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120 terms

Abnormal Psych Ch 1-3

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deviant behaviors
differ from prevailing societal standards
goodness-of-fit
the idea that behavior is problematic or not problematic depending on the environment in which it occurs
individuate
separate
culture
shared behavioral patterns that differentiate between groups and are taught from generation to generation
culture-bound illness
abnormal behaviors that are specific to a particular location or group
abnormal behavior
behavior that is inconsistent with the individual's developmental, cultural, and societal norms, creates emotional distress, or interfered with daily functioning
socioeconomic status
family income and educational achievement
downward drift
impairment results from a psychological disorder result in job loss or limited educational achievement
developmental trajectory
the idea that common symptoms of a disorder may vary depending on a person's age
trephination
process in which a circular instrument was used to cut away sections of the skull
humours
fluids found in the body: yellow bile, black bile, phlegm, blood
hysteria
now called conversion disorder
mass hysteria
a situation in which a group of people share and sometimes even act upon a belief that is not based in fact (tarantism and lycanthropy)
emotional contagion
the automatic mimicry and synchronization of expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements of one person by another
tarantism
the belief that the bite of a wolf spider (tarantula) would cause death unless a person engaged in joyous, frenetic dancing
lycanthropy
individuals believed that they were possessed by wolves; sometimes it was so strong that those affected would act like a wolf, even believing they were covered in fur
asylums
separate facilities designed to isolate them from the general public
animal magnetism
a force that Mesmer believed flowed within the body and, when impeded, resulted in disease
placebo effect
a condition in which symptoms of illness diminish or disappear not because of any specific treatment, but because the patient believes that a treatment is effective
etiology
cause
prognosis
progression and outcome
dementia praecox
Kraeplin's name for a psychological disorder characterized by deterioration of mental faculties (now called schizophrenia)
Schizophrenia
a disorder involving serious abnormalities in thought, perceptions, and behavior
talking cure
therapy in the form of discussion of psychological distress with a trained professional, leading to the elimination of distressing symptoms
psychoanalysis
a theory of abnormal behavior originated by Sigmund Freud that was based on the belief that many aspects of behavior were controlled by unconscious innate biological urges that existed from infancy
classical conditioning
a form of learning in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to produce a conditioned response
behaviorism
the theory that the only appropriate objects of scientific study are behaviors that can be observed and measured directly
scientist-practitioner approach
an approach to psychological disorders based on the concept that when providing treatment to people with psychological disorders, the psychologist investigates topics that help to guide and improve psychological care
neurons
nerve cells found throughout the body, including the brain
synapses
spaces between neurons
neurotransmitters
chemical substances that are released into the synapse and transmit information from one neuron to another
neuroscience
the study of the structure and function of the nervous system and the interaction of that system and behavior
biological scarring
the process by which years of living with a disorder cause changes in the brain
behavioral genetics
field of study that explores the role of genes and environment in the transmission of behavioral traits
viral infection theory
the theory that during the prenatal period or shortly thereafter, viral infection could cause some psychological disorders
defense mechanisms
denial, displacement, intellectualization, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, sublimation, suppression, undoing
ego psychology
a form of psychodynamic theory that focuses on conscious motivations and healthy forms of human functioning
stages of psychosexual development
oral phase (o-1 1/2), anal phase (1 1/2-3), phallic phase (3-5), latency and genital phases
goals of psychoanalysis
insight, catharsis
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which behavior is acquired or changed by the events that happen afterward
reinforcement
a contingent event that strengthens the response that preceded it
principles of reinforcement
reinforcers vary by individual, there are primary and secondary reinforcers
primary reinforcers
objects that have their own intrinsic value (food, water, etc)
secondary reinforcers
objects that have acquired value because they become associated with primary reinforcers
punishment
application of something painful or the removal of something positive
vicarious conditioning
a distinct type of learning in which the person need not actually do the behavior in order to acquire it
shaping
a process whereby closer steps, or successive approximations, to a final goal are rewarded
cognitive model
proposes that abnormal behavior is a result of distorted cognitive processes
negative cognitive triad
a negative view of the self, the world, and the future
phenomenology
a school of thought that holds that one's subjective perception of the world is more important than the world in actuality
sociocultural models
the idea that abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces
client-centered therapy
goal is to release the individual's existing capacity to self-actualize through interaction with the therapist; based on genuineness, empathic understanding, and unconditional postive regard
sociocultural models
propose that abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces
conditional positive regard
a person is treated with respect and caring only when meeting the standards set by tohers; the person comes to believe that he or she is worthy only when meeting those standards
dissociation
feeling of being detached from one's body
modern psychologists now recognize that
abnormal behavior cannot be undertood using a single theoretical explanation; abnormal behavior is complex; understanding abnormal behavior will advance only if we embrace and integrate the various conceptual models
biopsychosocial perspective
the idea that biological, psychological, and social factors probably contribute to the development of abnormal behavior and different factors are important for different individuals
diathesis
the presence of a biological or psychological predisposition to a disease or disorder
translational research
a scientific approach that focuses on communication between basic science and applied clinical research
central nervous system
one part of the human nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
one part of the human nervous system that includes the sensory somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and returns the body to resting levels after these systems have been activated; controls sensations and muscle movements, controls involuntary movements
brain stem
part of the brain, located at its base, which controls fundamental biological functions such as breathing
