochondria
To absorb large particles, cells engulf them within their plasma membrane in a process called
endocytosis
According to the theory of endosymbiosis, the origin of chloroplasts probably involved:
engulfing of small photosynthetic prokaryotes by larger cells
Nuclear ______ are specialized holes in the ________- layered nuclear envelope that separates the nucleus from the ___________.
pores; two; cytoplasm
Which of the following is the outermost feature on the surface of a plant cell?
cell wall
Which of the following is a correct description of how exocytosis functions in transporting molecules across the cellular membrane?
Vesicles are filled with molecules in the interior of the cell and then fuse with the membrane to deposit the molecules outside of the cell.
The organelle in the figure is found in:
plants and animals
Which of the following cell membrane components are present in plant cells but absent in animal cells?
plasmodesmata
Which of the following is NOT a function of the plant vacuole?
photosynthesis
The passive transport of water across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration is best described as:
osmosis.
Given that a cell's structure reflects its function, what would you predict that the function of a cell with a large Golgi apparatus would be?
secretion of digestive enzymes
Which of the following is a cellular characteristic of ALL eukaryotes?
a nuclear membrane
The lysosomes in a human cell contain approximately ________ type(s) of digestive enzymes.
50
What makes the rough endoplasmic reticulum rough?
it is covered with ribosomes
If the solution surrounding a cell contains less solute than the cytoplasm, the osmotic condition is said to be:
hypotonic
Which of the following cellular components contains hydrolytic enzymes associated with the digestion of macromolecules?
lysosmes
Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is FALSE?
It is present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
In aquatic environments, water moves ___________.
down the water concentration gradient
The largest structure in a eukaryotic cell is the ____________ and it is surrounded by______ membranes.
nucleus; two
Which of the following BEST summarizes the differences between osmosis and diffusion?
Osmosis deals only with water.
What cell type in animals has a flagellum?
sperm
What are the two distinct "faces" of the phospholipids that make up the surface membrane of a cell?
A and C are correct
Which one of the following organelles is NOT found in both plant and animal cells?
central valcuole
Eukaryotic cells may contain all of the following EXCEPT
a peptidoglycan cell wall
Which of the following organelles are enclosed by a double membrane?
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Which of the following is NOT an important structural feature on the surface membrane of an animal cell?
cell wall
The cell connections represented in the figure are:
desmosomes
The object depicted in the figure:
is an animal cell
The most effective portion(s) of the visible spectrum in driving photosynthesis is (are):
both A and C are correct
Which of the following does NOT occur during the Calvin cycle?
splitting of water
Three different metabolic pathways are responsible for the production of ATP. What are they?
glycolysis, the reactions on the electron transport chain, and the Krebs (citric acid) cycle
The generation of ATP by the movement of protons down their concentration gradient occurs in:
both A and B are correct
Aerobic bacteria:
lack mitochondria
Energy used in cellular respiration can originate from:
carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Life gains most of its energy originally from
sunlight
Which of the following statements about fermentation is NOT correct?
All the above correct
What's the difference between stoma and stroma?
Stoma is the singular of stomata, the gas exchange pores in the leaf of the plant, while stroma is the fluid that fills the inner space of a chloroplast
What are the resulting products of the splitting of water in photosynthesis?
electrons, oxygen, and hydrogen ions
Bubbles come from the leaves of an Elodea plant when it is put under water because:
oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis.
Carotenoids:
are accessory pigments in chloroplasts that protect the chlorophyll by absorbing excessive light energy
Which of the following statements about glycolysis is INCORRECT?
It requires oxygen
In photosynthesis, both the first and the second photosystems
generate energy storage molecules
What is the function of the pigment molecules in photosynthesis that are not at the center of a photosystem?
They gather photons and transfer energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll
What is the first step in CAM photosynthesis?
plants open their stomata at night to take in carbon dioxide
Biologically speaking, a pigment:
is a molecule that absorbs photons.
Different steps in cellular respiration occur in different locations in the mitochondria. Which of the following does not properly match a step of respiration to its proper location?
All of the above are correct matches between function and location.
During C4 photosynthesis
plants are able to continue producing sugars even when they must close their stomata to reduce water loss during hot days.
Cellular respiration is the process by which
energy from the chemical bonds of food molecules is captured by an organism.
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
in the stroma of the chloroplast
All alcoholic beverages are produced as the result of:
cellular respiration by yeast occurring in the absence of oxygen. (fermenation)
Which by-product of photosynthesis was important in altering the atmosphere of the earth so that aerobic organisms could evolve?
