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General anatomy and Physiology Chapter 6

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Cosmetology is primarily restricted to the muscles, nerves, circulatory system, and :
bones of the head, face, neck, arms, hands, lower legs, and feet
The basic unit of all living things is the:
cell
The substance called protoplasm is found in:
the cells of all living things
The study of the structures of the human body is :
anatomy
A dense active protoplasm found in the center of the cell is:
nucleus
Most cells reproduce by dividing into two identical cells called:
daughter cells
The watery fluid that cells need for growth, reproduction, and self-repair is found in the:
cytoplasm
The chemical process whereby cells are nourished and carry out their activities is:
metabolism
The chemical process of cell nourishment has two phases, which are:
anabolism and catabolism
A collection of similar cells that perform a specific function are:
tissue
A type of tissue that supports, protects, and binds together other tissues of the body is:
connective tissue
Tissues that are a protective covering on the skin or the lining of the heart and glands are examples of :
epithelial tissue
Nerve tissue is composed of special cells known as:
neurons
The physical foundation of the body is the:
skeletal system
The connection between two or more bones is a:
joint
The scientific name for the study of the anatomy, structure, and function of the bones is:
osteology
The ankle joint is formed by the tibia, fibula, and the:
talus
The oval, bony case that protects the brain is the:
cranium
The hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bone, which forms the back of the skull above the nape is the:
occipital bone
The bones of the face are involved in:
facial massage
The system of the body that covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue is the:
muscular system
The medical term used to describe the study, function, and diseases of the muscles is:
myology
The two bones that form the upper jaw are:
maxillae bones
The two bones that form the sides and crown (top) of the cranium are the :
parietal bones
The uppermost and largest bone of the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder, is the:
humerus
The foot is made up of ______ bones.
26
The ______ is a heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee
femur
Muscles are fibrous tissue classified as three types, which are:
striated, nonstriated, and cardiac
Skeletal muscles attached to bone that are voluntary or controlled at will are:
striated muscle
The part of the muscle that does not move is the:
origin
Pressure applied to a muscle during a massage is usually directed from the:
insertion to the origin
The broad muscle that covers the top of the head is the:
epicranius
The front portion of the epicranius that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across the forehead is the
frontalis
The sternocleidomastoid muscle in the muscle of the neck that is responsible for:
lowering and rotating the head
The ring muscle of the eye socket that enables the eyes to close the:
orbicularis aculi
A muscle covering the back of the neck and the upper and middle region of the back that rotate and controls the swinging of the arms is the:
Traspezius
Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line are the:
extensors
The muscles at the base of the fingers that draw fingers together are the:
adductors
The gastrocnemius muscle is located in the:
lower leg
The scientific study of the structire, function, and the pathology of the nervous system is:
neurology
Every square inch of the body is supplied with fine fibers known as:
nerves
The nervous system that controls the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves is the:
central nervous system
The system of nerves that carries impulses or messages to and from the central nervous system id the:
peripheral nervous system
The portion of the central nervous systemthat originates in th brain, extends down the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected is the:
spinal cord
The largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body is the:
brain
Whitish cord made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue are:
nerves
Sensory nerve endings that are located close to the surface of the skin are:
receptors
Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles and produce movement are:
motor nerves
The largest of the cranial nerves, also known as the trifacial nerve or the trigeminal nerve is the:
The largest of the cranial nerves, also known as the trifacial nerve or the trigeminal nerve is the:
The chief motor nerve of the face that emerges near the lower part of the ear and extends to the muscles of the neck is the :
seventh cranial
The nerve and branches that supply the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand is the
radial nerve
The anterior tibial nerve extends to the front of the leg, behind the muscles, and is also referred to as:
deep peroneal nerve
circulatory system The system that controls the steady circulation of blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels is
circulatory system
The system that involves the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins is the:
blood vascular system
A clear yellowish fluid that circulates in thelymphatics of the body and carries waste and imppurities away from the cells is:
lymph
The upper, thin walled chambers of the heart are the:
left and right atria
The blood circulatory system that sends blood from the heart to the lungs tobe purified is the
pulmonary circulation
Tubelike structures that include arteries, capillaries, and veins are:
blood vessels
A thin walled blood vessel that is less elastic than an artery is a :
vein
The largest artery in the human body is the:
aorta
White blood cells perform the important function of destroying:
disease causing microorganisms
The artery that suppies blood to the anterior (front) part of the scalp, ear, face, neck, and side of the head is the:
internal carotid artery
The main blood supply of the arms and hands are the
ulnar and radial arteries
which of the following is not an artery that supplies blood to the lower leg or foot ?
radial artery
Endocrine glands release a secretion called:
hormones
The integumentary system is made up of the skin and accessory organs such as:
oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors,hair and nails
Form the prominence of the cheeks
zygomatic
small, thin bones located at the front inner wall
lacrimal
The __________are the bones of the palm of the hand
metacarpus
Accessory bone, forms the knee cap joint
patella
One of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of five bones which are long and and slender
Metatarsal
One of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of seven bones
Tarsal
The larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee visualized as a bump on the big toe side of the ankle
tibia
Smooth muscles, are involuntary and function automatically, without conscious will
Nonstriated muscles
A muscle has three parts _______________
origin, insertion, and belly
Tendon that connects the occipitals and frontalis
Epicranial aponeurosis
Draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically
Corrugator muscle
muscle of the neck that lowers and rotates the head
Sternocleidomastoideus
The _____________ and the temporalis muscle coordinate in opening and closing the mouth, and are sometimes referred to as chewing muscles
Masseter
Compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips
Buccinator Muscle
Extensor muscles of the wrist, involved in bending the wrist
Flexors
Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward
Pronators
Muscle of the forearm that rotates the outward and palms upward
Supinator
Large, tringular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allow the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body
Deltoid
Lift the forearm and flex the elbow
Bicep
Sends and receives messages through 12 pairs of cranial nerves that originate in the brain and reach various parts of the head, face, and neck
The brain
Send impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles
Axon
Carry impulses from the brain to the muscles produce movement
Motor nerves
The largest of the cranial nerves is the _________ nerve
fifth cranial
The _________nerve is the chief motor nerve of the face
seventh cranial nerve
________do not have to be learned they are automatic
reflexes
Affects the external ear and skin above the temple up to the top of the skull
auriculotemporal nerve
Messages from the sense organs to the brain
Sensory nerves
Affects the muscle of the mouth
Buccal nerve
Affects the muscle of the chin and lower lip
mandibular nerve
Are the main sources of blood supply to the head, face, and neck
common carotid arteries
Sweat and oil glands of the skin and intestinal glands belong to this group
Exocrine glands