US History Regents Review
Terms in this set (138)
A document written by the Pilgrims setting guidelines for self-government
Virginia House of Burgesses
First representative government in the colonies, self-government
Economic system where the mother country benefits - raw materials sent from the colonies, colonists buy finished products from the mother country.
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
French and Indian War
Caused the colonies to want to rebel against the British
Proclamation Line of 1763
British say colonists can't settle past Appalachian Mountains, don't want conflict with Native Americans.
Enlightenment Thinker, influenced Jefferson and Declaration of Independence. Believed that people had natural rights to liberty, life and property
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.
Caused colonists to want to rebel (sugar, tea, stamp etc).
British claimed colonists didn't need representatives in Parliament, they had "virtual representation," or that they spoke for the interests of all British subjects
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Articles of Confederation law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory and a plan for admitting new states to the Union
A document written by delegates at the Constitutional Convention that established a national government in the United States.
a lawmaking body with 2 houses - the Senate and the House of Representatives
The idea that representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress should be based on population, benefitted big states
New Jersey Plan
The idea that each state was represented equally in the legislature, benefitted small states.
Created the House (population) and Senate (equal) while resolving the dispute between the large and small states. Bicameral legislature
each slave would count for 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation purposes
People who opposed the constitution
Supporters of the Constitution during ratification.
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Strict vs. Loose interpretation
Strict interpretation:go exactly by what the constitution says- Thomas Jefferson
Loose:have more liberal views-Alexander Hamilton
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Part of the Constitution which allows Congress to make all laws that are "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers of the Constitution.
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
George Washington's Farewell address
He advised the nation: 1. to stay away from permanent alliances with foreign nations 2. stay away from political parties
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Document that supported States Rights
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
Marbury V. Madison
Established judicial review
President of the United States, first "regular guy" to be elected.
Indian Removal Act
AKA "Trail of Tears" congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
South Carolina tried to assert control over government, President Jackson stopped it. States rights issue
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
1848. Awarded as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo after the Mexican American War. U.S. paid $15 million for 525,000 square miles.
New territory means more problems over slavery
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. Decided Missouri should enter as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Compromise of 1850
Decision over California applying to be a state, North-South agreement that added California as a free state, created a new fugitive slave law.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
The right of the people to decide if there would be slavery in their state or not.
Loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole such as the North and South before and during the Civil War.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Popular book before the Civil War that made people aware of how harsh treatment was for slaves
Abolitionist (wanted to get rid of slavery) who tried to incite slaves in Virginia to rebel against their masters. Failed, was executed.
Dred Scott v. Sanford (aka Dred Scott Decision)
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property - made South happy, made abolitionists work harder
A state withdraws from the Union. South Carolina was the first to secede
President of the United States during the Civil War, his election in 1860 made the South want to secede.
Order issued by President Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves in states rebelling against the Union, took effect January 1, 1863
Period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Political faction after the Civil War who wanted equality and to punish the former Confederacy
Declared that all persons born in the US were citizenship and entitled to due process.
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Became President when Lincoln was assassinated. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote.
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom.
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a portion of the crops. Trapped a lot of former slaves in debt.
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote, directed at African Americans.
A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
Plessy V Ferguson
Supreme Court case (1896) Legalized segregation under the Constitution with the concept of "separate but equal."
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction in exchange for Rutherford B Hayes being made president
Law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867
Completed in 1868, connected east and west coasts of America allowing for faster trade and travel
period in the late 1800s/early 1900s where businesses boomed but there was a big gap between the wealthy and the poor
the combination in one company of two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies.
is the process of a company increasing production of goods or services at the same part of the supply chain. Leads to a monopoly
a derogatory metaphor of social criticism originally applied to certain late 19th-century American businessmen who used unscrupulous methods to get rich.
Steel robber barron, wrote about the rich's responsibility to help the poorer people
the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.
"Survival of the fittest"
Hands off approach to the economy. No government regulations
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Anti-immigrant sentiment (KKK)
Late 19th and Early 20th Century, t response to the abuses of big business - "progress" in society.
one who inquires into and publishes scandal and allegations of corruption among political and business leaders
process in which America remained isolated from foreign affairs
Journalism that exaggerated the truth ("Remember the Maine!" started the Spanish American War)
the state of not supporting or helping either side in a conflict, disagreement, etc.; impartiality.
