Performance Evaluation

Terms in this set (117)

1. Employees who are high self-monitors, possess an internal locus of control, and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior. The high self-monitor is more sensitive to social cues, exhibits higher levels of social conformity, and is more likely to be skilled in political behavior than the low self-monitor. Because they believe they can control their environment, individuals with an internal locus of control are more prone to take a proactive stance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor. Not surprisingly, the Machiavellian personality—characterized by the will to manipulate and the desire for power—is comfortable using politics as a means to further his or her self-interest.
2. An individual's investment in the organization, perceived alternatives, and expectations of success influence the degree to which he or she will pursue illegitimate means of political action.
3.The more alternative job opportunities an individual has—due to a favorable job market or the possession of scarce skills or knowledge, a prominent reputation, or influential contacts outside the organization—the more likely that individual is to risk illegitimate political actions.
4. Finally, an individual with low expectations of success from illegitimate means is unlikely to use them. High expectations from such measures are most likely to be the province of both experienced and powerful individuals with polished political skills and inexperienced and naïve employees who misjudge their chances.

Agreeing with someone else's opinion to gain his or her approval is a form of ingratiation.

Example: A manager tells his boss, "You're absolutely right on your reorganization plan for the western regional office. I couldn't agree with you more."


Doing something nice for someone to gain that person's approval is a form of ingratiation.

Example: A salesperson says to a prospective client, "I've got two tickets to the theater tonight that I can't use. Take them. Consider it a thank-you for taking the time to talk with me."


Explanations of a predicament-creating event aimed at minimizing the apparent severity of the predicament is a defensive IM technique.

Example: A sales manager says to her boss, "We failed to get the ad in the paper on time, but no one responds to those ads anyway."


Admitting responsibility for an undesirable event and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the action is a defensive IM technique.

Example: An employee says to his boss, "I'm sorry I made a mistake on the report. Please forgive me."


Highlighting one's best qualities, downplaying one's deficits, and calling attention to one's achievements is a self-focused IM technique.

Example: A salesperson tells his boss, "Matt worked unsuccessfully for three years to try to get that account. I sewed it up in six weeks. I'm the best closer this company has."


Claiming that something you did is more valuable than most other members of the organizations would think is a self-focused IM technique.

Example: A journalist tells his editor, "My work on this celebrity divorce story was really a major boost to our sales" (even though the story only made it to page 3 in the entertainment section).


Complimenting others about their virtues in an effort to make oneself appear perceptive and likeable is an assertive IM technique.

Example: A new sales trainee says to her peer, "You handled that client's complaint so tactfully! I could never have handled that as well as you did."


Doing more than you need to in an effort to show how dedicated and hard working you are is an assertive IM technique.

Example: An employee sends e-mails from his work computer when he works late so that his supervisor will know how long he's been working.