ARTS 1110 Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (134)
What is an ad-hominem fallacy?
an attack on the person, rather than dirrectly addressing the person's reasons.
What is a slippery slope fallacy?
making the assumption that a proposed step will set off an uncontrollable chain of undesirable events, when procedures exist to prevent such chain of events.
What is the searching for a perfect solution fallacy?
fallacy assuming that because a part of a problem remains after a solutions is tried, the solution should not be adopted.
What is an ad populum (appeal to popularity) fallacy?
an attempt to justify a claim by appealing to sentiment that large groups of people have in common; falsly assumes that anything favoured by a large group is desirable.
What is an appeal to questionable authority fallacy?
supporting a conclusion by citing an authority who lacks special expertise on the issue at hand.
What is an appeal to emotion fallacy?
the use of emotionally charged language to distract the readers and listeners from relevant reasons and evidence. common emotions appealed to are fear, patriotism, pity, and sympathy.
What is a straw person fallacy?
distorting our opponent's point of view so that it is easy to attack; thus we attack a point of view that does not truly exist.
What is the either-or (false dilemma) fallacy?
assuming there are only two alternative choices when there are more than two.
What is the explaining by name fallacy?
falsely assuming that because you have provided a name for some event or behaviour, you have adequately explained the event.
What is the planning fallacy?
the tendency for people or organizations to underestimate how long they will need to complete a task. despite numerous prior experiences of having underestimated how long something would take to finish.
What is the glittering generality fallacy?
the use of vague, emotionally appealing virtue words that dispose us to approve something without closely examining the reasons.
What is a red herring fallacy?
an irrelevant topic is presented to divert the attention from the original issue and help to win an argument by shifting attention away from the argument and to another issue. The fallacy sequence in this instance is as follows: 1. topic A is discussed. 2. topic B is introduced as though it is relevant to A, but it is not. 3. topic A is abandoned.
What is the begging the question fallacy?
an argument in which the conclusion is assumed in the reasoning.
What is a hasty generalization fallacy?
a person draws a conclusion about a large group based on experience with only a few members of the group.
What is the impossible certainty fallacy?
assuming that a research conclusion should be rejected if its not absolutely certain.
What is a faulty analogy?
when an analogy is proposed in which there are important relevant dissimilarities.
What is the causal oversimplification fallacy?
explaining an event by relying on causal factors that are insufficient to account for the event or by overemphasizing the role of one or more factors.
What is the confusion of cause and effect fallacy?
confusing the cause with the effect of an event or failing to recognize that the two events may have been influenced by each other.
What is the neglect of a common cause fallacy?
failure to recognize that two events may be related because of the effects f a common third factor.
What is a post hoc fallacy?
assuming that a particular event, B, is caused by another event, A, simply because B follows A in time.
thinking about thinking
What is the purpose of writing an academic essay?
to convince the reader of the validity of a particular stance through logical, convincing & authoritative evidence supporting the claim.
What is authoritative evidence?
ABC's of Sources:
1)authority: based on scientific research done by people with credentials in their respective fields.
2) peer-reviewed: to eliminate bias.
3)currency : valid in context of time.
What are the memory types?
How do you transform a short term memory into a long term memory?
1) Rote learning
2) Elaborative rehearsal: a thinking process involving connecting new material with already learnt information.
3) Recoding involves grouping information to facilitate easy recall.
What is a rival cause (counter argument)
an alternative explanation or view point on the arguable proposition. It strengthens the stance since it shows that the writer has considered other explanations or reasons for the conclusion
A note taking strategy:
Cornel Note Taking Method
the note taking page is divided into 3 sections:
1) Note taking area
it is a larger unit of single meaning having a single controlling idea and containing support for that idea.
a paragraph's main idea can be put into a topic sentence which tells the reader about the information that is going to be discussed in the paragraph.
Types of knowledge
1) Factual knowledge
2) Conceptual knowledge
3) Procedural knowledge
4) Metacognitive/Strategic knowledge
Knowledge: remembering the factual knowledge
Understanding: conceptual knowledge
Application: using the acquired knowledge in different contexts
Analysis: knowing the importance of information. } conceptual knowledge
Evaluate: } metacognitive knowledge
Forgetting (Proactive interference)
when old knowledge interferes with the recall of new knowledge
•by focusing on similarities and differences between old and new learning
Forgetting (retroactive interference)
when new knowledge interferes with the recall of old knowledge.
