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373 terms

BC Science 10

STUDY
PLAY
abiotic
relating to non-living parts of an environment such as sunlight, soil, moisture, and temperature
acceleration
the rate at which an object changes its velocity
acceleration due to gravity
acceleration due to gravity in the absense of air resistance; the value of acceleration due to gravity near the surface of the Earth is approximately 9.8 m/s2 downward
accuracy
the difference between a measurement and its accepted value
acids
compounds containing hydrogen that produce a solution with a pH of less than 7 when they dissolve in water and that produce a salt and water when they react with ionic compounds containing hydroxide ions
adaptations
characteristics that enable organisms to better survive and reproduce
adaptive radiation
the development of a number of new species from a common ancestor; the new species are adapted to inhabit different niches
aeration
mixing with air; one method to reduce run-off is to mechanically remove small plugs of soil to improve air and water flow through the soil
air mass
a large body of air with similar temperature and humidity throughout its length
air resistance
a friction-like force that opposes the motion of objects that move through the air
albedo
the amount of radiation reflected by a surface
alcohol
one kind of organic compound that contains C, H, and O, such as methanol and ethanol
alpha decay
the process in which an alpha particle is emitted from a nucleus
alpha particle
a positively charged atomic particle that is much more massive than either a beta particle or gamma radiation and is relatively slow moving; has same combination of particles as the nucleus of a helium atom
angle of incidence
the angle between a ray reaching a surface and a line perpendicular to that surface
anions
negative ions
asthenosphere
a partly molten layer in Earth's upper mantle just below the lithosphere
atmospheres
layers of gases that extend above a planet's surface
atmospheric pressure
the pressure exerted by the mass of air above any point on Earth's surface; also called air pressure
atom
the smallest particle of any element that retains the properties of the element
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which identifies the element to which the atom belongs
average acceleration
average rate at which an object changes its velocity; shown by the slope of a velocity-time graph
average velocity
the rate of change in position for a time interval
balanced chemical equation
a chemical equation that identifies each pure substance in the equation as well as showing the matching number of atoms of each element on both sides
barometer
an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
bases
chemical compounds containing hydroxide that produce a solution with a pH of more than 7 when they dissolve in water, and produce a salt and water when they react with ionic compounds containing positive hydrogen ions
behavioural adaptation
what an organism does to survive in the unique conditions of its environment
best-fit line
a smooth curve or straight line that most closely fits the general shape outlined by the points on a graph; shows the trend of the data. Also called the line of best fit
beta decay
the process in which a neutron changes into a proton, which remains in the nucleus, and an electron, which is emitted from the nucleus along with energy
beta particle
a high speed electron; emitted by a radioactive nucleus in beta decay
binary covalent compound
a compound that consists of two nonmetallic elements joined together by one or more covalent bonds
bioaccumulation
the gradual build-up of synthetic and organic chemicals in living organisms
biodegredation
the breaking down of dead organic matter by living organisms such as bacteria
biodiversity
the diversity of plant, animal life and micro-organisms in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
biogeoclimatic zone
a region with a certain type of plant life, soil, geography and climate
biomagnification
the process in which chemicals not only accumulate but become more concentrated at each trophic level in a food pyramid
biomass
the total mass of living matter in a given unit area
biome
the largest division of the biosphere, which includes large regions with similar biotic components and similar abiotic components
bioremediation
the act of treating waste or pollutants by the use of microorganisms (as bacteria) or plants that can break down the undesirable substances such as chemical pollutants to reverse or lessen environmental damage
biosphere
the thin layer of air, land and water on or near Earth's surface in which all living things on Earth exist
biotic
relating to living organisms such as plants, animals, fungi and bacteria
bohr diagram
a diagram that shows the arrangement of an element's subatomic particles and the number of electrons in each shell surrounding the nucleus of an atom
bonding pair
a pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond
bromothymol blue
an acid-base indicator names after its colour change from yellow to blue over a pH range of 6-7.6
carbon cycle
the nutrient cycle in which carbon is moved through the biosphere; maintains the balance of CO2 in the atmosphere
carbon offset
an emission-reduction credit that people buy to help make up for their greenhouse gas emissions
carbon sink
a body or process (e.g., plants, oceans, and soil) that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and stores it
carbon source
a body or process (e.g., burning fossil fuels or trees) that releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
carbonate
a combination of carbon and oxygen that os dissolved in ocean water
carnivores
secondary consumers that eat primary consumers and often other secondary consumers. They are often at the tertiary level of a food chain; also known as top carnivores
catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed or used up itself
catalytic converter
a stainless steel pollution-control device, shaped like a muffler and located under the frame of a vehicle; converts poisonous gases from the vehicle's exhaust into less harmful substances
catastrophic events
large scale disasters
cations
positive ions
caustic
harsh; describes solutions made from highly reactive bases, such as drain cleaner and oven cleaner
cellular respiration
the process in which both plants and animals release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere by converting carbohydrates and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water
chain reaction
an ongoing process in which one fission reaction initiates the next reaction
change in velocity
change that occurs when the speed of an object changes, or its direction of motion changes, or both; calculated by subtracting the initial velocity from the final velocity
chemical changes
changes in how the atoms and molecules in a pure substance are arranged and interconnected
chemical equation
the representation of a chemical reaction in words or symbols
chemical reaction
one more more chemical changes that occur at the same time
climate
the average conditions of the atmosphere. for example precipitation, temperature and humidity in a large region over 30 years of more
climate change
changes in long-term weather patterns in certain regions
climatograph
a graph of climate data for a specific region; the data are usually obtained over 30 years from local weather observation stations
climax community
a mature community, such as a boreal forest, tropical rainforest, grassland, or desert, that continues to change over time
closed system
a system that does not exchange matter with its surroundings, although energy in the form of radiation can leave or enter the system
coefficients
numbers placed in front of a chemical formula or a chemical symbol for an element that show the ratios between the various compounds in a chemical reaction
combustion
the rapid reaction of a compound or element with oxygen to form an oxide and to produce heat
commensalism
a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither helped nor harmed
community
all the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem
competition
a harmful interaction between two or more organisms that can occur when organisms compete for the same resource in the same location at the same time
composite volcano
a large, cone-shaped volcanic mountain; the cone shape is the result of repeated eruptions of ash and lava
compound
a pure substance that is composed of two or more atoms chemically combined in a specific way
concentration
the amount of substance dissolved in a given volume of solution- for example, the number of hydrogen ions in a specific volume of solution
conclusion
the explanation of the results of an experiment as it applies to the hypothesis being tested
conduction
the transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another or within a solid by direct contact of particles
conservation of mass
the preservation of mass in a chemical reaction; the total mass of the products is always equal to the total mass of the reactants
constant acceleration
velocity changing at a constant rate
consumer
an organism that eats other organisms
contamination
the introduction of chemicals, toxins, wastes, or micro-organisms into the environment in concentrations that are harmful to living things
continental drift theory
the theory that the continents have not always been in their present locations but have moved there over millions of years
convection
the transfer of thermal energy within a fluid and with the movement of fluid from one place to another
convection current
the movement of a fluid caused by density differences
convergent plate boundary
a region where tectonic plates are colliding
convergent plates
tectonic plates that are colliding
coriolis effect
a change in the direction of moving air, water, or objects due to Earth's rotation
correlation
a mutual relation between two or more things
corrosive
biting; describes some acids and bases that can burn or eat away many materials, such as metals and human tissue
covalent bonding
the formation of a chemical bond between atoms through the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons
covalent compound
a compound formed when non-metallic atoms share electrons to form covalent bonds
crust
Earth's outermost layer formed by lighter materials, such as silicon and oxygen, floating to the top during Earth's early cooling period
daughter isotope
the stable product of radioactive decay
DDT
an insecticide and well-known persistent organic pollutant, now banned in many countries
decay curve
a curved line on a graph that shows the rate at which radioisotopes
deceleration
acceleration that is opposite to the direction of motion; a decrease in the speed of an object
decomposers
organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and change them into usable nutrients available to other organisms
decomposition
in biology, the breaking down of organic wastes and dead organisms; in chemistry, a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into two or more elements or simpler compounds
deforestation
the clearing or logging of forests without replanting
denitrification
the process in which nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere
denitrifying bacteria
bacteria that convert nitrate back into nitrogen gas
dependent variable
in an experiment, the factor that changes in response to a change in the independent variable; also called the responding variable
detrivores
consumers that feed at every trophic level, obtaining their energy and nutrients by eating dead organic matter