Oxygen
Which of the following products of the light reactions of photosynthesis are later employed in the Calvin cycle?
NADPH and ATP
During the Calvin cycle, rubisco's function is to:
fix carbon to RuBP
In cellular respiration
a, b, & c are correct
Photosystems:
- are arrangements of light-catching pigments within chloroplasts.
An inherited disease results from abnormal mitochondria passed from mother to child. Using your knowledge of mitochondria's function within human cells, which of the following is the most likely description of the symptoms of this disease?
extreme muscle weakness
Measures of overall DNA similarity between chimpanzees and humans reveal that _____ of our base pairs are the same.
96%
The "green revolution" refers to:
The global intensification of agricultural production
When a triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is CGA, the corresponding codon for the mRNA that is transcribed from it is:
CGU
The expression of a gene to form a polypeptide occurs in two major steps. What are these two steps in the right order?
Transcription and the translation
The double helix model of DNA suggested by Watson and Crick was exciting to the scientific community because
It explained how genetic material could be duplicated by means of the complementary strands
Most genes come in alternative forms called:
Alleles
Alternate versions of a gene are called_____. They can code for different _____of the same character.
Alleles and traits
An important difference between mRNA and DNA is
mRNA contains uracil instead of thymine, which is found in DNA
The incidence of Tay-Sachs disease has been reduced 75% since the introduction of genetic screening in 1969. Which of the following is NOT an important component of the reduction in incidence of Tay-Sachs disease?
The fact that Tay-Sachs is caused by a dominant allele
The complementary base pairs in a DNA molecule are stabilized by:
Hydrogen bonds
Bt corn is a genetically engineered plant. What feature gives it value as a crop plant?
The plant produces a toxin designed to kill corn borers
Bacteria use restriction enzymes to
Destroy foreign DNA
A different base in RNA replaces 1 of the 4-nucleotide bases in DNA. Which base is it, and what is the replacement?
Thymine is replaced by uracil
Which of the following statements about the metabolism of ethanol (in alcohol) is INCORRECT?
All the about are correct
During the polymerase chain (PCR), 2 strands of DNA are separated by:
Exposure to heat
A frameshift mutation:
Results from an insertion or deletion in a DNA sequence
The central dogma of molecular biology states that:
DNA is transcribed into RNA which is translated into protein
A "pseudogene" is best defined as:
A DNA sequence that arose from a duplication of a functional gene, but which itself is not expressed
Which of the following is the primary site of the protein assembly within eukaryotic cells?
ribosomes
Gene therapy involves:
Introducing non-defective genes into the cells of an individual with a genetic disorder
A young scientist has discovered a new species of grub worm in the Amazon. He would like to explore the possibility that in this grub worm the codon CUC is the start codon and codes for methionine not leucine as it does in other worms. He has been unable to get his research funded to date most likely because:
The genetic code is universal to all species
Which of the following is a symptom of vitamin A deficiency?
blindness
Mutation rates
Can be affected by environmental factors
DNA is now often used as evidence in criminal trials. It is particularly useful because it can be found in:
All of the above are correct
The combination of DNA from two or more sources is called:
Recombinant DNA
Using traditional crossbreeding techniques, scientists have been able to create featherless chickens. Which of the following has NOT been shown to be a problem with featherless chickens?
Featherless chickens have trouble digesting corn
Transgenic bacteria are bacteria:
That have a sequence of DNA from another organism inserted into them
Which of the following correctly describes the locations of transcription and translation within a eukaryotic cell?
DNA is transcribed in the nucleus, then the mRNA transcript is transported to the cystol to be translated into protein
The Russian-American biochemist Phoebus Levene was the first to determine that nucleotides may contain one of four different nitrogen-containing bases. Levene believed that the nitrogen-containing bases occurred in equal amounts in DNA. What is the actual proportion of these bases?
- DNA contains equal amounts of adenine and thymine, and equal amounts of guanine and cytosine.
In humans, genes make up ______ of DNA.
less than 5%
In order for translation to occur:
There must be large numbers of free amino acids present in the cytosol.
Genetically modified weed-resistant canola plants were cultivated in Canada, making it possible for farmers to apply herbicides freely to kill the weeds but not the canola plants. What went wrong with this scenario?
The weed-resistant canola plants spread by seed to neighboring farms that weren't growing canola. The weed-resistant canola plants grew out of control, because traditional herbicides could not kill them.
