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Chem Test on Bonding
Terms in this set (81)
What occurs when a positive ion is formed? (cation)
the atom loses electrons (metals form positive ions)
What is the size change when a positive ion is formed to the neutral atom?
What occurs when a negative ion is formed? (anion)
the atom gains electrons (non-metals form negative ions)
What is the size change when a negative ion is formed to the neutral atom?
What is the electronegativity difference for an ionic bond?
greater than 2.0``
What is the term given to the regular structural arrangement of cations and anions in an ionic solid?
What common name is given to all ionic solids?
Ionic Solids: What is their net charge?
Ionic Solids: Is their melting point high or low?
Ionic Solids: Are they hard?
Ionic Solids: Are they brittle?
Ionic Solids: Will they conduct electricity?
yes, but only when they are dissolved or melted (not as an actual solid)
What provides the great strength of an ionic bond?
positive and negative attraction
What is the term for the amount of energy required to break apart an ionic solid?
Ionic compounds do not form individual molecules. What is the term for the cation-anion combination of an ionic solid?
When will an ionic compound conduct electricity?
when they are dissolved in water or melted (not when they are solid)
Term (not dissolve) for an ionic solid separating into ions.
What happens to electrons between atoms in a covalent bond?
What type of covalent bond is formed due to an electronegative difference between 0 and 0.4?
What type of covalent bond is formed due to an electronegative difference between 0.4 and 2.0?
polar covalent bond
Which end of a polar covalent bond has a partial negative charge?
the more electronegative side
Why do covalently bonded molecular compounds have lower boiling points than ionic solids?
their molecules are held together by weak forces. it's easier to break a covalennt bond because it's weaker and boils quickly
A single covalent bond involves the overlap of two orbitals. What is the name of this covalent bond?
What is the name of the type of covalent bond that exists between unmodified p orbitals?
What bond type makes up a double bond?
1 sigma 1 pi
What bond type makes up a triple bond?
1 sigma, 2 pi
How does bond strength vary with the number of bonds between atoms?
the more electrons shared between 2 atoms, the stronger the bond (more bonds = more bond strength). there is a direct relationship between the number of bonds and the bond strength
What is a metallic bond?
the force of attraction between valenece electrons and metal ions
How is a metallic bond formed?
from the attraction between mobile electrons and fixed, positively charged metallic atoms. the metallic bonds extend over the entire molecular structure.
How is a metallic bond different than an ionic solid?
metallic bonding involves the sharing of electrons, while ionic bonding involves gaining electrons
How is a metallic bond the same as an ionic solid?
they are both surrounded by a sea of mobile electrons
Why do metals conduct electricity so well?
there is a free flow of electrons that start vibrating which increases the kinetic energy
Why is water called a dipole?
water has positive and negative poles that make the molecule polar.
What type of IMAs connect water molecules?
What force is broken when boiling water?
Why does oil not dissolve in water?
because water is polar and oil isn't, so they can't combine
List the three types of IMAs from strongest to weakest.
hydrogen bond, dipole-dipole, lds
Are IMAs located between or within molecules?
Why is there only partial charging involved in IMAs?
they can't fully remove or gain electrons because there's not enough polarity
What are the element requirements of a hydrogen bond?
hydroxyl group (OH hydroxy and alcohols have H bonds)
Why is a dipole-dipole interaction weaker than a hydrogen bond?
H bond has higher electronegative elements
Which has a higher boiling point HCl or HBr? Explain.
HCl because of it's higher IMAs. Its dipole-dipole attraction is stronger than HBr's dipole-dipole attraction (bigger electronegativity difference)
What forms a London dispersion force?
the unequal distribution of electrons
Which IMA is present in Noble gases when they are liquids?
lds because they never make any bonds
Does Ar or Kr have a higher boiling point? Explain.
Kr because it has a bigger mass which means stronger IMAs and a higher boiling point
What type of IMA is found in all types of substances?
What is the correlation between the strength of the IMA and boiling point?
they have a direct relationship (the stronger the IMA, the higher the boiling point)
just consists of carbon-hydrogen bonds and is non-polar
an attraction between molecules when H is bonded with N, O, or F
the attraction between the molecule's covalent substance
the attraction between two polar forces (polar covalent bond, partial charging)
molecules that have charge (positive and negative regions)
the measure of how much gas is being formed by a substance either boiling or evaporating
relationship between vapor pressure and strength of IMAs
What phrase does the acronym VSEPR represent?
valence, shell, electron, pair, repulsion
What is indicated by the symbol of a Lewis structure?
element & noble core electrons
What is indicated by the dots of a Lewis structure?
the number of valence electrons in the atom
What is indicated by a single dot in Lewis structures?
potential bond (single bond)
What is indicated by double dots in Lewis structures?
lone pair (double bond)
What are the two ways to identify the central atom of a molecule?
smallest subscript & lowest electronegativity
What will be the molecular shape of central atoms having ONE DOT?
What will be the molecular shape of central atoms having TWO DOTS?
What will be the molecular shape of central atoms having THREE DOTS?
What will be the molecular shape of central atoms having FOUR DOTS?
What will be the molecular shape of central atoms having FIVE DOTS?
What will be the molecular shape of central atoms having SIX DOTS?
What would be the bond angles of a linear (two-dot) shape?
What would be the bond angles of a trigonal planar shape?
What would be the bond angles of a tetrahedron shape?
What would be the bond angles of a trigonal pyramidal shape?
What would be the bond angles of a bent/angualr shape?
List the three types/numbers of dots of central atoms that cannot result in a polar molecule. Explain.
2,3,4 dot atoms can't be in a polar molecule because they cancel each other out in terms of electronegativity
Duet rule (provide an example too)
2 valence electrons are needed. only need 2 electrons to fill the energy state (ex: hydrogen, helium)
Octet rule (provide an example too)
8 valence electrons are needed to fill the energy state. (ex: every other element besides H and He that have 2 electrons in the outermost shell)
What is the term given to a molecule whose Lewis structure can be written in more than one way? What can vary?
resonance, where the double bonds go
What orbital types are hybridized/combined so that bonding can take place?
What orbital type or hybridization type is used by atoms with the given Lewis structure dot number? ONE DOT
What orbital type or hybridization type is used by atoms with the given Lewis structure dot number? TWO DOTS
What orbital type or hybridization type is used by atoms with the given Lewis structure dot number? THREE DOTS
What orbital type or hybridization type is used by atoms with the given Lewis structure dot number? FOUR, FIVE, SIX, SEVEN DOTS
How does multiple bonding change the hybridization notation for the orbitals forming sigma bonds?
only one sigma bond can be made between atoms, the others will be pi bonds
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