•by reviewing previously learned material frequently along with being in touch with the new material.
Types of Reasoning
1) Deductive reasoning: It could be confusing. conclusions must be true.
2) Inductive reasoning: It is flexible. Conclusions are based on evidence hence CONTEXT based.
How do you integrating sources into an essay
1) Direct Quote
3) Summary (optional)
What are the benefits of APA formatting?
•Looks official and professional
Why is ambiguous language problematic?
when there are multiple meanings of a particular phrase it leads to the introduction of unintended or unexamined propositions in an argument.
Why is Loaded language problematic?
it appeals to cultural emotions and assumptions rather than reason
What is critical thinking?
it includes but is not limited to "formal logic" I.e. a formal connection between the argument and the conclusion.
What is an ad hominem argument?
(distracts audience from evidence by focusing on individual presenting it) (assuming bias makes an argument wrong/flawed)
How do you avoid ambiguity?
•Avoid using "common sense" to prove or back claims (not common)
•Use precise terms
•Ask yourself if the reader understands what's being argued exactly? Does someone's understanding of the phrase depend on other assertions?
•Avoid abstract terms without physical counterparts
•Eg. Porn? What is it? Photos, paintings, video? Does the culture determine whether its porn or not?
•Avoid ambiguity by clearly id-ing the way the term is used in your context.
•Avoid loaded language because it can be used to distract. It relies on emotional effects and responses of words or terms). Not useful for argumentation. Eg. Terrorists vs. freedom fighters.
How can cultural values interfere with argumentation?
Cultural assumptions/ values that are held by the majority of people in a culture (seem natural, accepted without question, difficult to challenge)
•Sometimes unspoken in arguments, writer doesn't feel obligated to support with evidence.
•Used but not referenced explicitly to support an argument
•Differences in assumptions can cause tensions (nude beach by UBC, locals think its public acts of indecency) (Islam thinks cartoons/images of Mohammed are blasphemy, others think they're free expression)
What are fallacies
•Illogical/ no connection between ideas/evidence and conclusion
•Without the connection, the arguments are illogical
•Many fallacies have emotional appeal
•Often convincing because they seem to follow conventions of reasoning
•Usually flawed because reasons are irrelevant to conclusion, or because structure of argument doesn't provide logical relationship
What is the appeal to questionable authority?
when you choose to accept something because the argument is being endorsed by an individual, even if they lack authority) eg. Celebrity ad endorsement eg. Citing Einstein/Shakespeare etc. to make a point -more recent evidence might be better
What is an appeal to pity?
accept a conclusion because the perosn arguing has suffered hardship
What is the appeal to glittering generalities
accepting vague references to common values, appeal emotionally relying on blind acceptance of what is "good")
What is an appeal to people (ad populum)
citing majority as authority; if everyone believes then it must be right
What is an appeal to force (ad baculum)
when you have to accept something or suffer consequences
What is a circular argument?
using the premise to prove the conclusion, and the conclusion to prove the premise
What is the fallacy of begging the question?
using circular reasoning- eg. Bible is word of god, why? Because the bible is gods word and he wouldn't deceive us. Why do we know god wouldn't deceive? Because bible says so)
What is the fallacy of explaining by naming?
Assume you've provided reasons because you identified the phenomena. Eg. Can't have multiple wives because that's polygamy
What is a false dilemma?
When someone makes it seem like there's only two choices) eg. Carbon = bad for envir. Either stop using carbon or die in dust storms and drought
What is the fallacy of searching for the perfect solution?
unless the proposed action leads to the best conclusion, it shouldn't be accepted at all) eg. Schools remove junk food, students will go somewhere else, therefore continue selling it
What is a slippery slope fallacy ?
a chain reaction will take place, usu. ending in dire consequence with no evidence to support this happening
What is equivocation?
a fallacy that depends on an ambiguous term or a phrase to make an argument. Key word used with two or more meanings in same argument.
