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Chapter 9 Exam 3
Terms in this set (38)
In 1997, a team of ecologists, economists, and geographers, led by eco-logical economist Robert Costanza, estimated the monetary worth of 17 ecosystem services provided by the earth's ecosystems
intermediate-aged or mature trees in a forest are cut singly or in small groups
often remove all the trees from an area
A variation of clear-cutting that allows a more sustainable timber yield without widespread destruction is
what is the most efficient and sometimes least costly way to cut trees
the monetary worth of 17 ecosystem services to be at least $33.2 trillion per year.
Monetary Value of 17 Ecological Services?
at least $4.7 trillion per year—
the world's forests alone provide us with ecosystem services worth at least... $___
Surface fires and crown fires
Two types of fires can affect forest ecosystems.
usually burn only undergrowth and leaf litter on the forest floor. They kill seedlings and small trees, but they spare most mature trees and allow most wild animals to escape.
is an extremely hot fire that leaps from treetop to treetop, burning whole trees. -Crown fires usually occur in forests that have not experienced surface fires for several decades, a situation that allows dead wood, leaves, and other flammable ground litter to accumulate.
Temporary or permanent removal of large expanses of forest for agriculture, settlements, or other uses.
Water pollution and soil degradation from erosion.
Acceleration of flooding.
Local extinction of specialist species.
Habitat loss for native and migrating species.
Release of CO2 and loss of CO2 absorption.
Problem with Deforestation?
Problem with tropical forests?
Studies indicate that at least half of the world's known species of terrestrial plants, animals, and insects live in tropical forests.
WHAT PERCENT OF TERRESTRIAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS LIVE IN THE TROPICAL FORESTS??
tropical forests once covered at least twice as much area as they do today.
HOW MUCH OF THE ORIGINAL TROPICAL RAINFOREST IS STILL HERE??
The nonprofit Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) oversees the certification of forestry operations that meet certain standards.
FOREST STEWARDSHIP COUNCIL
Most of the small amount of tree-free paper produced in the United States is made from the fibers of a rapidly growing woody annual plant called
can make it financially attractive for countries to protect their tropical forests. In such swaps, participating countries act as custodians of protected forest reserves in return for foreign aid or debt relief.
promoted tree planting in her native country of Kenya and throughout the world in what became the Green Belt Movement.
Her efforts inspired the UNEP to implement a global effort to plant at least 1 billion trees a year beginning in 2006.
Haiti has a deforested brown landscape, whereas Dominican Republic has a heavily forested green landscape.
HAITI DEFORESTATION VS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC??
occurs when too many animals graze for too long, damaging the grasses and their roots, and exceeding the carrying capacity of a rangeland area.
Cattle like to graze around natural water sources, especially along streams or rivers lined by strips of vegetation known as
BIGGEST PROBLEM OF U.S. NATIONAL PARKS??
Less than 13% of the Earth's land area was protected.
WHAT PERCENT OF EARTH PROTECTED BY RESERVES?
Conservation biologists call for fully protecting at least 20% of the earth's land area
PERCENT NEEDED TO BE PROTECTED??
WHAT COUNTRY LEADS GLOBAL CONSERVATION SAVING 80% OF BIODIVERSITY??
Land officially designated as an area where natural communities have not been seriously disturbed by humans and where harmful human activities are limited by law
Even so, only about 5% of all U.S. land is protected as wilderness
HOW MUCH WILDERNESS HAS US PROTECTED??
-areas especially rich in highly endangered species that are found nowhere else
where are biodiversity hot spots?
-The process of repairing damage caused by humans to various systems.
Plant trees and take care of them.
Recycle paper and buy recycled paper products.
Buy sustainably produced wood and wood products. and wood substitutes such as recycled plastic furniture and decking.
Help restore a degraded forest or grassland. Landscape your yard with a diversity of native plants
SUSTAINING TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY??
A change in ocean chemistry. Decreases the carbonate ions in ocean water that corals need to build their calcium carbonate skeletons.
is defined as the area of ocean needed to sustain the fish consumption of an average person, a nation, or the world.
marine protected areas (MPAs)—areas of ocean partially protected from human activities.
What are MPAS
Trawler fishing, Drift-net fishing, Purse-seine fishing, Long line fishing
MAJOR COMMERCIAL FISHING METHODS??
only about 1.2% of the world's oceans are fully protected, compared to about 5% of the world's land.
PERCENT OF OCEAN NOT PROTECTED??
such a conservation strategy would cost about $30 billion per year—an amount that could be provided by a tax of one penny per cup of coffee consumed in the world each year.
Protecting world's diversity amounts to __ per coffee cup.
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