1. tiny amounts of sweat shedding at all times 2. not noticeable 3. important for heat regulation 4. lowers body temperature 5. each day .5L of water is shed this way
1. ↑ temp will ↑ sweat by 100-150mL 2. Diaphoresis 3. associated withe exercise and hot environments 4. an increase in activity can increase visible sweat by 8-10L/day
Causes of body to ↑ Temp?
1. sexual arousal 2. emotional states 3. physical condition
Osmolarity of ECF
285 mOsm/ kg of tissue
Effect of ↑ Osmolarity
1. thirst reflex will trigger 2. ↑ ADH - acts on kidneys to retain water
Effect of ↓ Osmolarity
1. inhibits thirst reflex 2. ↓ ADH - water will be excreted in urine
Affects of BP on Osmolarity
1. ↑ BP will ↑ Glomerular Pressure to ↑ filtration, and pass out more water in urine which will lead to ↓ BP 2. ↓ BP which ↓ Glomerular which will ↓ filtration which will ↓ urine flow. A result is to trigger thirst reflex to ↑ BP.
1. ions or molecules with electrical charges ie) Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, Cl⁻, PO₄³⁻ 2. electrolytes concentrations will change during weight changes and growing stages
How are electrolytes secreted?
by the kidneys, skin, and lungs
Where are electrolytes stored?
1. skeleton 2. mainly Ca²⁺ and PO₄³⁻ 3. downfall is that bone can also store Pb, As, and Hg
1. Cation in ECF 2. involved in sodium-potassium pump 3. vital for glucose absorption 4. essential for muscular contraction 5. Neurotransmitter 6. maintains pH balance with Cl⁻
Body's daily sodium requirement
1. <.5g/ day
how much do we actually consume?
1. 15-20g/ day 2. excess is removed via kidneys and sweat 3. regulated by ANH and Aldosterone
How does salt affect osmolarity?
↑ in salt requires an ↑ in water to balance osmolarity