What is the fallacy of distraction?
introduction of new evidence to distract the reader
What is a red herring?
a statement used to distract from the real argument; the introduction of irrelevant material.
What is a straw person?
when the arguer tries to diminish the authority of the opposing viewpoint by attacking exaggerated flaws of opponent
What is a hasty generalization?
eg. Dogs shouldn't wear collars because once one did and was strangled by jumping over fence
What kind of evidence is intuition?
evidence coming from within, innate, sometimes very effective, cant be applied generally
What kind of evidence is personal experience?
learning from previous experience and using it to solve problems in unfamiliar environments; based on accumulated experience; situational and may not apply to others or other situations; interpreted through one's own cultural bias; not always reliable; cannot be applied generally
What kind of evidence is a personal testimonial?
evidence from someone else's personal experience, believable, not reliable, not applied generally
What kind of evidence is appeal to authority?
useful when authoritative individual has authority in the field; the evidence from the individual is current; sometimes believable; only reliable when expert in field; only applies generally if the authority's expertise is relevant to new situation
What kind of evidence is personal observation?
if it comes directly from direct experience it can be reliable; reliability increases with more objective observers; disadvantage that each experiences world differently so observations are guided by our perspectives biases and motivations; believable; usually reliable if no biased; only generalized a bit if personal observations studies are taken systematically
What kind of evidence are case studies?
arguments that use examples as evidence of pattern, appeal to reader because they seem authoritative (data) and have emotional appeal; dangerous to generalize from them; studies may not be representative; often lead to hasty generalization fallacy; believable; only reliable for personal experience, should never be applied generally
What kind of evidence is the analogy?
the assumption that because two things are alike in one sense, they'll be alike in another way. Similarities can be deceiving. Can be faulty by ignoring important or relevant differences. Believable; generally fairly reliable, only general if sound info used for analogy.
What kind of evidence is statistics
people are persuaded easily by numbers b/c they are precise, participate in general authority of science, appear free of bias, can lie; averages determined by mean, median and mode; select different ones depending on what you want to prove; stats need to be relevant to the conclusion; the values in the premise should be the same as in conclusion;
critical questions to be asked are: how were stats obtained; what value is being represented; is the arguer concluding one thing but proving another; are stats relevant to the conclusion; what info is missing
What is an example of deception by omission in statistics?
Using percentage instead of numbers to make pool seem bigger than it is
What kind of evidence is the scientific study?
scientific studies are undertaken systematically, rely on verifiable date, express conditions in precise language;
can't accept without question because findings can be biased, contradicting, exaggerated etc; to
make sure it's a valid study evaluate by asking: what's the quality of the source of the report; has it been replicated; does it represent opposing views; do the reasons support the conclusion, are there questionable motivations, can the results be generalized; are they representative; are they biased; are the methods sound?
Sometimes seem less believable than other evidence but if undertaken right they are reliable, and usually generalizable
Why should you consider rival causes?
when an argument rests on a casual connection between reasons and conclusion - look for rival causes because:
• First explanation is not always the best one.
• Correlation is not always causation; association is not always causation
• Confuse cause of event with effect (eg. Youth listen to violent music so they are violent. What if they listen to the music because it reflects the violence of their lives?)
• Neglect common cause (fail to recognise that two events are related because of a common third cause)
• Casual oversimplification (accept an answer as the answer)
What is a learning paradigm?
a theory of learning that lies beneath teaching and learning practices of a particular educational environment
What is shallow processing?
when we focus only on the surface details of what we are reading or studying
What is deep processing?
when we focus on making connections and understanding what we are reading or studying.
What is rote learning?
a mechanical process through information is transferred to long-term memory by repeated exposure
What is elaborative rehearsal?
the connection of new material with already learned material
What is retrieval?
the process of recovering stored information from the memory
What is proactive interference?
when old learning interferes with new learning
What is retroactive interference?
when new learning interferes with old leaning
What factors can influence a student's ability to learn?
Interest, Prior success, & Motivation.
What is active learning?
Individually seeking out the purpose & importance of information by asking questions of the instructors, texts, & themselves.
What is metacognition?
Thinking about thinking, or monitoring one's thought processes and actively changing them to suit the individual;knowing what one knows and doesn't know - ability to self-monitor levels of understanding & predict how well one will do on a particular task.
