Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis Review

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cell cycle
set of events during which the cell grows and divides
daughter cells
new cells produced by cell division
centrioles
organelles that form the spindles
spindle
guide the chromosomes to the two sides of the cell during mitosis/meiosis
chromatin
the unwound form of DNA that is found in the nucleus prior to cell division.
interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
G1 phase
part of interphase in which the cell undergoes the most growth
S phase
part of interphase when DNA is replicated
G2 phase
stage of interphase in which the cell prepares for mitosis (m phase)
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into 2 nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
prophase
first phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes become visible, centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell, spindles form, and nuclear membrane breaks down
metaphase
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell and attach to the mitotic spindle
anaphase
phase of mitosis in which the spindle pulls the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
telophase
last phase of mitosis in which the chromatids uncoil back to chromatin, the spindle breaks down and the nuclear envelope reforms.
cytokinesis
process by which the cytoplasm of a cell divides; in an animal cell, it is called furrowing, in a plant cell the cell plate forms
meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms- creates four new sex cells with a haploid amount of chromosomes that are genetically different
haploid
a cell with one set of chromosomes
diploid
a cell with two sets of chromosomes; twice the haploid number
gametes
cells produced by meiosis; another name for sex cells
homologous chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, that have relatively similar size and genes
prophase I
first stage of meiosis I, where homologous chromosomes pair together and crossing over occurs
crossing over
when homologous chromosomes swap genes with each other, leading to genetic diversity
metaphase I
second stage of meiosis I in which chromosomes line up with their homologous pair
independent assortment
during metaphase I, the homologous pairs randomly align along the cell's equator, leading to genetic diversity
anaphase I
third stage of meiosis I in which homologous chromosomes are separated to opposite ends of the cell
telophase I
fourth phase of meiosis I, similar to mitotic telophase
prophase II
The first phase of meiosis II. Prophase II is identical to mitotic prophase.
metaphase II
second stage of meiosis II in which the chromosomes line up across the cell.
anaphase II
The third phase of meiosis II. The sister chromatids are spearated at their centromeres and pulled to opposite sides of the cell. The number of chromosmes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
telophase II
The fourth and final phase of meiosis II. Telophase II is identical to mitotic telophase
centromere
holds 2 sister chromatids together
sister chromatids
identical copies formed by DNA replication
two identical diploid cells
end result of mitosis
to repair/replace old, damaged cells and for the growth of the organism
why do cells undergo mitosis
34
If a cell has 34 chromosomes at the beginning of G1, how many chromosomes does each cell have after mitosis?
17
If a cell has 34 chromosomes at the beginning of G1, how many chromosomes does each cell have after meiosis?
46
number of chromosomes that human diploid cells have
23
number of chromosomes that human gametes have
xy
two chromosomes that indicate a male
xx
two chromosomes that indicate a female
gamete
what types of cells are haploid and undergo meiosis?
somatic
what types of cells are diploid and undergo mitosis
n
number of chromosomes in haploid cells is represented by this symbol
2n
number of chromosomes in diploid cells is represented by this symbol
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