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Kin 110 Exam 1
Terms in this set (71)
How do you define metabolism? (catabolism & anabolism)
Metabolism = sum total of life processes
-catabolism (break down, energy and heat production are end products of the breakdown food)
-anabolism (building up, excess end products that are not being used for energy or released as heat are built up and stored)
First law of thermodynamics
energy can neither be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another, this movement of energy is basis of all life
In what composition do plants and animals store energy
Green plants = water, carbs, little protein, very little fat, Animals = water, protein, fat, little carbs, Humans = similar to animals & what we eat does have an influence on our body composition
What is the basic unit of energy
all energy for survival, growth, PA, is derived from chemical energy in food from thermonuclear energy from the sun
Energy in food is assessed by combusting (burning up) the food & measuring heat produced
is measurement of heat needed to raise the temp of a gram of water by one degree celsius
1 Calorie = 1000 calories
Calorie (big c)
= kcal, is a measurement of heat required to raise temperature of a kilogram (1,000 g) of water by one degree celsius
Carbs, Fats, Proteins, Alcohol kcal/grams
Carbs (4), Fats(9), Proteins(4) alcohol (7) (useable energy, BEST IS PROTEIN
Energy intake (food & drink) = Energy output (useful energy & heat)
Goals of an athlete
produce best possible performance outcome
Athletic performance (strength, speed, power, endurance, skill)
health and wellness (maximize quality of life, minimize risk of disease, maintain ideal body, maximize quantity of life)
What are two strategies to maintain energy balance?
high intake, high output, low intake low output
What are the goals of someone trying to be healthy
Different for everyone, can change overtime
What are the risk factors for cardiovascular disease as per the AHA? which ones are modifiable which ones are not?
modifiable: -(high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, physical inactivity, smoking, diabetes, poor diet, obesity & overweight)
Why are diet and exercise especially important preventable measures?
By lowering weight you will decrease the risk of CUD. Exercise & diet prevent all 7 preventative measures above
What are the top 3 excuses that prevent people from adopting a healthy lifestyle?
people in denial, i don't want to stop eating foods i like, lack of time
differences in health & disease among specific subpopulations
What is the relationship btwn obesity, poor diet/exercise and diabetes/heart disease? why is this relationship complicated?
Obesity = too heavy to exercise - no exercise/poor diet = heart disease and diabetes
-when someone has a disease they often just give up and try not to loose weight/exercise
Difference btwn race and ethnicity? Why is important to look at this when we are looking at disease
Race = human population considered distinct based on physical characteristics
ethnicity = social groups w a shared history, sense of identity and culture
-important bc diff cultures/races have different mating behaviors & genetic predispositions
What is meant by the term diet?
refers to habitual pattern of eating (vegan, low CHO, mixed..)
What are some problems with trying to accurately measure someones habitual diet?
people change their diet when know they're being recorded
How many days do registered dietitians need to measure a diet?
3-7 days, 1 weekend day at least
Why is it important to accurately measure diet?
determine risk for disease, deficiencies in micro/macro nutrients
If you conduct a study and find that heart disease rates increase linearly with amount of fat present in calories ingested. does this prove that the more fat you have in your diet the greater you rise to get heart disease? if not why not
no, because correlation does not mean causation
What are some of the barriers to doing an experimental study in which you take a group of people and control the amount of fat in their diet and assess which ones get heart disease?
identify population, accurately measure, compare
3 components of energy expenditure and what is the most variable and what requires the most energy?
RMR (most energy), DIT (processs of digesting, absorbing, storing food), Physical activity (most variable)
On avg how many kcal burn if you do nothing?
What is RMR? what factors are taken into account when calculating RMR?
Body extracts energy from stored reserves to accomplish tasks requiring energy for basic maintenance and repair.
- parts going into equation- weight, height and age
-Factors: age, weight, height, lean body mass
What are the determinants of RMR? what is the biggest contributor?
age, sex, genetics, muscle mass, biggest contributor is muscle mass/lean body mass bc muscles are an active tissue so they require energy
What is DIT? How is calculated?
Diet induced thermogenesis, process of digesting/absorbing and storing food,
10% of our food energy, when we eat fewer calories out DIT goes down
What are the most differences btwn ppl energy expenditure usually attributed to?
Differences in physical activity, 0-2000 kcal a day
Compare and contrast exercise ad physical activity
-exercise (refers to planned activity designed to expend energy and enhance fitness or health or appearance)
-PA (refers to activity that requires movement, includes activities of daily living)
What is a met?
(metabolic equivalent) measure of energy expenditure based on multiples of RMR, MET is expressed in terms of oxygen consumption per unit body mass.