dew point
the temperature at which water vapour condenses
diatomic molecule
a pair of atoms of the same element that are joined by covalent bonds
displacement
the straight-line distance and direction from one point to another
distance
a scalar quantity that describes the length of a path between two points or locations
divergent plate boundary
a region where tectonic plates are spreading apart
diverging plates
tectonic plates that are spreading apart
double replacement
AB + CD --- AC + BD
earthquake
a sudden, ground shaking release of built-up energy at or under Earth's surface
ecological hierarchy
the order of biotic interactions and relationships in an ecosystem: organism, population, community, ecosystem
ecological pyramid
a food pyramid. There are three types of ecological pyramids: pyramid of biomass, pyramid of numbers, and pyramid of energy
ecological succession
changes that take place over time in the types of organisms that live in an area
ecosystem
a part of a biome in which abiotic components interact with biotic components
El Nino
an unusually warm ocean current that develops periodically off the coast of Ecuador and Peru, often producing unusually mild weather along the coast of British Columbia and in eastern Canada
El Nino-Southern Oscillation
a system of ocean and atmosphere changes in the tropical Pacific region, including El Nino and La Nina events
electromagnetic radiation
the transfer of energy by waves travelling outward in all directions from a source
electrons
subatomic particles that have a 1- (negative) electric charge
elevation
the height of a land mass above sea level
energy flow
the flow of energy from an ecosystem to an organism and from one organism to another
enhanced greenhouse effect
the increased capacity of the atmosphere to trap thermal energy because of an increase in greenhouse gases
epicentre
the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus where an earthquake starts
estimating
making an informed judgement about a measurement
eutrophication
process by which a body of water becomes too rich in dissolved nutrients, leading to plant growth that depletes oxygen
exosphere
the fifth layer of Earth's atmosphere
extinction
the dying out of a species; species become extinct when their numbers are reduced to zero
fair test
A controlled experiment where one variable is changed and all others (to the extent possible) are held constant.
faults
large breaks in rock layers
fission
a nucleur reaction in which a large nucleus breaks apart, producing two or more smaller nuclei, subatomic particles, and energy
fluids
substances in which the particles can flow freely
focus
in geology, the location inside Earth where an earthquake starts
food chain
a model that shows the flow of energy from plant to animal and from animal to animal
food pyramid
a model that shows the loss of energy from one trophic level to another; often called an ecological pyramid
food web
a model of the feeding relationships within an ecosystem; formed from interconnected food chains
force
a push or pull that acts on an object
foreign species
introduced species
front
the boundary between two air masses
fusion
a process in which two low mass nuclei join together to make a more massive nucleus
gamma decay
a process in which an isotope falls from a high energy state to a lower energy state, giving off a high energy gamma ray; the result of a redistribution of energy within the nucleus
gamma radiation
rays of high-energy, short-wavelength radiation emitted from the nuclei of atoms
General Circulation Models
computer models designed to study climate
geologic uplift
the process of mountain building in which Earth's crust folds and deeply buried rock layers rise and are exposed
global warming
the increase in global average temperature
global warming potential
the ability of a substance to warm the atmosphere by trapping thermal energy
gravity
attractive force between two or more masses; causes objects to be pulled toward the centre of Earth
greenhouse gases
gases in Earth's atmosphere that absorb and trap radiation as thermal energy
habitat
the place in which an organism lives
habitat fragmentation
splitting of ecosystems into small fragments
habitat loss
the destruction of habitats that usually results from human activites
half-life
the time required for one half of the atoms of a radioisotope to emit radiation an decay products
heat
the amount of thermal energy that transfers from an area or object of higher thermal energy to an area of object of lower thermal energy
heavy metals
metallic elements with a high density that are toxic to organisms at low concentrations
herbivores
primary consumers that eat plants
hot spot
an area where molten rock rises to Earth's surface
humidity
a measurement that describes the amount of water vapour in air
hurricanes
fierce tropical storms with strong winds
hydrocarbon
an organic compound that contains only the elements carbon and hydrogen
hydrogen ions
electrically charged hydrogen atoms; can be produced when acids are dissolved in solution
hydroxide ions
negative ions of OH--; can be produced when bases are dissolved in solution
hypothesis
a testable proposal used to explain an observation or to predit the outcome of an experiment; often expressed in the form of an "If..." "Then..." statement
ice cores
cyclinders of ice drilled from thick glaciers to determine the types and amounts of gases that existed in the atmosphere when the ice was formed
independent variable
in an experiment, the factor that is selected or adjusted to see what effect the change will have on the dependent variable; also called the manipulated variable
indigo carmine
An acid base indicatior named after its color change from blue to yellow over a pH range of 11.2 to 13.0.