DNA is a macromolecule that stores information. Which component of DNA is the source of this information?
the base
You amplify the same gene from two different people using PCR (polymerase chain reaction). When you electrophorese the two samples on a gel, you see that two bands are present in the sample from Individual 1, while only one band is present in the sample from Individual 2. What is a likely explanation for this outcome?
Individual 1 is heterozygous, while individual 2 is homozygous
The mechanism by which the information contained in DNA is coded into a complementary RNA copy is called:
Transcription
Golden Rice:
Could help the 250,000 children each year who are at risk of blindness due to Vitamin A deficiency
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot produce ________________, a chemical that allows cells to take up and break down sugar from the blood.
insulin
A given section of DNA with the sequence AATGGCTAT is transcribed. What is the corresponding sequence on the mRNA transcription?
UUACCGAUA
The human genome is composed of approximately how many base pairs?
3 billion
During eukaryotic translation, mRNA carries genetic information from the ________ to the ________, where amino acids are assembled into proteins.
Nucleus; ribosome
The first gene therapy experiments were undertaken in an attempt to cure otherwise fatal genetic diseases in children. What type of incurable genetic disease was the first gene therapy trial attempting to cure?
Immune deficiency
Phylogenetic trees are built using:
a, b and c are all correct
During transcription, at the point where the DNA strand being copied has an adenine, _______________ is added to the mRNA.
uracil
After amplifying one gene of interest using PCR (polymerase chain reaction), you pour your DNA sample into a gel to ensure that the reaction worked. To your surprise, two bands are present on the gel instead of a single band. What is a likely explanation for this outcome?
Two alleles exist for the gene and they vary in size.
One of the possible concerns about genetically modified foods is that they might kill organisms that we don't want to kill. Which of the following is an example of this phenomenon?
The pollen from plants containing insect-killing Bt genes can be blown onto other plants. Insects that we don't want to kill, such as monarch butterflies, may be killed by such pollen.
From DNA to protein involves which series of events
Transcription - translation
Within interphase, which of the stages is defined by the active replication of the cell's genetic material?
The DNA synthesis phase
The DNA in linear eukaryotic chromosomes is wrapped around proteins called _____________, which keep the DNA from getting tangled and enable an orderly, tight, and efficient packing of the DNA inside the cell.
Histones
In some species, sex is determined by environmental, rather than genetic, factors. This is true of:
turtles
The division of the cytoplasm during cell division is referred to as:
Cytokinesis
Seventy to ninety percent of the genetic material in a gamete made in your body could be inherited from your mother. How could this be?
You receive many mitochondria, which have their own genome, from your mother, but not from your father.
Down syndrome results from which of the following chromosomal abnormalities?
All or part of a third copy of chromosome 21
Which of the following statements is NOT correct of human sex chromosomes?
All diploid cells have both an X and a Y chromosome.
Crossing over is the mixing of chromosomes, which results in the recombination of genes on the same chromosome. Which of the following correctly describes the process of crossing over?
- Two chromatids (one maternal and one paternal) break off at corresponding points on homologous chromosomes. The pieces of chromatid rejoin to the chromosome in each other's places.
The planned process of cell suicide is called:
Apoptosis
Using a light microscope, it is easiest to see chromosomes:
During mitosis and meiosis because the condensed chromosomes are thicker and therefore more prominent.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Turner Syndrome?
XX genotype
Trisomy 21 is a consequence of _______________________, the unequal distribution of chromosomes during meiosis.
nondisjunction
The difference in sizes between male and female gametes results from two unequal divisions of __________________ in female gamete development.
cytoplasm
Which of the following human sex chromosome genotypes is not possible?
Y_
Separation of the chromatids at the end of metaphase leads into the next phase, which is:
Anaphase
The human genome comprises
46 chromosomes
The Gap 1, DNA synthesis, and Gap 2 phases of the cell cycle are collectively called:
Interphase
A karyotype
Can be used to diagnose Down syndrome in humans
Mitosis results in:
Daughter cells with the same number and composition of chromosomes.
Sex cells having the _______ number of chromosomes are called _________.
Haploid; gametes
Some fertility clinics now promise that a couple can choose the sex of their baby. What technique might allow for this?
both a & d are correct
Which of the following does NOT occur during Prophase I of meiosis?
Homologous pairs of chromosomes align at the metaphase plate.
The egg cells of a horse contain 32 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the horse's liver cells?
64
In the ______________ process of DNA replication, each of the single strands becomes a double strand as an enzyme connects the appropriate complementary base to the exposed base.