Message from Germany to Mexico asking for their support in attacking America in WWI and in return they would get their land back. Got America into WWI
Treaty of Versailles
Ended WWI, established the League of Nations
League of Nations
An international organization established after World War I under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. Didn't stop WWII from happening
John Peter Zenger
Trial - think Freedom of the press
An organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States
Foreign Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Open Door Policy
A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that wish to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism.
Reasons for US entry in WWI
Unrestricted submarine warfare, sinking of the Lusitania, Zimmermann Telegram, Russian Revolution
(WW), British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons US decided to join the war
Schenk vs. US
The defendant did not have a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I.
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian radicals who became symbols of the Red Scare of the 1920s; arrested (1920), tried and executed (1927) for a robbery/murder, they were believed by many to have been innocent but convicted because of their immigrant status and radical political beliefs.
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages (18th Amendment)
Nickname for the 1920s because of a boom in business, flappers, jazz etc.
The Great Depression
a time period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment
A name given to October 29, 1929, when stock prices fell sharply. Beginning of Great Depression
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
man who ran for president in 1932. He promises a New Deal to get people out of Hoovervilles and back on the road to prosperity.
The New Deal
1933-1937 Government sponsored programs implemented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to revitalize the economy and alleviate poverty and despair caused by the Depression.
Social Security Act
A 1935 law passed during the Great Depression that was intended to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans and thus save them from poverty
"Packing the Court"
In response to the Supreme Court declaring President Franklin Roosevelt's legislation unconstitutional, Roosevelt tried to add more members to the Supreme Court to support his interests. Not allowed - upsets checks and balances
began when Germany invaded Poland in 1934; US became involved in WWII when Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japan in 1941
Neutrality Act of 1935
Act that allowed nations at war to buy goods and arms in the United States if they paid cash and carried the merchandise on their own ships
Cash and Carry
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
Giving into the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
110,000 Japanese men, women, and children were rounded up and put in camps on the West Coast. Issued by executive order by FDR
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey - CONTAINMENT
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe. - CONTAINMENT
Preventing the spread of communism during the Cold War
Code name of the project that developed the atomic bomb, US dropped on Japan to end WWII
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Chief Justice Earl Warren
Chief Justice on the Supreme Court from 1953 to 1969 who presided over the Brown V. Board of Education case. He used a loose interpretation of the Constitution to expand rights.
Brown V. Board of Education
(1954) U.S. Supreme Court decision that struck down racial segregation in public education and declared "separate but equal'' unconstitutional.
Little Rock Nine
Incident in which nine African-American students were prevented from attending Little Rock Central High in 1957 during the Civil Rights Movement.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Surge in babies born after WWII, drastic increase in population.
John F. Kennedy(JFK)
Elected president in 1960; Democrat; 1stCatholic president; televised debates between Nixon
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, the U.S. went to Cuba in an effort to overthrow communist Fidel Castro. Was a failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
Lyndon B Johnson (LBJ)
Became President after Kennedy was assassinated, signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. Created Medicaid, medicare etc called "Great Society Programs"
Civil Rights Act of 1964
(1964) law under Johnson that made segregation illegal in all public facilities, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States. NOT popular in the United States.
Civil Rights Movement
Movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
An African-American Civil Right's Activist who used peaceful protest such as boycotts and sit-ins. He was assasinated in 1968.
Led the civil rights group Nation of Islam, his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on separationist and nationalist impulses to achieve true independence and equality
the downfall of President Nixon- a cover up of a burglary of the Democratic headquarters at the Watergate apartments
President from 1969-1974, only US President to resign from office
A policy designed to give special compensation to a previously disadvantaged group.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program. In 1965, Congress passed many measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Korematsu v US
This supreme court case followed the movement of 100,000 Japanese Americans moved to internment camps during WWII; the case upheld the US govt's internment policy as justified in wartime.
Mapp V Ohio
The 1961 Supreme Court decision ruling that the Fourth Amendment's protection against "unreasonable searches and seizures" must be extended to the states as well as to the federal government
Miranda V Arizona
1966 ruling that upon arrest, a suspect has the "right to remain silent" and the right to consult with a lawyer. (Law and Order rights)