infrared radiation
heat radiation
inner core
Earth's solid centre
inorganic
refers to compounds that generally do not contain carbon; the few exceptions include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ionic carbonates
insolation
the amount of solar radiation that reaches a certain area
introduced species
species moved to new geographic areas, either intentionally or accidentally
invasive species
introduced organisms that can take over the habitats of native species or invade their bodies
ionic bonding
the bond that forms as a result of the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions
ionic compounds
compounds that are composed of positive ions and negative ions
ions
electrically charged particles created when atoms gain or lose electrons
isotopes
different atoms of a particular element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
jet stream
a high-speed high-altitude airstream blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere
keystone species
species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem
kilopascal (kPa)
the SI unit that measures the vertical force of atmospheric pressure per unit area
kinetic energy
the energy of a particle or object due to its motion
kinetic molecular theory
the theory that all matter is composed of particles (atoms and molecules) moving constantly in random directions
La Nina
cooler-than-normal water coming to the surface in the eastern Pacific Ocean due to upwelling; as a result, winter temperatures are often unusually warm in southeastern North American and unusually cold in the north
land use
the ways in which we use land, such as for urban development, agriculture, industry, mining and forestry
latitude
the distance measured in degrees north or south from the equator
leaching
removal by water of substances that have dissolved in moist soil
lewis diagram
a diagram that illustrates chemical bonding by showing only an atom's valence electrons and its chemical symbol
light
one form of radiation that is visible to humans
lithosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
litmus paper
a type of indicator that helps to identify acids and bases
lone pair
a pair of electrons in an atom's valence shell this is not used in bonding
magma
molten rock beneath Earth's surface
magnetic reversal
the process in which Earth's magnetic field, over thousands of years, competely reverses its direction
magnetic striping
a pattern of alternating stripes of different directions of magnetic polarity in rock on the sea floor
magnitude
a number that rates the strength (energy) of an earthquake
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
mantle convection
a recurring current in the mantle that occurs when hotter, less dense material rises, cools, and then sinks again. This current is believed to be one of the driving forces behind tectonic plate movement.
mass
the amount of matter in a substance or an object: the more matter, the greater the mass; usually measured in kilograms (kg)
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom
meniscus
the slight curve at the top of a liquid where the liquid meets the sides of a container
mesosphere
the atmospheric layer between the stratosphere and the thermosphere
metal oxide
a compound containing a metal chemically combined with oxygen
methyl orange
An acid base indicator named after its color change from red to yellow over a pH range of 3.2 to 4.4.
methyl red
An acid base indicator named after its color change from red to yellow over pH range of 4.8 to 6.0.
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
the longest mountain range on Earth, running north to south down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
model
the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale)
molecule
a group of atoms in which the atoms are bound together by sharing one or more pairs of electrons
motion diagram
a diagram that gives a picture of motion by showing an object's position at given times
multivalent
describing the ability of an element to form ions in more than one way, depending on the chemical reaction it undergoes
mutualism
a symbiotic relationship between two organism in which both organisms benefit
native species
plants and animals that naturally inhabit an area
natural background radiation
the stream of high-energy, fast moving particles or waves that is found in the environment
natural greenhouse effect
absorption of thermal energy by the atmosphere
natural selection
the process in which, over time, the best-adapted members of a species will survive and reproduce. This process makes change in living things possible.