What can metacognition help with?
Identifying & achieving goals; helps find new study strategy if the current method is not producing results.
What skills does metacognition promote?
- Active listening
- Problem solving
- Responsibility for learning
- Awareness of failures in comprehension
What are the three stages of memory?
Encoding, Storage, & Retrieval.
What happens in the encoding stage of memory?
Information is selected from the vast pool of sensory data surrounding the individual.
What happens in the storage stage of memory?
Information must progress from sensory storage, to short-term memory and finally to long-term storage.
What happens in the retrieval stage of memory?
The stored information is accessed by the individual.
How can one improve the process of encoding?
- Exclude competing stimuli (background noise, etc.)
- Use various sensory modes (seeing a graph while it is described will help you remember it better than just seeing or just hearing about it)
What is Sensory Storage?
The first form within the storage stage of memory; Associated with encoding: incoming sensory information is held briefly and interpreted.
(Interpretation is the process of making sensory information comprehensible).
Sensory impressions are subject to decay/replacement. Within a few seconds the student must decide whether or not to attend to the information (transfer it to short-term) or allow it to be replaced.
What is Short-Term Memory?
Second form within the storage stage of memory. Stores information obtained from Sensory Storage. "Working memory" - retains information needed for a specific purpose (recall the beginning of a sentence long enough to read to the end).
Limited in time: information can be lost in a short period of time. ( up to 95% of info heard the week before can be lost ).
Limited in capacity: Can only retain about 5 to 9 separate pieces of information at once,
What are 3 ways information is transferred from Short-Term memory to Long-Term memory?
- Rote learning (repetition)
- Elaborative rehearsal (connection of new material to already learned material)
- Recoding (rearranging, changing, grouping, or categorizing of information)
What is rote learning?
A method of transferring information to long-term memory through repeated exposure (repetition).
(Useful for things such as multiplication tables/standardized spelling because information is recalled in the same form every time).
Least efficient way of learning because it takes more time/energy and has fewer retrieval cues.
What is elaborative rehearsal?
A method of transferring information to long-term memory by applying it to known knowledge (thinking about information as it is being transferred).
Questioning material as it is taught develops deeper understanding of it. Produces more retrieval cues.
What is recoding?
A method of transferring information to long-term memory by creating patterns of organization for individual pieces of information. Creates connections between each piece of information being taught, creating many retrieval cues.
What is forgetting?
The loss of stored (or unstored) information. Can be caused by failure to pay attention to the subject or attempting to remember too much information at once. Can also occur through interference:
Proactive Interference: Old learning interfered with acquisition of new info.
Retroactive Interference: New learning destabilizes existing knowledge.
What happens in the Retrieval stage of memory?
Recovery of stored information. Manner in which information was stored affects the ease of retrieval (more retrieval cues = more ease of remembering).
Can be improved by using methods like Cornell Note-taking & SQ3R study methods.
What is Cornell Note-Taking? What advantages does it provide?
The division of the note-taking page into three sections & refinement of notes through reflective questions into an integrated system of meaning.
The three sections include the note-taking column on the right, cue column on the left, and summary space across the bottom.
Facilitates learning (meaningful acquisition of information during note-taking). Allows learning to occur during note-taking rather than after.
What is Parallel Note-Taking?
Printing lecture slides in advance with room on the side of the page to take notes alongside the lecture.
What is the SQ3R study method?
Five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review.
SURVEY: Before beginning to read, survey the chapter (titles, captions, images, summaries).
QUESTION: Ask questions such as what you already know, what you expect to read about, or read questions at the end of chapters.
READ: Look for answers raised during the questioning phase. Read thoroughly and ensure all essential information was captured.
RECITE: Ask questions abut what you just read and rehearse information you just learned.
REVIEW: Identify themes, connect ideas, answer questions, and improve understanding of what you just learned.
What is Bloom's Taxonomy?
a classification of the six levels of intellectual behaviour that are important to specific educational tasks and applying them to learning in different disciplines. Used to enhance the metacognitive awareness of students (if they understand the cognitive domain required for a task, they will have a better time preparing/practicing for it).