Metaphase is the only stage of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes have condensed and aligned, but have not yet separated.
If a cell becomes arrested within the cell cycle because it is unable to replicate its DNA, which of the stages would you predict it would become arrested in?
Gap 1 phase
Which of the following are features that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells?
Both b) and d) are correct
Which of the following DOES occur during Anaphase I of meiosis?
The chromosomes move toward the poles.
Between the stage in the cell cycle where the genetic material is replicated and the process of cell division begins there is a stage referred to as:
Gap 2
this figure depicts
mitotic metaphase
Crossing over takes place during
meiosis
In humans, the haploid number, n equals
23
Mitosis results in:
Daughter cells with the same number and composition of chromosomes.
Some animals are primarily asexual in their reproduction, but have the ability to switch to sexual reproduction under certain conditions. Why might an animal that generally reproduces asexually make this switch to sexual reproduction?
To increase the genetic diversity of its offspring during periods of stress
What is the definition of "female"?
Producing the larger, less motile gamete
Which of the following does NOT represent a way in which meiosis and mitosis differ?
Chromosome replication occurs before mitotic division, but not before meiotic division.
Which of the following statements is NOT correct of human sex chromosomes?
All diploid cells have both an X and a Y chromosome
Chemotherapy is one common treatment for cancer. Which of the following are aspects of chemotherapy?
All the above are correct
Cytokinesis
Refers to the division of a cell's cytoplasm
A karyotype is a physical representation of all the chromosomes in a single cell; however, the cell must be in mitotic metaphase when the karyotype is made. Why?
Metaphase is the only stage of the cell cycle in which the chromosomes have condensed and aligned, but have not yet separated.
The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of four phases, in the following order:
Mitosis, Gap 1, DNA synthesis and gap 2
The purpose of mitosis is to enable existing cells:
To generate new, genetically identical cells
How many sex chromosomes does the normal human female inherit from her mother?
1
The only situation in which a person can survive without one of a pair of chromosomes is:
Turner Syndrome, X_, in which a female has only one sex chromosome.
In most bacteria, the DNA is carried:
In a single circular chromosome.
The number of chromosome pairs in a species:
None of the above is true
Nondisjunction:
Is the unequal division of the genetic material during cell division?
In DNA replication, when the DNA molecule separates into two strands:
Only a) and b) are correct
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that the alleles at one locus separate independently of those at other loci. This law does not apply:
To genes located close together on the same chromosome.
Which of the following was NOT true of Gregor Mendel?
He understood basic concepts about DNA replication.
If a true-breeding, blue-flowered plant was crossed with a true-breeding white-flowered plant, what phenotypic ratio would we observe in the progeny resulting from this cross? Assume the white-flowered trait is completely dominant.
100% white
Linked genes:
Are on the same chromosome.
A true-breeding red rose is repeatedly mated with a true-breeding white rose, and all of their offspring are red. If two of these red offspring are mated, what percentage of their offspring will be red?
75%
Which of the following statements is true regarding pedigree analysis?
Darkened shapes always represent individuals with the trait being traced.
Phenotypes are generally a product of:
The genotype in combination with the environment.
The same genetic condition that causes sickle-cell anemia can also protect against:
malaria
Cystic fibrosis, which is usually lethal before reproductive ages, is a homozygous recessive disease. Why do cases continue to arise, even though people with the disease rarely live to reproduce?
The harmful allele can reside in heterozygous individuals with few to no negative effects.
Assuming that a particular disorder is caused by an allele of a single gene, what feature of a pedigree would allow one to conclude that the disorder was caused by a dominant allele?
Two affected parents have an unaffected child.
Assuming that a particular disorder is caused by an allele of a single gene, what feature of a pedigree would allow one to conclude that the disorder was caused by a dominant allele?
Two affected parents have an unaffected child.
Which of the following did Gregor Mendel never see?
Alleles
Autosomal recessive traits:
can skip generations
Is it possible for a woman to have a X-linked recessive trait? If it is, how can this occur?
both B and C are correct
How many human traits are controlled by a single gene?
Over 9,000
A plant with pink flowers is allowed to self-pollinate. Generation after generation, it produces pink flowers. This is an example of:
A true-breeding plant
A male with an X-linked recessive disorder mates with a female that is a carrier for this same X-linked recessive disorder. Which of the following is the correct expected frequency of this disorder in their children?