neutral
neither acidic nor basic; descirbes a solution with a pH of 7
neutralization
reaction in which an acid reacts with a base and forms water and a salt
neutrons
no electric charge
niche
the special role an organism plays in an ecosystem, including the way in which it contributes to and fits its environment
nitrification
ammonium is converted into nitrate
nitrifying bacteria
Bacteria that change dissolved ammonia into nitrite compounds or nitrites into nitrate compounds.
nitrogen cycle
the nutrient cycle in which nitrogen is moved through the biosphere
nitrogen fixation
nitrogen gas is converted into compounds that contain nitrate or ammonium
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
bacteria that convert nitrogen gas into ammonium during decomposition, playing a significant role in nitrogen fixation
non-metal oxide
a chemical compound that contains a non-metal chemically combined with oxygen
nucleur charge
the electric charge on an atom's nucleus, which can be determined by counting the number of protons
nucleur equation
a set of symbols that indicates changes in the nuclei of atoms during a nucleur reaction
nucleur fission
the splitting of a massive nucleus into two less massive nuclei of atoms during a nuclear reaction
nucleur reaction
the process in which an atom's nucleus changes by gaining or releasing particles or energy
nucleur symbol
the standard atomic symbol for an isotope, including the chemical symbol, atomic number, and mass number
nutrient cycles
Include the Carbon cycle, the Nitrogen cycle, and the Phosphorus cycle : required by plants and animals for energy, growth, development, repaire or maintenance
nutrients
substances such as the chemicals nitrogen and phosphorus that are required by plants and animals for energy, growth, development, repair, or maintenance
offshore breeze
a nighttime sea breeze resulting from warm air over the water rising and drawing in cool air from over the land
omnivores
consumers that eats both plants and animals
onshore breeze
a daytime sea breeze resulting from warm air rising over land and being replaced by cool air drawn in from over the water
organic
refers to almost all carbon containing compounds; exceptions include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ionic carbonates
organic chemistry
the study of compounds that contain carbon
outer core
the layer below Earth's mantle
overexploitation
the use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted
oxide
a chemical compound that includes at least one oxygen atom or ion together with one or more other elements
ozone layer
the atmospheric layer that absorbs much of the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
paleoclimatologists
people who study climates of the geological past
paleoglaciation
the extent of ancient glaciers; also the rock markings they left behind
paleomagnetism
the study of the alignment of magnetic minerals in rock
parasitism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
parent isotope
the isotope that undergoes radioactive decay
parts per million
a measurement of chemical accumulation; 1 ppm means one particle mixed with 999 999 other particles
PCBs
synthetic chemicals containing chlorine that are used in the manufacture of plastics and other industrial products, become stored in the tissue of animals, and also persist in the environment
period
each row of elements in the periodic table
permafrost
ground that remains frozen year-round
POPs
carbon-containing compounds that remain in water and soil for many years
pesticides
any one of various substances used to kill harmful insects (insecticide), fungi (fungicide), vermin, or other living organisms that destroy or inhibit plant growth, carry disease, or are otherwise harmful.
