Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis Review
Terms in this set (44)
set of events during which the cell grows and divides
new cells produced by cell division
organelles that form the spindles
guide the chromosomes to the two sides of the cell during mitosis/meiosis
the unwound form of DNA that is found in the nucleus prior to cell division.
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
part of interphase in which the cell undergoes the most growth
part of interphase when DNA is replicated
stage of interphase in which the cell prepares for mitosis (m phase)
cell division in which the nucleus divides into 2 nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
first phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes become visible, centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell, spindles form, and nuclear membrane breaks down
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell and attach to the mitotic spindle
phase of mitosis in which the spindle pulls the sister chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
last phase of mitosis in which the chromatids uncoil back to chromatin, the spindle breaks down and the nuclear envelope reforms.
process by which the cytoplasm of a cell divides; in an animal cell, it is called furrowing, in a plant cell the cell plate forms
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms- creates four new sex cells with a haploid amount of chromosomes that are genetically different
a cell with one set of chromosomes
a cell with two sets of chromosomes; twice the haploid number
cells produced by meiosis; another name for sex cells
a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, that have relatively similar size and genes
first stage of meiosis I, where homologous chromosomes pair together and crossing over occurs
when homologous chromosomes swap genes with each other, leading to genetic diversity
second stage of meiosis I in which chromosomes line up with their homologous pair
during metaphase I, the homologous pairs randomly align along the cell's equator, leading to genetic diversity
third stage of meiosis I in which homologous chromosomes are separated to opposite ends of the cell
fourth phase of meiosis I, similar to mitotic telophase
The first phase of meiosis II. Prophase II is identical to mitotic prophase.
second stage of meiosis II in which the chromosomes line up across the cell.
The third phase of meiosis II. The sister chromatids are spearated at their centromeres and pulled to opposite sides of the cell. The number of chromosmes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
The fourth and final phase of meiosis II. Telophase II is identical to mitotic telophase
holds 2 sister chromatids together
identical copies formed by DNA replication
two identical diploid cells
end result of mitosis
to repair/replace old, damaged cells and for the growth of the organism
why do cells undergo mitosis
If a cell has 34 chromosomes at the beginning of G1, how many chromosomes does each cell have after mitosis?
If a cell has 34 chromosomes at the beginning of G1, how many chromosomes does each cell have after meiosis?
number of chromosomes that human diploid cells have
number of chromosomes that human gametes have
two chromosomes that indicate a male
two chromosomes that indicate a female
what types of cells are haploid and undergo meiosis?
what types of cells are diploid and undergo mitosis
number of chromosomes in haploid cells is represented by this symbol
number of chromosomes in diploid cells is represented by this symbol