midbrain
a portion of the brain stem that coordinates sensory information and movement; includes the reticular activating system, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus
forebrain
part of the brain that includes the limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex
cerebral cortex
the largest part of the forebrain; contains structures that contribute to higher cognitive functioning including reasoning, abstract thought, perception of time and creativity
temporal lobe
one of four lobes of the brain; associated with understanding auditory and verbal information, labeling of objects, and verbal memory
perietal lobe
one of four lobes of the brain; integrates sensory information from various sources and may be involved with visiospatial processing
occipital lobe
one of four lobes of the brain; located at the back of the skull; center of visual processing
frontal lobe
one of the four lobes of the brain; seat of reasoning, impulse control, judgment, language, memory, motor function, problem solving, and sexual and social behavior
endocrine system
a system in the body that sends messages to the bodily organs via hormones
hormones
chemical messengers that are released into the bloodstream and act on target organs
neurotransmitters
chemical substances that relay electrical signals between one neuron and the next
neuroanatomy
brain structure
familial aggregation
process of examining whether family members of a person with a particular disorder are more likely to have that disorder than family members of people without the disorder
proband
person with a particular disorder in a familial aggregation study
molecular genetics
the study of the structure and function of genes
genomewide linkage analysis
a technique that uses samples of families with many individuals who are ill with the same disorder of large samples or relatives who have the same disorder to identify genomic regions that may hold genes that influence a trait
candidate gene association study
compares one or a few genes in a large group of individuals who have a specific trait or disorder with a well matched group of individuals who do not have the trait or disorder
genomewide association study
unbiased search of the human genome comparing cases and controls on genetic variants scattered across the genome for evidence of association
case study
comprehensive description of an individual (or group of individuals) that focuses on assessment or description of abnormal behavior or its treatment
experimental variable
the variable being tested in an experimental study
control group
comparison group for an experimental study; in this group, the variable to be studied is absent
single-case designs
experimental studies conducted with a single individual
correlations
relationships between variables
correlation coefficient
statistical figure that describes the direction and strength of a correlation
controlled group designs
experiments in which groups of participants are exposed to different conditions, at least one of which is experimental and one of which is a control
independent variable
the variable in a controlled experiment that is controlled by the experimenter
dependent variable
the variable in a controlled experiment that is assessed to determine the effect of the independent variable
cohort
a group of people who share a common characteristic and move forward in time as a unit
cross-sectional design
a research design in which participants are assessed once for the specific variable under investigation
longitudinal design
a research design in which participants are assessed at least two times, often more, over a certain time interval
epidemiology
a research approach that focuses on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders and the factors that influence those patterns
prevalence
the number of cases of a disorder in a given population during a specified period of time
incidence
number of new cases that emerge in a given population during a specified period of time
experimental epidemiology
a research method in which the scientist manipulates exposure to either causal or preventive factors
clinical assessment
the process of gathering information about a person and his or her environment to make decisions about the nature, status, and treatment of psychological problems
screening
an assessment process that attempts to identify psychological problems or predict the risk of future problems among people who are not referred for clinical assessment
diagnosis
identification of an illness
differential diagnosis
a process in which a clinician weighs how likely it is that a person has one diagnosis instead of another
clinical significance
observed change that is meaningful in terms of clinical functioning
normative
a comparison group that is representative of the entire population against which a person's score on a psychological test is compared
self-referent comparisons
comparison of responses on a psychological instrument with a person's own prior performance
reliability
how well a psychological assessment instrument produces consistent results each time it is given
test-retest reliability
how well a test produces similar scores over time when given to the same individual(s)
interrater agreement
the amount of agreement between two clinicians who are using the same measure to rate the same symptoms in a single patient
validity
the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to assess
clinical interviews
conversations between an interviewer and a patient, the purpose of which is to gather information and make judgments related to assessment goals
unstructured interviews
clinical interviews in which the clinician decides what questions to ask and how to ask them
structured interview
clinical interview in which the clinician asks a standard set of questions, usually with the goal of establishing a diagnosis
personality test
psychological test that measures personality characteristics
intelligence tests
tests that measure intelligence quotient
intelligence quotient
a score of cognitive functioning that compares a person's performance to his or her age-matched peers
projective tests
tests derived from psychoanalytic theory in which people are asked to respond to ambiguous stimuli
functional analysis
also called behavioral analysis or functional assessment; a strategy of behavioral assessment in which a clinician attempts to identify causal links between problem behaviors and environmental variables
self-monitoring
a procedure within behavioral assessment in which the patient observes and records his or her own behavior as it happens
behavioral observation
the measurement of behavior as it occurs by someone other than the person whose behavior is being observed
behavioral avoidance tests
behavioral assessment strategies used to assess avoidance behavior by asking a patient to approach a feared situation as closely as possible
psychophysiological assessment
assessment strategies that measure brain structure, brain function, and nervous system activity
multiaxial system
a system of diagnosis and classification used by the DSM that requires classifying a patient's behavior on five different dimensions
International Classification of Diseases
a classification system for mental disorders developed in Europe that is an international standard diagnostic system for epidemiology and many health management purposes