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Terms in this set (45)
Two successive events (usually initial contact) of the same limb
During one gait cycle, each extremity passes through two major phases: a stance phase and a swing phase.
Some part of the foot is in contact with the floor (60% of the gait cycle)
Foot is not in contact with the floor (40% of the gait cycle)
Sub-phases of the Stance Phase
advance the body in smooth progression and provide stability to the trunk.
Accomplished via rocker motion at the foot/ankle.
Loading Response Phase
-Also called "weight acceptance" phase
- Occupies only a small percentage of the gait cycle (~11%)
- Acts as a fulcrum to roll the foot into plantarflexion
- Begins with initial contact
-Ends when the contralateral extremity lifts off the ground.
- Begins with foot flat
- Ends with heel-off ~40%
- Ankle joint acts like fulcrum
- Tibia rolls forward
- Advances body weight from behind the ankle to the forefoot
- Begins with heel-off ~40%
- Ends with toe-off ~60%
- MTP joint acts as fulcrum
- Accelerates the progression of the limb over the forefoot
Events in the stance phase
1. Initial Contact/Heel strike
2. Foot Flat
Initial Contact/Heel strike
Instant the foot of the leading extremity strike the ground. Normal gait --> Heel is point of contact
-occurs after initial contact, ~7% of the gait cycle
- First instant during stance when the foot is flat on the ground
point at which the body weight is directly supporting the lower extremity ~30% of the gait cycle.
-Point at which the heel leaves the ground. ~40% of the gait cycle
Instant at which the toe of the foot leaves the ground. ~60% of the gait cycle
Sub-phases of the Swing Phase
1. Early swing phase
2. mid-swing phase
3. late swing phase
Early swing phase
"initial swing" or "acceleration phase"
- begins once the toe leaves the ground
-Continues until mid-swing (point at which the swinging extremity is directly under the body)
-When the extremity passes directly beneath the body
- End of acceleration to beginning of deceleration
Late swing phase
- "terminal swing" or "deceleration phase"
- limb decelerating in preparation for heel strike
Both feet are in contact with the ground
- Occurs between the time one limb makes initial contact with the floor and the other leaves the floor at toe off.
- Occupies 11% of the gait cycle for each foot (total 22% for a full gait cycle)
Initial Double Support
Weight acceptance, braking period
- Body decelerates in preparation for stability and support by the limb that completed the swing.
Terminal Double Support
opposite limb initial contact to support limb preswing
-Deceleration of body as weight is transferred to opposite limb
Measures of time during gait
stance time, single-support time, double-support time, swing time, stride time, step time, cadence, speed
amount of time that elapses during the stance phase of one extremity in a gait cycle
amount of time that elapses during the swinging phase of one extremity in a gait cycle
amount of time that elapses during the period when only one extremity is on the supporting surface during a gait cycle.
amount of time spent with both feet on the ground during one gait cycle
- percentage of double-support time may be increased in elderly persons and those with balance disorders.
- percentage of time in double-support decreases as the speed of walking increases
amount of time it takes to accomplish one stride
- called gait cycle duration
- normal adult, one stride lasts ~1 second
amount of time spent during a single step
- measurement usually expressed as seconds per step
- step time may decrease on a side that has weakness of pain and increase on the unaffected side.
number of steps taken by a person per unit of time
- generally measured as #steps/minute.
shorter step length= increased cadence
- increased cadence= decreased time in double-support phase
- when cadence = 180 steps/min., stubbled-support disappears and running commences
male= 110 female = 116
males - 110 steps/minute
females - 116 steps/min
rate of linear forward motion of the body
- measured in m/sec, m/min or miles/hour
- direction is specified
used synonymously with velocity if direction is not reported
Measurements of distance during gait
stride length, step length, step width, degree of toe-out
linear distance between two successive points of opposite extremities
- measured from the heel strike of one extremity to the heel strike of the other extremity
- comparison of right and left step lengths provides an indication of gait symmetry
-linear distance between two successive events that are accomplished by the same lower extremity during gait.
-Measured from the linear distance from the point of heel strike of one lower extremity to the the point of the next heel strike of the same extremity.
- Stride includes two steps (right and left step)
width of the walking base
- measure of the linear distance between the heel of one foot and the same point on the other foot.
- Increase with an increased demand for side-to-side stability (elderly, small children)
Degree of toe-out
- angle of foot placement
- measurement of the angle formed by each foot's line of progression and a line intersecting the center of the heel and the 2nd toe
~7 degrees in normal adults
ankle/foot: posterolateral cancaneus contacts the floor; tibia is externally rotated.
Knee: extended 0 degrees
Hip: maximum flexion ~20 degrees
Foot flat/ Loading response
-ankle/foot: foot relaxes/absorbs shock; tibia internally rotates
-Knee: slight flexion of the knew (~15 degrees) to absorb shock
- Hip: remains flexed.
ankle/foot: tibia reaches maximum internal rotation; preparation for push-off
hip: reaches 0 degrees
Pelvis: weight shift over stance limb; look for Trendelenburg Sign.
Ankle/Foot: Tibia externally rotates
Knee: hamstrings contract to flex the knee
Hip: begins to extend
Pelvis: should be level and neutrally rotated
Terminal Stance (Heel off)
ankle/foot: tibia is externally rotated
hip: extends to ~10 degrees.
Preswing (toe off)
-Last 10% of stance phase
-Both lower extremities are in contact with the ground
ankle/foot: ~10% plantar flexion; must achieve >0degrees dorsiflexion to clear the foot from hitting the floor (normal minimum is ~10); spatial location of foot is lateral and posterior to the body
Knee: flexed ~60 degrees
Hip: begins to flex to advance the lower extremity.
Foot/ankle: tibia externally rotates (clears toes from the ground; facilitates lateral heel contact)
Knee: begins to extend
Hip: flexion continues
ankle/foot: ankle dorsiflexes ~0 degrees; foot is supinated to prepare for foot contact; tibia reaches maximal external rotation.
Knee: reaches terminal extension; should be close to fully extended
Hip: maximum hip flexion reached; ~20-30%.
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