pH indicators
chemicals that change color depending on the pH of the solution they are placed in
pH scale
(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen)
phenolphthalein
a chemical compound that is colourless in acidic or slightly basic solutions but turns pink in moderately basic to highly basic solutions
phosphorus cycle
the nutrient cycle in which phosphorus is moved through the biosphere
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
physiological adaptation
a physical or chemical event that occurs within the body of an organism and enables survival
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during primary succession; these organisms change the abiotic and biotic conditions of an area so that other organisms can survive there
plate boundary
the region where two tectonic plates are in contact
plate tectonic theory
the theory that the lithosphere is broken up into large plates that move and then rejoin; considered the unifying theory of geology
polyatomic ion
a molecular ion that carries a charge and is composed of more than one type of atom joined by covalent bonds
population
the members of a particular species within an ecosystem
position
a vector quantity that describes a specific point relative to a reference point
position-time graph
a graph of an object's position during corresponding time intervals; time data are plotted on the horizontal axis, and position dara are plotted on the vertical axis
potential energy
the stored energy of an object or particle due to its position or state
precautionary principle
the principle that a lack of complete scientific certainty should not be used as a reason to postpone cost-effective measures to prevent serious environmental damage
precipitate
an insoluble solid that forms from a solution
predation
predator-prey interactions in which one organism (the predator) eats all or part of another organism (the prey)
prediction
a forecast about what you expect to observe when you do an investigation
pressure
the amount of force per unit area
prevailing winds
winds that are typical for a certain region
primary consumers
organisms in the second trophic level which obtain their energy by eating primary producers
primary producers
organisms in the first trophic level, such as plants and algae
primary succession
the development of new life in areas where no organisms or soil previously existed, such as on bare rock; the first organisms may be lichen spores carried by winds
P-WAVE
a type of seismic body (underground) wave that travels at about 6km/s through Earth's crust, causing the ground to move in the direction of the wave's motion
producers
organisms that produce food in the form of carbohydrates during photosynthesis
products
pure substances formed in a chemical change that have different properties from those of the reactants
protons
positively charged particles located in the nucleus
pyramid of biomass
Shows the total amount of living material available at each trophic level multiplied by their mass
pyramid of energy
each step represents a transfer of energy (only 10% of energy is transferred from level to level)
pyramid of numbers
representation of the number of individual organisms in each trophic level of an ecosystem
radiant energy
the energy carried by electromagnetic waves
radiation
high-energy rays and particles emitte by radioactive sources
radiation budget
Earth's balance of incoming and outcoming energy
radioactive decay
the process in which the nuclei of radioactive parent isotopes emit alpha, beta or gamma radiation to form decay products
radioactivity
the release of high-energy particles and rays of energy from a substance as a result of changes in the nuclei of its atoms
radiocarbon dating
determining the age of an object by measuring the amount of carbon-14 remaining
radioisotopes
isotopes that are capable of radioactive decay
rate of reaction
a measure of how quickly products form, or given amounts of reactants react, in a chemical reaction
reactants
pure substances that react in a chemical change
relative humidity
a comparison between the amount of water vapour in the air and the amount the air could hold if it were totally saturated
resource exploitation
resource use
recourse use
the ways in which we obtain and use naturally occurring materials such as soil, wood, water, gas, oil, or minerals
ridge push
the process in which new material at a ridge or rift pushes older material aside, moving the tectonic plates away from the ridge
rift eruptions
volcanoes that occur where magma erupts through long cracks in the lithosphere where tectonic plates are spreading apart
rift valley
a steep-sided valley formed on land when magma rises to Earth's surface at a spreading centre
salts
a class of ionic compounds that can be formed during the reaction of an acid and a base
scalars
quantities that have only a magnitude (do not include direction)
sea breezes
local winds caused by the different rates at which land and water respond to heating and cooling
sea floor spreading
the process in which magma rises to Earth's surface at spreading ridges and, as it continues to rise, pushes older rock aside
secondary consumers
organisms in the third trophic level, which obtain their energy by eating primary consumers
secondary succession
the reintroduction of life after a disturbance to an area that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms
S-WAVE
a type of seismic body (underground) wave that travels at about 3.5 km/s, causing the ground to move perpendicular to the direction of the wave's motion; also known as a shear wave
sedimentation
the process in which soil particles and decaying organic matter accumulate in layers on the ground or at the bottom of large bodies of water, contributing to the formation of sedimentary rock
seismic waves
vibrations caused by energy released by an earthquake
seismogram
a record of ground motion
seismology
the study of earthquakes and seismic waves
seismometers
devices that measure the amount of ground motion caused by an earthquake; also called seismographs
shield volcanoes
volcanoes that form over hot spots; the largest volcanoes on Earth
significant digits
the number of all known digits reported in measurements plus one estimated digit
single replacement
AB + C --- AC + B
skeleton equation