50% frequency in both the sons and the daughters
A situation in which the heterozygote offspring of two homozygotes show a phenotype intermediate between those of the parents is called:
Incomplete dominance
Which of the following statements about dominant traits is correct?
None of the above is correct
The sickle-cell allele is considered to be pleiotropic because:
It has at least two effects: disrupting oxygen delivery and protecting against malaria.
In the case of Mendel's peas, a single gene determined the height of the plant. However, in humans, adult height is influenced by many genes. A trait such as human height is said to be:
polygenic
Sex-linked traits:
Often are expressed in different frequencies in males and females.
Some genes, such as the human ABO blood groups, have more than two alleles. For these genes:
Individuals can only possess two alleles.
The phenotype of an organism can best be determined by:
observing the organism
The law of segregation states that:
Each of two alleles for a given trait segregates into different gametes.
Which term refers to the genetic control of continuously varying traits such as height?
polygenic
Gregor Mendel performed his famous experiments on:
garden peas
Phenylketonuria is a good example of the environmental effects on phenotype because:
Its adverse effects can be avoided by limiting the amount of phenylalanine in the diet.
In genetics, the separation of alleles or homologous chromosomes during meiosis so that the haploid daughter cells have one allele or the other but never both is also referred to as:
both A and B correct
Which of the following pairings, indicated by letters referring to blood type phenotypes, CANNOT produce a child with type B blood?
O x O
How can an individual whose parents did not have the "fish odor syndrome" trait inherit that trait?
If each parent were a silent carrier of the "fish odor syndrome," then their offspring would have a 25% chance of having the syndrome.
The ABO blood type system in humans is a system that contains ________ alleles that produce __________ different phenotypes.
3; 4
Phenylketonuria is a genetic disorder that:
Causes the inability to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine
Genes that are _____________ do not assort independently, but they may recombine by crossing over.
linked
Jay has type O blood, and his brother Alan has type AB blood. What are the genotypes of these boys' parents?
IAi and IBi
When crossing-over occurs, _______________ genes usually stay together.
linked
A diploid individual with two identical alleles for a particular gene is said to be:
pleiotropy
How can two pea plants that have different genotypes for seed color be identical in phenotype?
One of the two plants could be homozygous for the dominant allele while the other could be heterozygous.
Population bottlenecks occur when:
all of the above are correct
The phenotype of an organism is:
its physical characteristics
The migration of reproductive individuals among populations results in a movement of alleles called:
gene flow
The origin of all genetic variation is:
mutation
A population is:
a group of individuals of the same species that have the potential to interbreed
Artificial selection is likely to produce population-level changes most quickly in organisms with:
a short generation time
The contribution of a genotype or phenotype to the genetic composition of subsequent generations relative to other genotypes or phenotypes best describes which of the following concepts?
fitness
In Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass, the Red Queen tells Alice, "in this place it takes all the running you can do to stay in the same place." How is this statement logically connected with the idea of evolution by natural selection?
As individuals change to better fit their environment, their environment changes as well, subjecting the individuals to continually changing selective pressures.
"Survival of the fittest" may be a misleading phrase to describe the process of evolution by natural selection because:
survival matters less to natural selection than reproductive success does.
Species that are only distantly related but occupy similar environments often come to resemble each other through a process known as:
convergent evolution
In examples of convergent evolution, it can be demonstrated that organisms of the two groups that converged:
occupy similar environments
Many mosquito populations today are resistant to pesticides that were historically effective. This pesticide resistance arose in these populations because:
some individuals were resistant to the pesticides before they were used, and those mosquitoes were more likely to survive and reproduce.
The average time to death from starvation in a fruit fly is about 20 hours. Selecting for increased starvation resistance in fruit flies:
can produce populations in which the average time to death from starvation is more than 160 hours.
Evolutionary change as a result of natural selection ALWAYS leads to:
none of the above is correct
In a fish population in a shallow stream, the genotypic frequency of yellowish-brown fish and greenish-brown fish changed significantly after a flash-flood randomly swept away individuals from that stream. This change in genotypic frequency is most likely attributable to:
gene flow
Genetic drift will have the greatest effects for populations:
that are very small
Human birth weight is a classic example of the results of:
stabilizing selection
Which of the following statements about Charles Darwin is FALSE?
He was enthusiastic about unleashing his theory of natural selection on the world as soon as he thought of it.
