HL Bio Chapter 7 Review

Central Dogma of Biology
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 35
Terms in this set (35)
DNA Polymerase IIIAdds nucleotides during replicationDNA polymerase IReplaces RNA primer with DNA nucleotidesGyraseStraightens out DNA for unzippingIntronNoncoding segment of DNA that is spliced out during RNA processingExonSegment of DNA that codes for a geneGel electrophoresisMethod of separating DNA fragments by size for comparison/identificationHershey and ChaseUsed viruses and radioactive phosphorus isotopes to discover that DNA is the molecule of heredityRosalind FranklinUsed X-ray crystallography to determine DNA was in the shape of a double helixWatson & CrickGathered information to create the first model of a DNA moleculeEpigeneticsScience that studies how environmental aspects alter how DNA is passed to future generationsAlternative splicingRemoval of varying exons to create different proteinsSense DNAThe strand of DNA that contains the desired gene, and is not used as the template during transcriptionAntisense DNAThe strand of DNA that does not contains the desired gene, and is used as the template during transcriptionThe names of the three steps of transcription (and translation)Initiation, Elongation, terminationtRNA Activating enzymeReloads the amino acid on a specific tRNA moleculeA siteLocation where a tRNA attaches to a ribosomeP siteLocation where a tRNA adds its amino acid to the growing polypeptide chainE siteLocation where the tRNA exits the ribosome after donating its amino acidPolysomeMultiple ribosomes using the same mRNA at the same timeFree ribosomesCreates proteins for use within the cellBound ribosomesCreates proteins to be exported out of the cellPrimary structureDetermined by the sequence of amino acidsSecondary StructureDetermined by the creation of either alpha helices or beta pleated sheetsTertiary structureThe overall 3D structure of a protein, determined by positive and negatively charged R-groups (among other things)Quartenary StructureCreated by having multiple polypeptide chains combining to form a single protein