What are the 6 levels of Bloom's Taxonomy?
What cognitive skills are associated with the Knowledge/Remembering (1) phase of Bloom's Taxonomy?
Verbs: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce, state.
Courses that can operate in this phase: First year courses, Psychology, Sociology, Biology, etc.
What is cognitive skills are associated with the Comprehension/Understanding (2) phase of Bloom's Taxonomy?
Verbs: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate.
Courses that can operate in this phase: First year courses, Psychology, Sociology, Biology, etc.
What cognitive skills are associated associated with the Application (3) phase of Bloom's Taxonomy?
Verbs: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.
Courses that can operate in this phase: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, etc.
What cognitive skills are associated with the Analysis (4) phase of Bloom's Taxonomy?
Verbs: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.
Courses that can operate in this phase: Mathematics, Chemistry, Humanities (English, History, Philosophy), etc.
What cognitive skills are associated with the Synthesis (5) phase of Bloom's Taxonomy?
Verbs: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, preapre, propose, set-up, write.
Courses that can operate in this phase: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Humanities (English, History, Philosophy), etc.
What cognitive skills are associated with the Evaluation (6) phase of Bloom's Taxonomy?
Verbs: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose, compare, defend, estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate.
Courses that can operate in this phase: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Humanities (English, History, Philosophy), etc.
What is Critical Thinking?
The process of investigating a thought, or the process of formal logic from the relationship of reasoning to a conclusion.
Other defining factors of critical thinking: establishing the validity of a proposition by examining evidence; investigating rival causes; organizing evidence in accordance with reasoning; articulating a conclusion.
What is the difference between an opinion/belief and critical thought?
Critical thinking searches for evidence and applies it to reasons which lead to a logical conclusion. If evidence changes, conclusion must be re-examined. An opinion/belief relies on personal evidence from the arguer and may not lead to a logical conclusion.
What is Reverse Logic (or Backward Reasoning)?
A fallacy(?) in which the writer arrives at a conclusion first, then searches for evidence to support it (rather than using evidence to support a conclusion they arrive at later).
What is Appeal to Emotion?
An argument that relies on an appeal to our basic human emotional needs, rather than a sense of objectivity. Can often times be more persuasive than critical thinking, but are not logical reasons that lead to a valid conclusion.
What is Ambiguity?
Ambiguity refers to the existence of multiple possible meanings for a word or phrase, introducing unintended and/or unexamined propositions into the argument. It is a problem because in writing/research, one is attempting to establish a clear proposition supported by evidence, if the evidence or proposition is ambiguous, the relationship between evidence and conclusion is compromised.
What is Loaded Language?
Loaded language refers to rhetorical modes in which ambiguous language is being used intentionally to circumvent/avoid rational review process of the reader.
What are Assumptions?
Premises taken for granted by a writer. They are often ideas not explicitly stated or defined, but then used to support an argument. They often arise as cultural values, where the writer (and presumably the culture they come from) holds a specific value which is used to define an argument, but never explicitly stated because they believe everyone holds this value.
What is a fallacy? Why do they work? Why do they not work?
A fallacy is a flaw in reasoning that renders an argument illogical (no logical relationship between the offered reasons and the conclusion drawn from them).
Fallacious arguments can be compelling because they appear to use conventions of reasoning and can relate more closely to one's feelings (it will be more easily accepted if it relates to our personal beliefs).
In reality, fallacious arguments do not work because the reasoning behind them becomes irrelevant to a logical conclusion, and the relationship between the flawed argument and the conclusion is not logical.
What is Ad Hominem?
Ad Hominem, or Argument to the Person is a fallacy that works by distracting its audience from the evidence and focusing instead on the individual presenting the argument. (ex. Oil executive argues to search for untapped resources, opponents argue against it because he cannot be trusted because he's biased. Oil exec may be biased, but his bias is not relevant to the argument).
What is Slippery Slope?
A fallacy that works by suggesting that the acceptance of one proposition will inevitably lead to acceptance of another (chain reaction leading to a dire consequence with no real evidence). (ex. Lowering the age an individual can join the military from 18: one may argue that it will lead to child soldier, because is 17, why not 16? If 16, why not 15? etc.)