Evolution is defined as:
a change in the frequency of alleles in a population over time
Natural selection results from interactions between:
individual organisms and their environment
In Australia, most of the typical mammalian roles are filled by marsupial mammals. There is a marsupial "wolf," several species of marsupial "mice," marsupial "squirrels," and marsupial "anteaters." This example shows the importance of the study of ___________________ in understanding evolution.
biogeography
All of the following statements are true about mutations EXCEPT:
the mutation rate can be affected by genetic drift
All of the following statements are true about mutations EXCEPT:
the mutation rate can be affected by genetic drift
Which of the following traits CANNOT be modified through artificial selection on a laboratory population?
none of the above; all could be modified through artificial selection
All of the following are types of natural selection EXCEPT:
furniture selection
______________ selection favors organisms that have character values at both extremes of the phenotypic distribution.
disruptive
Which of the following phrases describes a type of natural selection in which the mean characteristics of a population are preserved?
stabilizing selection
Brassica oleracea was a European wild plant. Early farmers were able to use artificial selection on this plant to produce cabbage, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, kale, broccoli, and cauliflower. This diversification through selection was possible because:
the species contained large amounts of genetic variation
Which of the following is the best measure of an organism's fitness?
the number of fertile offspring it produces
Under the right conditions, which type of selection is most likely to lead to the formation of new species?
disruptive
The longer two species have been evolving on their own, the greater the number of _____________________ that accumulate between them.
genetic differences
Which of the following is a statement that describes the concept of convergent evolution?
organisms that are not directly related develop similar traits
A storm washed five female and five male tiger beetles from the mainland to a small island that had no previous population of tiger beetles. In tiger beetles, having six spots (A) is dominant to having four spots (a). All ten beetles had six spots, but one male and one female were heterozygous for the four-spot trait. If six of the beetles died randomly without reproducing, the ratio of the genotypes could be quite different in subsequent generations. This change in allele frequencies would be an example of:
genetic drift
When a sudden change in the environment, such as a flood or a fire, reduces the size of a population, the survivors' collective gene pool will be only a limited representation of what was present before the disaster. This phenomenon is called:
the bottleneck effect
A breeder of thoroughbreds selects only the fastest horses for breeding stock. This is an example of artificial ____________ selection.
directional
Natural selection decreases genetic variability in a population. This statement is:
sometimes correct, especially in cases of stabilizing selection.
Radioactive isotopes emit high-energy particles that can damage DNA. These substances are known as:
mutagens
What is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection?
Artificial selection requires human intervention, whereas natural selection does not require human intervention.
A gene pool consists of:
the total of all alleles present in a population.
You have several hives of honey bees, Apis mellifera, that you keep in your backyard. Some bees uncap and remove dead larvae from cells, while others leave dead larvae in the cells; this difference is genetically determined. After a particularly hot summer in which many bees die from disease, you notice that the only hives remaining are the ones in which bees uncap and remove dead larvae. You have witnessed:
a, b, & c are all correct
Until the middle of the 19th century, all peppered moths (Biston betularia) observed around Manchester, England, were light in color. In 1845, a single black peppered moth was reported. As Manchester became more industrialized and dark soot began to cover the bark of the trees, the frequency of black moths increased greatly. The change in proportion of light and dark forms resulted from:
directional selection
______________________ is an action or signal on the part of one organism that alters the behavior of another organism.
communication
The waggle dance is:
used for food location in honeybees.
Behaviors that are learned easily and by all (or nearly all) individuals in a species are called:
prepared learning.
When the sexes of a species differ in size or appearance, it is called:
sexual dimorphism.
Monogamy, a relatively rare system outside of the birds, evolves when:
both males and females have high and equal parental investment.
Of the approximately 10,000 species of birds, ______________________ appear to be monogamous.
more than 90%
The sex with the greater energetic investment in reproduction will be ___________________ when it comes to mating.
more discriminating
Biologist W.D. Hamilton stated that the more closely related two individuals are:
the more likely they are to act altruistically towards each other.
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about fixed action patterns?
Fixed action patterns are an example of prepared learning.
Arguments that a morphological characteristic or behavior has evolved because it benefits the species or population are arguments for:
group selection
In birds, after fertilization but prior to emergence of the chicks, the development of the fertilized egg is:
external
When the female silkworm moth is ready to mate, she:
releases a potent chemical into the air.
In Belding's ground squirrels, why are females much more likely than males to engage in altruistic behavior by sounding alarm calls?
Females tend to remain in the area in which they were born, so the females that call are warning their own kin.
Kin selection theory would lead us to predict that:
children in step-families are injured more frequently than those living with their biological families.
When one vervet monkey grooms another, the monkey being groomed has its fitness improved because:
the groomer is removing parasites.
