20-40% of WBC, found in lymphoid tissue, small percentage circulates in blood, key role in Specific Immunity
2-6% of WBC, Phagocytosis increases with Viral and Chronic Infections
Neutrophils & Lymphocytes
Account for the Majority of White Blood Cells Neutrophils 60-70% Lymphocytes 20-40%
process by White Blood Cells destroy Pathogens and remove foreign material and cellular debris.
Neutrophils & Monocytes
2 circulating WBC's engaged in Phagocytosis
when monocytes enlarge and mature. essential to the immune system and found in the lymphoid tissues, lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen
smallest formed element. are not cells, but fragments released from bone marrow - essential in blood clotting /coagulation
Giant cells in bone marrow that release platelets
process which prevents blood loss - conditions - Blood Vessel Spasm: Formation of a Platelet Plug: Blood Clotting
Blood Vessel Spasm
smooth muscles in the blood vessels contract to reduce blood flow causing vasoconstriction - reduction in the blood vessels diameter
Formation of a Platelet Plug
activated platelets become sticky and adhere to the defect form a temporary plug
condition that cause clumping of red blood cells and antibodies in plasma, due to mismatched blood transfusions
Type 0 Blood
universal donor - contains neither A or B antigens
Type AB Blood
universal recipient - contains no anti- A or anti-B antibodies.
a blood disorder where there is an abnormally low left of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood which impairing the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. weakness, fatigue, lightheadedness, difficulty breathing, cardiac palpitations and headache.
a cancer that infects the WHITE BLOOD CELL Tissue. bone marrow or lymphoid tissues. extreme increase in WBC that are immature and ineffective which severely depress the immune system. WBC take over the RBC causing anemia, and bleeding problems.
cancer of the bone marrow.
cancer of the lymphoid tissues.
conditions characterized by an abnormal tendency to bleed because of a breakdown in the body's clotting mechanisms.
a decrease in the number of platelets circulation in the blood. most common blood disorder
Red Blood Cell count test expresses the percentage of Red Blood Cells in a volume of blood below normal result = anemia above normal result = polycythemia
White Blood Cell Counts
below normal result = Leukopenia above normal result = Leukocytosis
below normal result = Thrombocytopenia above normal result = Thrombocytosis
Complete Blood Count - CBC
RBC : Red Blood Cell Count Hct : Hematocrit Hgb : Hemoglobin WBC : White Blood Cell Count Diff : Differential White Blood Cell Count Platelet Count
BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen
test to determine renal functions -
is formed in the Liver and is significant nitrogenous waste product from the catabolism of protein for energy
is a unit of measurement that indicates the number of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution.
range from 7.35 to 7.45 average 7.4 less than 7.35 is acidosis more than 7.45 alkalosis
Regulation of acid-base pH
1st: Buffer systems, primarily bicarbonate - regulate chemical reactions by removing/adding H+ 2nd: Respiration - a decreased in respiration rate decreases pH by retaining more CO2 an increase in respiration increases pH by eliminating more CO2 3rd: Kidneys regulate pH by reabsorbing or excreting H+ as needed.
Vital Capacity Test
Pulmonary Function Test - PFT- measures maximal inhalation and exhalation. It is a measure of airflow function of the lungs. It is used to monitor the ling function of patients with COPD
Specific Gravity measures urine concentration - Urine color Test - straw color to amber Urine Odor - non-offensive Urine pH - normal is 4.6-8 avrg 6 Turbidity - clear to slightly hazy Sugar/Glucose - <0.5 mg/dl Protein (Albumin) - 50-80 mg /24 hours Ketone Bodies - Negative Bacteria - Negative
Amount :100-200 g/day(3.5-7 ozday) Consistency : Plastic Form : Soft Shape : Cylindrical with the same diameter as the colon Stool pH : Neutral to Slightly Alkaline Stool Color : Brown
Blood in Stool
-- 2-2.5ml of blood is normal to pass into the GI tract/ 24 hours --More than 2.8 ml indicates some type of GI pathology -- Excessive surface blood indicates hemorrhoids or fissures --Occult Blood (hidden) indicates bleeding in the upper GI tract Normally there is no mucus in the stool
ECG/EKG - produces electrocardiogram which is a recording of the electrical signals of the heart - diagnosis problems with the heart
produces an echocardiogram which is a test utilizing ultrasound to give a real time 3D view of the functioning of the heart
portable EKG for 24 hour monitoring
EKG during progressively increasing physical contact - determines the heart function while under stress