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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II; "BLOOD BASICS": (week 3)

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II; Miller-Motte Chattanooga, Mr. Ford: Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professions by Bruce Colbert
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3 General Functions of the Blood
Transportation - gases, nutrients, wastes, and hormones.
Regulation - pH, fluid balance, and body temperature
Protection- from disease and blood loss
Blood facts
Connective Tissue
7-9% body weight
55% plasma
45% formed elements (blood cells)
Blood Plasma
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph.
91% water
8% Plasma Proteins
1% nutrients, electrolytes, hormones, enzymes, gases, and other materials that move through the blood
Plasma Proteins
Albumin
Fibrinogen
Globulin
Albumin
important in capillary exchange
Fibrinogen
essential for blood clotting
Globulin
used to make antibodies called immunoglobulins
Formed Elements of the Blood
Blood Cells
3 Types of Blood Cells
Erythrocytes : RED BLOOD CELLS
Leukocytes : WHITE BLOOD CELLS
Thrombocytes: PLATELETES
Hematopoiesis
stem cells produce all three types of blood cells
Red Bone Marrow
where blood is produced in the human body
Erythrocytes : RED BLOOD CELLS
transport of oxygen from lungs to body tissues
120 day lifespan
Hemoglobin
molecule in the red blood cells that bind with oxygen
Hemolysis by the Liver or Spleen
the process where old, worn out red blood cells are removed by phagocytic cells
Erythropoietin
the hormone secreted by the kidneys in response to decreased blood oxygen, that stimulates the production of Red blood cells
White Blood Cells
protect the body by destroying pathogens
remove foreign material and cellular debris
3 Granulocyte White Blood Cells
60-70% Neutrophils
.5-1% Basophils
1-4% Eosinophils
60-70% Neutrophils - WBC
Phagocytosis -increased with Bacterial Infections
.5-1% Basophils - WBC
secrete Histamine and Heparin
1-4% Eosinophils -WBC
increased with Parasitic Infections
2 types of Agranulocyte White Blood Cells
20-40% Lymphocytes
2-6%Monocytes
Lymphocytes
20-40% of WBC, found in lymphoid tissue, small percentage circulates in blood, key role in Specific Immunity
Monocytes
2-6% of WBC, Phagocytosis increases with Viral and Chronic Infections
Neutrophils & Lymphocytes
Account for the Majority of White Blood Cells
Neutrophils 60-70%
Lymphocytes 20-40%
Phagocytosis
process by White Blood Cells destroy Pathogens and remove foreign material and cellular debris.
Neutrophils & Monocytes
2 circulating WBC's engaged in Phagocytosis
Macrophages
when monocytes enlarge and mature. essential to the immune system and found in the lymphoid tissues, lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen
Platelets
smallest formed element. are not cells, but fragments released from bone marrow - essential in blood clotting /coagulation
Megakaryocytes
Giant cells in bone marrow that release platelets
HEmostasis
process which prevents blood loss - conditions - Blood Vessel Spasm: Formation of a Platelet Plug: Blood Clotting
Blood Vessel Spasm
smooth muscles in the blood vessels contract to reduce blood flow causing vasoconstriction - reduction in the blood vessels diameter
Formation of a Platelet Plug
activated platelets become sticky and adhere to the defect form a temporary plug
Blood Clotting
coagulation
Agglutination
condition that cause clumping of red blood cells and antibodies in plasma, due to mismatched blood transfusions
Type 0 Blood
universal donor - contains neither A or B antigens
Type AB Blood
universal recipient - contains no anti- A or anti-B antibodies.
Anemia
a blood disorder where there is an abnormally low left of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood which impairing the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. weakness, fatigue, lightheadedness, difficulty breathing, cardiac palpitations and headache.
Leukemia
a cancer that infects the WHITE BLOOD CELL Tissue. bone marrow or lymphoid tissues. extreme increase in WBC that are immature and ineffective which severely depress the immune system. WBC take over the RBC causing anemia, and bleeding problems.
Myelogenic Leukemia
cancer of the bone marrow.
Lymphocytic Leukemia
cancer of the lymphoid tissues.
Clotting Disorders
conditions characterized by an abnormal tendency to bleed because of a breakdown in the body's clotting mechanisms.
Thrombocytopenia
a decrease in the number of platelets circulation in the blood. most common blood disorder
Hematocrit
Red Blood Cell count test expresses the percentage of Red Blood Cells in a volume of blood
below normal result = anemia
above normal result = polycythemia
White Blood Cell Counts
below normal result = Leukopenia
above normal result = Leukocytosis
Platelet Counts
below normal result = Thrombocytopenia
above normal result = Thrombocytosis
Complete Blood Count - CBC
RBC : Red Blood Cell Count
Hct : Hematocrit
Hgb : Hemoglobin
WBC : White Blood Cell Count
Diff : Differential White Blood Cell Count
Platelet Count
BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen
test to determine renal functions -
Urea
is formed in the Liver and is significant nitrogenous waste product from the catabolism of protein for energy
pH
is a unit of measurement that indicates the number of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution.
pH Scale
0 to 10
7 = neutral
below 7 = acid (more H+)
above 7 = alkaline (less H+)
pH in Plasma
range from 7.35 to 7.45 average 7.4
less than 7.35 is acidosis
more than 7.45 alkalosis
Regulation of acid-base pH
1st: Buffer systems, primarily bicarbonate - regulate chemical reactions by removing/adding H+
2nd: Respiration - a decreased in respiration rate decreases pH by retaining more CO2 an increase in respiration increases pH by eliminating more CO2
3rd: Kidneys regulate pH by reabsorbing or excreting H+ as needed.
Vital Capacity Test
Pulmonary Function Test - PFT- measures maximal inhalation and exhalation. It is a measure of airflow function of the lungs. It is used to monitor the ling function of patients with COPD
Urine Test
Specific Gravity measures urine concentration -
Urine color Test - straw color to amber
Urine Odor - non-offensive
Urine pH - normal is 4.6-8 avrg 6
Turbidity - clear to slightly hazy
Sugar/Glucose - <0.5 mg/dl
Protein (Albumin) - 50-80 mg /24 hours
Ketone Bodies - Negative
Bacteria - Negative
Fecal Testing
Amount :100-200 g/day(3.5-7 ozday)
Consistency : Plastic
Form : Soft
Shape : Cylindrical with the same diameter as the colon
Stool pH : Neutral to Slightly Alkaline
Stool Color : Brown
Blood in Stool
-- 2-2.5ml of blood is normal to pass into the GI tract/ 24 hours
--More than 2.8 ml indicates some type of GI pathology
-- Excessive surface blood indicates hemorrhoids or fissures
--Occult Blood (hidden) indicates bleeding in the upper GI tract
Normally there is no mucus in the stool
Electrocardiography
ECG/EKG - produces electrocardiogram which is a recording of the electrical signals of the heart - diagnosis problems with the heart
Echocardiography
produces an echocardiogram which is a test utilizing ultrasound to give a real time 3D view of the functioning of the heart
Holter Monitor
portable EKG for 24 hour monitoring
Stress Test
EKG during progressively increasing physical contact - determines the heart function while under stress
Endoscope
device used to look within the body
Otoscope
used to examine the external ear
Bronchoscope
used to examine the lungs
Gastroscope
used to examine the interior of the stomach
Laparoscope
used to examine the abdominal region