An animal will preferentially feed on:
the prey that provides the most energy relative to effort.
In polygynous mating systems:
there is usually greater variation in reproductive success among males than among females.
Mate guarding is a reproductive tactic that functions to:
reduce paternity uncertainty.
When a goose spots an egg outside of its nest, the goose gets out of the nest and rolls the egg back. Once started, a goose continues the egg-retrieval movement all the way back to the nest, even if the egg is taken away during the process. This is called:
a fixed action pattern.
A comparison of the graphs in the figure shows that:
males maximize reproductive success by mating with as many females as possible.
In amphibians, it is generally the case that:
neither the female nor the male invest much energy in the care of offspring.
In a species such as elephant seals, in which males are significantly larger than females, the most likely mating system is:
polygyny
Among Natterjack toads in northern Europe, males produce booming calls to attract females. Females desire large males and the size of the male determines the volume of the call. Why is the Natterjack's call considered an "honest signal"?
because the call of a large Natterjack male cannot be faked by a smaller Natterjack male
Usually the female is more discriminating than the male when it comes to mating. However, in bush crickets, the opposite is the case. Why is this?
The male contributes a massive amount of energy to the female during mating—his ejaculate makes up about one-fourth of his body weight.
Human babies quickly and easily develop a fear of snakes, yet they don't easily develop a fear of guns. Why?
During most of the history of human evolution, snakes were dangerous to humans and guns didn't exist.
Altruistic behavior in animals may be a result of kin selection, a theory maintaining that:
genes are more likely to persist within a population when they cause behaviors that assist other animals who share those genes.
Cross-cultural studies are important in studying behavioral biology because:
they allow us to evaluate the hereditary component of behaviors by revealing behaviors that persist throughout different cultures.
Why is this goose in the figure rolling a beer can back to her nest?
She's exhibiting a fixed action pattern that directs her to retrieve any item that even vaguely resembles an egg.
Which of the following is NOT a topic in animal behavior?
All of the above are topics in animal behavior.
Acoustical communication includes all of the following EXCEPT:
honeybee waggle dance
Two types of polygamy are:
polygyny and polyandry.
The fixed action pattern found in geese, in which they will retrieve a model egg the size of a basketball preferentially to retrieving their own egg, was able to evolve because:
Both a) and b) were necessary for the particular behavior to evolve.
From an evolutionary perspective, behavior can be viewed best as:
a trait that can satisfy the three conditions required for evolution by natural selection.
Which of the following is the best way to distinguish male from female?
Males produce motile gametes.
In a random study of 1,000 wills, it was shown that ___________________ received the smallest share of a deceased's estate.
non-relatives
Sexual dimorphism refers to:
the situation in which males and females differ physically and/or behaviorally
Molecules released by an individual into the environment that trigger behavioral responses in other individuals are called:
pheromones
In polygynous mating systems:
there is usually greater variation in reproductive success among males than among females.
The energy that a parent puts into the growth, feeding, and care of offspring is called:
reproductive investment
Most apparent acts of altruism in the animal kingdom have proved, on closer inspection, to be not truly altruistic. Instead, they have evolved as a consequence of either _____________________ or _____________________.
kin selection; reciprocal altruism
In the graph in the figure, the x axis represents _________________ and the y axis represents _________________.
number of mates; number of offspring
The Belding's ground squirrel giving off an alarm signal in the figure would most commonly be:
an older female in the colony in which she was born.
When individuals of any species find themselves in an environment that differs from the environment to which they are evolutionarily adapted, we observe that:
they engage in behaviors better fit to the environment the species evolved in than the environment the individual organisms find themselves in.
Gestational diabetes is thought to be the consequence of:
conflict between the mother and the fetus with respect to how much food the fetus should be given.
Kin selection is defined as:
selection for a behavior that lowers an individual's own chances of survival or reproduction, but raises those of a relative.
When a male fish defends his nest:
he increases the percentage of eggs in the nest that he will fertilize.
The arrow in the figure represents:
time
Systematics is:
the study of the diversity of life to understand its evolutionary history.
Which of the following molecules was NOT present in the pre-biotic environment?
molecular oxygen
A phylogenetic tree:
is a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships.
Plant species A has a diploid chromosome number of 18. Plant species B has a diploid chromosome number of 10. A new species C arises as an allopolyploid of species A and B. What is the most likely diploid chromosome number of species C?