an equation that shows only the formulas of the reactants and products
slab pull
the pulling of a tectonic plate as its edge subducts deep into the mantle
slope
rise/run
soil compaction
the squeezing together of soil particles so that the air spaces between them are reduced
soil degredation
damage to soil - for example, as a result of deforestaion or the removal of topsoil from bare land by water and wind erosion
solar radiation
the transfer of radiant energy from the Sun
solvent
a liquid that can dissolve other substances
species
a group of closely related organisms that can reproduce with one another
specific humidity
a measure of the number of grams of water vapour in 1 kg of air
speed
the distance an object travels during a given time interval divided by the time interval
spreading ridge
the region where magma breaks through Earth's surface, continually forcing apart old rock and forming new sea floor
stable octet
the arrangement of eight electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
state of matter
(chemistry) the three traditional states of matter are solids (fixed shape and volume) and liquids (fixed volume and shaped by the container) and gases (filling the container)
stores
nutrients that are accumulated for short or long periods of time in Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land masses
stratosphere
the second lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere
structural adaptation
a physical feature of an organism's body having a specific function that contributes to the survival of the organism
subatomic particles
the particles that make up an atom
subduction
the action of one tectonic plate pushing underneath another
subduction zones
areas of subduction, which typically experience large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
subscript
a character or symbol set or printed or written beneath or slightly below and to the side of an element
surface area
the measure of how much area of an object is exposed; can affect reaction rate
L-WAVES
seismic waves that ripple along Earth's surface
sustainability
the ability of an ecosystem to sustain ecological processes and maintain biodiversity over time; using natural resources in a way that maintains ecosystem health now and for future generations
symbiosis
the interaction between members of two different species that live together in a close association
symbolic question
a set of chemical symbols and formulas that identify the reactants and products in a chemical reaction
synthesis
a chemical reaction in which two are more reactants combine to produce a single product; also called a combination reaction
system
a group of parts that interact with one another and function together as a whole
technology
tha application of scientific knowledge and everyday experience in solving practical problems by designing and developing devices, materials, systems, and processes
tectonic plates
the large slabs of rock that form Earth's surface, moving over a layer of partly molten rock
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles in a sample of matter
terrestrial
relating to the land (e.g., land-based biomes)
tertiary consumers
organisms in the fourth trophic level, which obtain their energy by eating secondary consumers
theory
an explanation of an event that has been supported by consistent, repeated experimental results and has therefore been accepted by most scientists
thermal energy
te total energy of all the particles in a solid, liquid or gas
thermocline
a transition zone that seperates the cold, deep ocean waters from the Sun-warmed surface waters
thermosphere
the fourth layer of the Earth's atmosphere
thunderstorms
extreme weather occurring when water vapour in rising warm air condenses, releasing thermal energy
time
when an event occurs
time interval
the difference between the final time and the initial time
tornado
a violent, funnel-shaped column of rotating air that touches the ground
traditional ecological knowledge
ecological information, passed down from generation to generation, that reflects human experience with nature gained over centuries
transform fault
a fault that occurs at a transform plate boundary
transition metals
the block of elements from groups 3 through 12 in the periodic table
trench
a deep underwater valley that is formed when an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate and is forced to slide beneath it
trophic levels
steps in a good chain that show the feeding and niche relationships among organisms
troposhere
the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere
uniform motion
travelling in equal displacements in equal time intervals; neither speeding up, slowing down, nor changing direction
valence electrons
the electrons in the valence shell of an atom
variable
a factor that can influence the outcome of an experiment
vectors
quantities that have both a magnitude and a direction
velocity
the displacement of an object during a time interval divided by the time interval
velocity-time graph
a graph of an object's velocity during corresponding time intervals; time data are plotted on the horizontal axis and velocity data are plotted on ther vertical axis
volcanic belt
a long chain of volcanoes
volcanic island arc
a long chain of volcanic islands
volcano
an opening in Earth's surface that, when active, spews out gases, chunks of rock, and melted rock
volume
the amount of space that an object occupies
water cycle
the system of water circulation on, above, and below Earth's surface
weather
the condition of the atmosphere in a specific place and at a specific time
weathering
the process in which rock is broken down into smaller fragments
wind
the movement of air from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
cold front
the front of an advancing mass of colder air
warm front
the front of an advancing mass of warmer air
stationary front
no air mass is displaced, and the front does not move
occluded front
a fast moving cold front overtakes a warm front
high pressure system
Formed when an air mass cools over an ocean or a cold region on land. This dense system moves outward toward low pressure systems, creating a wind. Causes, clear blue skies, is dry etc.
low pressure system
Formed when air masses travel over warm land or oceans. Often brings in wet weather