What is Searching for the Perfect Solution?
Searching for the Perfect Solution is a fallacy that suggests unless a proposed course of action will lead to complete resolution of an issue, no action should be taken. (ex. If schools remove junk food from vending machines students will just find it elsewhere, therefore, they should just keep selling junk food)
What is Equivocation?
Equivocation is a fallacy that depends on ambiguously using a term to phrase it into an argument. Relies on loaded language to make a point with minimal effort and may often leave the point up to the interpretation of the reader because it is unclear.
What is Ad Populum?
Ad Populum, or Appeal to the People, works by citing the authority of the majority to form an appeal to false authority, even if the majority does not believe the statement. (If everyone believes a thing, it must be right). (ex. "The vast majority of people in the country believe the death penalty should be reinstated. If that is the position of the majority, the government should respect it")
What is Appeal to Questionable Authority?
Appeal to Questionable Authority is a fallacy where an individual cites a specific claim made by an individual or agency in an argument, although that individual or agency lacks authority in that field. (ex. Retired athlete endorsing a weight-loss product. "It must be effective if an athlete uses it")
What is Ad Baculum?
Ad Baculum, or Appeal to Force, is a fallacy where the writer argues that failure to accept a proposition will lead to a negative consequence. (ex. "You shouldn't park on major traffic roads during rush hour because your car will get towed")
What is Argumentum Ad Misericordiam?
Also known as Appeal to Pity, or Special Pleading. This fallacy occurs when someone tries to get pity so that their conclusion will be accepted. (ex. A student pleads for an A in the course because he sacrificed a great deal and his family will be disappointed if he doesn't do well. It may be compelling, but his reasoning doesn't lead to the fact that he deserves an A because he didn't do well enough in the course to get an A.)
What is Straw Person Argument?
Straw Person Argument is a fallacy which involves diminishing or ridiculing the authority of opposing views to make theirs seem stronger. (ex. "Evolution requires on to accept that an ape gave birth to a homo sapien. That's ridiculous. Therefore, evolution is not a valid theory".)
What is a False Dilemma?
A False Dilemma is a fallacy that suggests an individual has to choose between two propositions. (ex. "Carbon emissions are causing global temperatures to rise, therefore, we must either stop using fossil fuels entirely or prepare for catastrophic drought and storm"). In most cases, there are many more options available. In the case of the example, an option could be gradually decreasing fossil fuel use instead of outright cutting it off.
What is Explaining by Name?
Explaining by Name is a fallacy that assumes one has provided the reasoning for a phenomena simply because they have identified it. (ex. "The Cuban economy is faltering because the Cuban government is communist"). Without explaining the ways in which a communist government affects the economy, the statement doesn't provide reasons to accept the conclusion.
What are Glittering Generalities?
Glittering Generalities are a fallacy where the writer vaguely references commonly held values, usually to appeal to the reader's emotions, relying on the reader's unexamined acceptance of what appears virtuous.
What is Hasty Generalization?
Hasty Generalization is a fallacy that moves from a non-representative example to a conclusion. (ex. "Dogs should not wear collars because on ONE occasion, a dog wearing a collar tied to a stake jumped a fence and was strangled by the collar").
What is a Red Herring?
A Red Herring is a fallacy where a (usually irrelevant) statement is used to distract from the real argument and points to a different conclusion. (ex. "You may claim the death penalty is ineffective - but what about the victim of crime? How do you think surviving family members feel when they see the man who murdered their son kept in prison at their expense? Is it right that they should pay for their son's murderer to be fed and housed?")
What is Begging the Question?
Begging the Question, or Circular Reasoning, is a fallacy where the conclusion is used to prove the premise and the premise is used to prove the conclusion. (ex. "The Bible is the inerrant word of God. We know this because it says so in the Bible").
What is Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (False Cause)?
"After this, therefore because of this". Fallacy asks that the reader believe that because B comes after A, A caused B. Often events are related coincidentally (they are related only by time, not by actual logic) rather than being related by the cause of the argument. (ex. "It rained last night and this morning there were worms on the sidewalk, therefore, worms come from rain")
What is a factual claim?
A factual claim is a claim that has valid evidence to support it.