ECOL 182R: Martinez Chapter 53A
Terms in this set (96)
consists of the multiple communities of organisms that live in an area along with abiotic components such as the soil, climate, water, and atmosphere
Flows of energy and nutrients
Biotic and abiotic components linked by...
Autotrophs are AKA
An organism that can synthesize its own food from inorganic sources
Primary producer form the basis of ecosystems
transforming the energy in sunlight or inorganic compounds into the chemical energy stored in sugars
Gross Primary Productivity
The total amount of chemical energy produced in a given area and time period
Cellular Respiration, Growth and Reproduction
Two ways primary producers use chemical energy
Using energy to stay alive
Growth and reproduction
Use of the remaining called the net primary productivity (NPP)
NPP = GPP - R
Formula for NPP
R stands for
Net Primary Productivity
Energy that is invested in new tissue or offspring
organic material that
non-photosynthetic organisms can eat
represents the amount of energy available
to consumers and decomposers
Eat primary producers
Eat primary consumers
Eat secondary consumers
feed on detritus
Detritivores are also known as...
the waste products or dead remains f other organisms
Flows of energy and nutrients
The four components of an ecosystem are linked by the ...
How much incoming light is captured by plants?
Photopigments, light wavelengths
____________ absorb only a fraction of ____________ available
Photosynthetic, reduced, winter
_____________ rates are drastically __________ in the ___________
In _________ conditions, __________ also stalls
The efficiency of ___________ is __________ dependent
Energy __________ as it flows through ecosystems
________ cycle through ecosystems
Connects the trophic levels in a particular ecosystem
Describes how energy moves from one trophic level to anjnother
Decomposer food chain
made up of species that eat the dead remains of organisms
Grazing food chain
composed of the network of herbivores (primary consumers) and the organiusms that eat herbivores (secondary consumers)
Primary Producer, primary decomposer of consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, quaternary consumer
trophic levels from the bottom to the top
Higher trophic levels
The decomposer and grazing food chain often merge at...
food chains are usually embedded in more complex....
compact way of summarizing energy flows and documenting the complex trophic interactions that occur in ecosystems
Biomass, ingestible, transferred, decays
In a forest much of the ______ is tied up in _________ wood and is not __________ to other organisms until it _______
NPP, marine, higher
The percentage of ______ that gets consumed in _______ habitats, where most of the primary production is done by algae, is much _______
5% live leaves to 95% dead leaves and wood
Primary consumer to primary decomposer consumption in a typical forest
40% live algae to 60% dead algae
Primary consumer to primary decomposer consumption in a typical marine system
The total biomass produced each year is greatest at the ______ trophic level and declines at ______ levels
Fraction, growth, reproduction
Only a _________ of the total energy consumed is used for _______ and __________.
Pyramid of productivity
Emerges when graphing biomass produced at each trophic level
a rate, measured in units of biomass produced per unit of area each year
a ratio—the fraction of biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next
In general, efficiency of biomass ____transfer____ between trophic levels is only about...
A phenomenom that occurs when cycling through a food web along with chemical energy, certain molecules increase in relative concentration as they are transferred between trophic levels
Higher, top consumers
The greater the number of trophic levels, the ________ the consequences to the ____________ __________
occurs when changes in top-down control cause conspicuous effects two or three links away in a food web
When a consumer limits a prey population
NPP, higher, light
In general, ______ on land is much _____ than it is in the oceans, because more ________ is available to drive photosynthesis on land than in marine environments
Tropical rain forests
The terrestrial ecosystems with highest productivity are located in...
A combination of temperature and availability of water and sunlight
The global productivity of terrestrial ecosystems is limited by....
At a local level, NPP on land is limited by....
Along the coastlines
Where is marine productivity the highest?
Tropical wet forests and tropical seasonal forests cover less than ____ of Earth's surface but together account for over ______of total NPP
algal beds and coral reefs, wetlands, and estuaries
Among aquatic ecosystems, the most productive habitats are...
NPP per square meter is extremely _____ in the open ocean
Quarter ton of the planet's biomass
Humans are using almost a....
The path that an element takes as it moves from abiotic systems through organisms and back again
_________are taken up from the soil by plants and assimilated into plant tissue
Carbon, carbon dioxide
_______ enters primary producers as ________ _______ from the atmosphere
Nutreints pass to consumers
If the plant tissue is eaten
Nutruents pass to decomposers
If the plant tissue dies
bacteria, archaea, roundworms, fungi, and other primary decomposers
Nutrients that reside in plant litter, animal excretions, and dead animal bodies are used by....
Soil organic material
Formed when microscopic decomposers and the non-gaseous carbon-containing compounds that they release combine
Soil organic material
A complex mixture of partially and thoroughly decomposed detritus
Thoroughly decayed organic material
converts the nutrients in soil organic matter to an inorganic form
uptake by plants
Once decomposition is accomplished, the nutrients are available for which highlights the cyclical nature of nutrient flow through ecosystems
Until _______ occurs, nutrients stay tied up in intact tissues
nutrients move through an ecosystem
The decomposition of detritus most often limits the overall rate at which...
oxygen availability, temperature, and precipitation are examples of...
Abiotic conditions, the quality of the detritus as a nutrient source for the fungi, bacteria, and archaea that accomplish decomposition and the abundance and diversity of detritivores present influence....
uppermost part of the soil consists of partially decomposed detritus and
organic matter in...
Cold, wet conditions
In boreal forests the ______ and ______ ________limit the metabolic rates of decomposers, resulting in the buildup of organic matter
Uppermost layer of soil
virtually absent in tropical wet forests
Tropical wet forests
Conditions are so favorable for fungi, bacteria, and archaea that decomposition keeps pace with detrital inputs in...
Accumulation of detritus and organic matter in...
Tropical wet forests
Almost no organic accumulation
Nutrients leave an ecosystem whenever ________ leaves
Nutrients are lost
If an herbivore eats a plant and moves out of the ecosystem before excreting the nutrients or dying....
______ leave ecosystems when flowing water or wind removes particles or inorganic ions and deposits them somewhere else
Several ________ activities accelerate nutrient loss
Replace lost nutrients
The following are mechanisms that...
1. Atoms that act as nutrients are released as rocks weather
2. Nutrients blow in on soil particles or arrive as solutes in streams
3. Nitrogen is added when nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert molecular nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere to usable nitrogen in ammonium or nitrate ions
must be replaced
For an ecosystem to function normally, nutrients that are lost ...
To test the effect of vegetation removal on nutrient loss from an ecosystem, a study was done at...
Vegetation was taken out of one watershed
Describe the Hubbarb brook experiment
10 times higher
Results of the hubbarb brook study showed that nutrient losses from the deforested site were typically...
1. What are the nature and size of the reservoirs where elements are stored for a period of time?
2. How fast does the element move between reservoirs, and what processes are responsible for moving elements from one compartment to another?
3. How does one ________ cycle interact with another __________ cycle?
Global water cycle
begins with water evaporating out of the ocean and precipitating back into it
When this water vapor moves over the continents, it is __________ by water transpired by plants
water that is found in soil
Streams and groundwater
How is the water cycle completed?
What water is most directly affected by humans?
upper limit of saturated soil, is dropping on every continent