28
Archaea and bacteria diverged:
3 billion years
Which of the following pairs of structures most likely represents homology?
a lion's paw and a chimp's hand
The idea of "punctuated equilibrium" suggests that species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. When evolution does occur, according to this idea, it happens sporadically and relatively quickly compared to the species' full duration on earth. This idea of evolution in spurts challenges which of the components of Darwin's theory of evolution?
a & b are correct
According to the biological species concept, species are natural populations of organisms that have the potential to interbreed and that are ____________ isolated from other such populations.
reproductively
The difference between macroevolution and microevolution is that:
they take place on different time scales
Homo sapiens is the name of a species. Homo is the name of a genus. Hominidae is the name of a family. Primate is the name of an order. Mammal is the name of a:
class
Sequencing DNA from different organisms has been a breakthrough for phylogenetics because:
we now have a method to determine the relatedness of organisms that leave no fossils.
__________________ isolating mechanisms include hybrid mortality and hybrid infertility.
postzygotic
Classification is an important aspect of understanding and describing the many life forms on earth. In their classification scheme, biologists use different "ranks" that are more or less inclusive. Which of the following correctly lists these ranks from most to least inclusive?
domain, phylum, family, genus, species
Applying what you know about punctuated equilibrium versus gradualism, which method of speciation is most likely to lead to punctuated equilibrium?
polyploidy
A population of organisms that breaks away and becomes different from the original population through isolation and separate evolution might eventually become a separate:
species
"Establishing a phylogeny for bacteria is more difficult than establishing a phylogeny for plants or animals." This statement is:
correct because bacteria can engage in lateral gene transfer.
Life arose from non-life around _________ years ago.
4 billion
Which of the following is a pair closely-related homologous features?
bear paw and bat wing
In a set of classic experiments performed in the early 1950s, Urey and Miller subjected an experimental system composed of H2, CH4 (methane), and NH4 (ammonia) to electrical sparks. A few days later, they found ________________ in their system.
amino acids
At the time life first appeared on earth, the atmosphere contained large amounts of carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and:
nitrogen
Phase 1 of the creation of life on earth was _____________________. Phase 2 was the formation of self-replicating, information-containing molecules. Phase 3 was the development of a membrane, which enabled metabolism and created the first cells.
the formation of small molecules containing carbon and hydrogen
All mammals have hair because they inherited that trait from a common ancestor. Features that are inherited from a common ancestor are called:
homologous features
Which of the following gases was the least abundant in the earth's atmosphere 3.5 billion years ago?
- oxygen
Which of the following BEST explains the finding that the nuclear DNA of house cats and African wild cats has a very high degree of similarity?
House cats and African wild cats share a recent common ancestor.
If formerly interbreeding organisms are prevented from the production of fertile offspring, ____________ has occurred.
reproductive isolation
If formerly interbreeding organisms are prevented from the production of fertile offspring, ____________ has occurred.
genus
The idea that evolutionary change is slow and continuous is BEST described as:
gradual change
The pace of evolution in which there is little change for long periods of time interrupted by short periods with major changes is called:
punctuated equilibrium.
Giraffa is a taxon at which level?
genus
Which of the following groups would be placed nearest the fungi in a phylogenetic tree based on DNA sequences?
animals
One plant species that has evolved in the manner depicted in the figure is:
wheat
At the time life first evolved on earth:
there was less oxygen and more methane in the atmosphere than there is today.
Populations of Larus gulls around the North Pole show an unusual pattern of reproductive isolation. Each population is able to interbreed with its neighboring populations, but populations separated by larger geographic distances are not able to interbreed. This type of species complex is known as a:
ring species
The extinction that occurred on earth 65 million years ago was immediately followed by:
the rapid divergence and radiation of modern mammals.
To which one of the following is the bat's wing NOT homologous?
the dragonfly's wing
The taxonomic rank that includes genera but not orders is:
family
What is the approximate age of Earth?
4.6 billion years
The morphological species concept:
groups species based on similar phenotype
Which of the following is NOT caused by bacteria?
malaria
The honeycreepers are a group of Hawaiian birds with many different species that all evolved from a single species that migrated from the Americas. The speciation of the honeycreepers is most likely to be an example of which pattern of evolution?
adaptive radiation
Scientists disagree about how many species are currently on earth for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
there is controversy over whether natural selection is the only mode of speciation.
Interacting systems of molecules enclosed in compartments called __________ evolved 3.8 billion years ago in living organisms.
cells
The __________________________ propelled the flowering plants to an explosive adaptive radiation
evolutionary innovation of the flower