What is pH? What does a pH of 2 mean?
indicates whether a solution is acidic or basic, pH of 2 means acidic
What is an enzyme and what 3 things are important for it to function?
molecules that accelerate chemical reactions (breakdown of protein)
-substrate, temperature, and pH
What are the 3 overall goals of the GI system?
-digestion (breakdown of complex polymers), -absorption (of the single nutrients)
-excretion of waste
What key processes occur in the mouth? What nutrient is primarily broken down?
liquification through the saliva, mechanical disruption (teeth), salivary amylase (enzyme that digests carbs)
What key processes of digestion occur in the stomach?
-stomach cells start producing HCL and stomach acid lowers pH of food from 7 to 2
-pepsin activation enzyme breaks down protein into amino acids
What key processes occur in the small intestine? Where does most of the chemical digestion take place?
bicarbonate, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, proteases, most of it takes placce in the duodenum
What digestive aids do the pancreas produce and what are each of their specific functions?
-bicarbonate neutralizes pH from 2 to 7
-pancreatic amylase breaks down CHO into simple sugars
-pancreatic lipase (fats to glycerol + fatty acids)
-protease (protein to amino)
What is the major function of bile? Where is it made, stored and released?
made in liver, stored and released from gall bladder it
coats fat droplets and lipase break down bonds to 3 fatty acids and glycerol
How does fiber lower cholesterol? What does that have to do with bile?
soluble fibers interrupts bile recycling and liver pulls cholesterol from blood to produce bile
water, vitamins, minerals, fiber,
1 met =
E out =
RMR + PA + DIT (DIT = 10% of total amount of kcals consumed)
lean body mass (muscle is your active tissue)
What are the determinants of RMR
age, sex, genetics, lean body mass
Modifiable risk factors
blood pressure/cholesterol, body composition, smoking,diet
Unmodifiable risk factors
age, sex, family history
enzyme, PH, and action, and MACRO for: mouth
Salivary amylase, pH 7, breaks down CHO
enzyme, PH, and action, and MACRO for: Stomach
(emulsify fats into smaller droplets) & pepsin unwinds proteins and denatures them
& pepsin kills bacteria w low pH
enzyme, PH, and action, and MACRO for: Duodenum
Pancreatic amylase & lipase, pH 7 (pancreas secretes bicarbonate to raise pH), gallbladder bile, CHO, lipids
enzyme, PH, and action, and MACRO for: jejunum
absorption folds in the villi/microvili (increases surface area) pH 7, absorption of all the macronutrients through lacteals and blood vessels
made in liver, stored in gall bladder, and fiber binds to the bile which prevents it from recycling which lowers blood cholesterol
CHO gram breakdown in our bodies
-500g CHO in our bodies
-300-400g muscles (glycogen)
-80-100 liver (glycogen)
-5 g glucose in blood
how much CHO should athletes have in their blood
55-60% CHO in our diet & CHO is made up of glucose molecules
eat a week out of low carbs and you stay low exercise, increase glycogen storage
protein is made up of ?
fats are made up of
1 glycerol & 3 fatty acids
What are the 2 broadest categories of carbohydrates?
simple (monosaccharides/disaccharides) and complex carbs (polysaccharides)
Besides glucose, what are the other simple sugars?
fructose, galactose, table sugar, milk sugar, maltose
What is a complex carbohydrate? What is the most common dietary complex CHO? What is it made up of?
-most complex common dietary complex CHO is starch
-made up of many glucose molecules that are linked together
Why does glycogen have a branched structure compared to starch?
store more energy
What is the energy value of digestible carbohydrates?
4 kcal/grams CHO
Why can't we eat grass?
the beta bonds and our bodies do not have an enzyme to break that down
Why does 3 tsp of apple have less than half the amount of CHO as 3 tsp of sugar?
it has water and fiber in it
List at least 5 names of carbohydrates as they are listed on nutritional labels
fructose, galactose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, dextrin, maltose
What is glycemic index (GI)? How is GI measured?
measure of foods effect on raising blood glucose levels compared to a reference food. it is measured by blood glucose response to food/by blood glucose response to reference food
What are the factors that determine GI?
-ripeness of food
-physical activity before eating food
-protein, fiber, and fat content
-GI of carb foods depends on more than whether its just simple/complex
What are the GI implications for athletic performance vs. human health?
high GI because you need immediate recovery btwn closely timed bouts, recovery is important for athletes because muscles need 1-2 days to replenish glycogen & repair muscle damage from hard training
GI = based on how
based on how 50g of CHO in fods affects blood sugar levels after an overnight feast
-55-65% (2.5-4.5) CHO per pound of body weight of athletes diet
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