According to John Kotter, leadership (in contrast to management) entails:
setting direction for the organization
Kotter suggests that leadership and management:
are two distinct, yet complementary systems of action in organizations
According to Zaleznik's thinking on leaders as distinct personalities, leaders and managers differ along four different dimensions of personality. Which of the following is NOT one of those dimensions?
internal versus external orientation
Which of the following statements best reflects the support for trait theories to identify universal distinguishing attributes of leaders?
Findings on traits as a basis for explaining leader effectiveness are neither strong nor uniform.
Trait theories of leadership attempt to:
focus on leaders physical attributes, personality, and abilities
A major difference between trait and behavioral theories of leadership is:
trait theories emphasize personality & ability attributes versus actions and abilities
When considering the type of leadership style exhibited according to the behavioral theories, which of the following is most accurate?
Situational characteristics are not important because the leader's style does not vary over different situations.
When comparing autocratic leadership style to democratic leadership style, democratic leaders:
do not closely supervise and allow employee initiative and decision making
The important underlying behaviors of the Ohio State leadership studies are:
consideration and initiating structure
Which of the following is NOT a behavior of initiating structure?
encouraging mutual respect and interpersonal trust
A major difference between the Michigan approach to leadership and the Ohio State approach was:
the Ohio studies see the dimensions as coexisting where the Michigan studies see them as mutually exclusive
An important conclusion of the Ohio State leadership studies was:
leadership climate was a more important determinant of leader behaviors than was training
According to the Michigan studies on leadership, a work environment characterized by constant influence attempts on the part of the leader through closer supervision or written rules and regulations is likely the result of:
According to the Michigan studies on leadership, which of the following statements regarding the emotional climate of the work situation is most correct?
Anxiety may be the result of either autocratic or democratic leadership styles.
Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid identifies the country club manager as someone who:
creates a pleasing, happy work environment and applies minimal supervision
According to the Leadership Grid approach to leadership, the manager who exerts just enough effort to avoid being fired would be consistent with what position on the grid?
1,1 (impoverished manager)
According to Blake and Mouton and their Leadership Grid, a manager with a high concern for production and low concern for people would be in what position on the grid?
9,1 (authority compliance manager)
Contingency theories of leadership, in determining appropriate leader behavior and style, focus strongly on:
the importance and characteristics of the situation as well as particular traits
The theories of leadership concerned with identifying the specific leader behaviors that are most effective in specific leadership situations would be:
As a supervisor, you find yourself in a situation where you have good relationships with employees, the task is structured, and you have and can exercise strong position power. Your leadership behavior and style should be:
Fiedler would advocate which of the following in effecting a match of the leader to a favorable leadership situation?
Reengineer the situation
The LPC scale is:
a projective technique that evaluates the person a leader has least preferred to work with
Situational favorableness using Fiedler's model consists of which three dimensions?
position power, leader-member relations, and task structure
According to Fiedler, the effectiveness of leaders is dependent on:
the favorableness of their situation
According to Fiedler's leadership research, high LPC (relationship-oriented) leaders are most successful in situations where:
leader-member relations are good, the task is unstructured, and position power is weak
Fiedler recommends that managers, in order to be effective, should:
carefully assess and diagnose the situation
As a manager using Fiedler's approach to leadership, which of the following interventions would be most effective?
Reengineer the situation to fit the leader's predisposition.
According to the contingency theory developed by Fiedler, what is the most appropriate action where it is found there is a misfit between the leader and the situation?
Reengineer the leader's situation to fit the leader's basic predisposition.
The variables used to determine the most appropriate leader behavior in House's path-goal theory are:
follower characteristics and task characteristics
Which of the following is NOT one of the leader behavior styles one can choose from when using the path- goal theory of leader effectiveness?
The path-goal theory of leader effectiveness by Robert House is based on:
the expectancy theory of motivation
The path-goal theory assumes that leaders:
adapt their behavior and style to fit the characteristics of the work environment and followers
According to the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model, all of the following are possible appropriate decision-making strategies except:
The Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model helps leaders and managers know:
when to have employees participate in the decision-making process
The key situational variable of the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model is:
maturity level of employees
In the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model, the leadership style most appropriate with very mature followers is:
The telling style of leadership in the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model entails:
low concern of relationships and strong initiating structure
In the Hershey-Blanchard situational leadership model, maturity is determined by:
a follower's ability and willingness to accept responsibility for completing work
The leadership approach which recognizes that leaders may form different relationships with followers is:
The basic idea behind leader-member exchange theory is:
leaders form two groups of followers (in-groups and out-groups)
Recent research on LMX theory has revealed the surprising result that:
increased communication between the supervisor and out-group members may lead to lower performance ratings
Howard Schultz, CEO of Starbuck's, is attempting to re-ignite Starbuck's emotional attachment with the Starbuck's brand and streamline the company's international expansion. Schultz is using his charisma along with inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation to change Starbuck's. This reflects what type of leadership?
has great potential for high levels of achievement but also risks of destructive courses of action
The positive face of charismatic leadership is most strongly associated with:
socialized power motivation
The ability of a leader to create a vision and convince others to become a part of it, even skeptics, is known as:
A multidimensional construct that includes transformational, charismatic, or transactional leadership as the situation might demand is known as:
Emotional intelligence is made up of all of the following competencies except:
higher cognitive function
Which of the following statements best characterizes emotional intelligence and leadership?
Emotional intelligence can be learned through honest feedback.
The glass cliff refers to
a trend in organizations to place more women in difficult leadership situations
Dimensions used to classify followers include:
active/passive, critical/uncritical thinking, and independent/dependent
The situational approach to leadership would lead to the conclusion that a global leader must factor in which of the following organizational attributes?